About this Journal Submit a Manuscript Table of Contents
Advances in Preventive Medicine
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 316871, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/316871
Review Article

HIV Prevention and Rehabilitation Models for Women Who Inject Drugs in Russia and Ukraine

1HealthRight International, Representative Office in the Russian Federation, 7 Lev Tolstoy Street, Office 701, St. Petersburg 197376, Russia
2Doctors to Children, 7 Lev Tolstoy Street, Office 707, St. Petersburg 197376, Russia
3HealthRight International, Representative Office in Ukraine, 3-7 Stanislavsky Street, Kyiv 01001, Ukraine
4Ukrainian Foundation for Public Health, 3-7 Stanislavsky Street, Kyiv 01001, Ukraine
5HealthRight International, 65 Broadway, 19th Floor, New York, NY 10006, USA

Received 4 September 2012; Revised 22 October 2012; Accepted 24 October 2012

Academic Editor: Thomas F. Kresina

Copyright © 2012 Roman Yorick et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. UNODC, World Drug Report 2012, United Nations Publication, Sales No. E.12.XI.1, http://www.unodc.org/unodc/secured/wdr/Prev_All_2012.pdf.
  2. L. Degenhardt and W. Hall, “Extent of illicit drug use and dependence, and their contribution to the global burden of disease,” The Lancet, vol. 379, pp. 55–70, 2012.
  3. C. Aceijas, S. R. Friedman, H. L. F. Cooper, L. Wiessing, G. V. Stimson, and M. Hickman, “Estimates of injecting drug users at the national and local level in developing and transitional countries, and gender and age distribution,” Sexually Transmitted Infections, vol. 82, supplement 3, pp. iii10–iii17, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. Analytical Report, Monitoring of Behavior of Injecting Drug Users as a Component of the Second Generation Epidemiological Surveillance, International HIV/AIDS Alliance in Ukraine, Kyiv, Ukraine, 2005, http://www.aidsalliance.org.ua/ru/library/our/monitoring_reports/pdf/idu.pdf.
  5. Russian Federal AIDS Center, HIV Infection in the Russian Federation in 2012, http://www.hivrussia.ru/files/sprav_31032012.doc.
  6. Ukrainian AIDS Center, Operational Information on Officially Registered HIV-infected Citizens of Ukraine for December 2011, http://ukraids.gov.ua/attachments/article/266/%D0%93%D1%80%D1%83%D0%B4%D0%B5%D0%BD%D1%8C%202011.pdf.
  7. B. M. Mathers, L. Degenhardt, B. Phillips et al., “Global epidemiology of injecting drug use and HIV among people who inject drugs: a systematic review,” The Lancet, vol. 372, no. 9651, pp. 1733–1745, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. P. Kyrychenko and V. Polonets, “High HIV risk profile among female commercial sex workers in Vinnitsa, Ukraine,” Sexually Transmitted Infections, vol. 81, no. 2, pp. 187–188, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. W. M. Wechsberg, E. Krupitsky, T. Romanova, et al., “Double jeopardy—drug and sex risks among Russian women who inject drugs: initial feasibility and efficacy results of a small randomized controlled trial,” Subst Abuse Treat Prev Policy, vol. 7, article 1, 2012.
  10. L. Platt, T. Rhodes, C. M. Lowndes et al., “Impact of gender and sex work on sexual and injecting risk behaviors and their association with HIV positivity among injecting drug users in an HIV epidemic in togliatti city, Russian Federation,” Sexually Transmitted Diseases, vol. 32, no. 10, pp. 605–612, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. E. G. Benotsch, A. M. Somlai, S. D. Pinkerton et al., “Drug use and sexual risk behaviours among female Russian IDUs who exchange sex for money or drugs,” International Journal of STD and AIDS, vol. 15, no. 5, pp. 343–347, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. D. M. Kissin, L. Zapata, R. Yorick et al., “HIV seroprevalence in street youth, St Petersburg, Russia,” AIDS, vol. 21, no. 17, pp. 2333–2340, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. C. L. Robbins, L. Zapata, D. M. Kissin et al., “Multicity HIV seroprevalence in street youth, Ukraine,” International Journal of STD and AIDS, vol. 21, no. 7, pp. 489–496, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. J. R. Busza, O. M. Balakireva, A. Teltschik et al., “Street-based adolescents at high risk of HIV in Ukraine,” Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, vol. 65, no. 12, pp. 1166–1170, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. International Center for Prison Studies, http://www.prisonstudies.org/.
  16. K. Dolan, B. Kite, E. Black, C. Aceijas, and G. V. Stimson, “HIV in prison in low-income and middle-income countries,” The Lancet Infectious Diseases, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 32–41, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. UNODC, “Handbook for Prison Managers and Policymakers on Women and Imprisonment,” United Nations Publication, Sales No. E.08.IV.4, 2008, http://www.unodc.org/documents/justice-and-prison-reform/women-and-imprisonment.pdf.
  18. R. Taylor, Women in Prison and Children of Imprisoned Mothers, Quaker United Nations Office, Geneva, Switzerland, 2004.
  19. M. Bastick and L. Townhead, Women in Prison: A Commentary on the UN Standard Minimum Rules for the Treatment of Prisoners, Quaker United Nations Office, Geneva, Switzerland, 2008.
  20. B. Bergh, A. Gatherer, A. Fraser, et al., “Imprisonment and women's health: concerns about gender sensitivity, human rights and public health,” Bulletin of the World Health Organization, vol. 89, no. 9, pp. 689–694, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  21. S. F. Greenfield, A. J. Brooks, S. M. Gordon et al., “Substance abuse treatment entry, retention, and outcome in women: a review of the literature,” Drug and Alcohol Dependence, vol. 86, no. 1, pp. 1–21, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. S. Wasilow-Mueller and C. K. Erickson, “Drug abuse and dependency: understanding gender differences in etiology and management,” Journal of the American Pharmaceutical Association, vol. 41, no. 1, pp. 78–90, 2001. View at Scopus
  23. Center for Substance Abuse Treatment, “Substance abuse treatment: addressing the specific needs of women,” Tech. Rep. (SMA) 09-4426, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (US), 2009.
  24. K. T. Brady and C. L. Randall, “Gender differences in substance use disorders,” Psychiatric Clinics of North America, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 241–252, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. O. S. Ashley, M. E. Marsden, and T. M. Brady, “Effectiveness of substance abuse treatment programming for women: a review,” American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 19–53, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. List of narcotics, psychoactive substances and their precursors subject to control in the Russian Federation, Approved by the decision of the Government of the Russian Federation, 1998, http://fskn.gov.ru/pages/main/info/official_information/7947/index.shtml.
  27. E. Krupitsky, E. Zvartau, E. Blokhina, et al., “Randomized trial of long-acting sustained-release naltrexone implant vs oral naltrexone or placebo for preventing relapse to opioid dependence,” Archives of General Psychiatry, vol. 69, no. 9, pp. 973–981, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  28. E. Krupitsky, E. V. Nunes, W. Ling, A. Illeperuma, D. R. Gastfriend, and B. L. Silverman, “Injectable extended-release naltrexone for opioid dependence: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicentre randomised trial,” The Lancet, vol. 377, no. 9776, pp. 1506–1513, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. E. Krupitsky, E. Zvartau, and G. Woody, “Use of naltrexone to treat opioid addiction in a country in which methadone and buprenorphine are not available,” Current Psychiatry Reports, vol. 12, no. 5, pp. 448–453, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. E. M. Krupitsky, E. E. Zvartau, D. V. Masalov et al., “Naltrexone with or without fluoxetine for preventing relapse to heroin addiction in St. Petersburg, Russia,” Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 319–328, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. E. M. Krupitsky, E. E. Zvartau, D. V. Masalov et al., “Naltrexone for heroin dependence treatment in St. Petersburg, Russia,” Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 285–294, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. E. Holt, “Russian injected drug use soars in face of political inertia,” The Lancet, vol. 376, no. 9734, pp. 13–14, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. Authors' communication with the St. Petersburg City Narcological Hospital.
  34. S. Dvoriak, “Overview of opioid substitution treatment in Ukraine,” in National Conference on Harm Reduction, Kyiv, Ukraine, February 2006.
  35. Order of the Ministry of Ukraine, “On approving the order of administering the substitution supportive treatment for patients with opioid dependency,” 2012, http://www.moz.gov.ua/ua/portal/dn_20120327_200.html.
  36. D. M. Kissin, M. G. Mandel, N. Akatova, et al., “Five year trends in epidemiology and prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission, S. Petersburg, Russia: results from perinatal HIV surveillance,” BMC Infectious Diseases, vol. 11, article 292, 2011.
  37. Guidebook on Retaining Family Support for HIV-affected Children, St. Petersburg, Doctors to Children, 2008, http://doctors2children.ru/files/dtc_family__support__for__hiv-affected__children_.pdf.
  38. Manual on Multidisciplinary Case Management, “The Project “Prevention of Abandonment of Children Born to HIV-positive Mothers (MAMA+)”,” Doctors of the World-USA, Kyiv, Ukraine, 2007.
  39. R. Yorick, S. Suvorova, O. Sukovatova, et al., “Replication of the MAMA+ model to prevent child abandonment by HIV-positive women in Yekaterinburg, Russia,” in Proceedings of the 19th International AIDS Conference, Washington, DC, USA, July 2012.
  40. D. Wolfe, M. P. Carrieri, and D. Shepard, “Treatment and care for injecting drug users with HIV infection: a review of barriers and ways forward,” The Lancet, vol. 376, no. 9738, pp. 355–366, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. Golichenko, “Russia: district court upholds legal ban on opioid substitution treatment,” HIV/AIDS Policy & Law Review, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 57–58, 2011.
  42. A. Shapoval, “Socioeconomic profile of HIV+ mothers including those who abandon their infants in Ukraine,” in Proceedings of the 17th International AIDS Conference, Mexico City, Mexico, August 2008.
  43. H. Bailey, I. Semenenko, T. Pilipenko, R. Malyuta, and C. Thorne, “Factors associated with abandonment of infants born to HIV-positive women: results from a Ukrainian birth cohort,” AIDS Care, vol. 22, no. 12, pp. 1439–1448, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. E. Finnerty, H. Skipalska, O. Libanov, et al., “MAMA+ for injecting drug users: a pilot programme in Ukraine,” in Proceedings of the 20th International Harm Reduction Conference (IHRC '09), Bangkok, Thailand, 2009.
  45. J. Beard, G. Biemba, M. Brooks, et al., “Children of female sex workers and drug users: a review of vulnerability, resilience and family-centred models of care,” Journal of the International AIDS Society, vol. 13, supplement 2, p. S6, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  46. “MAMA+ for Drug Using Pregnant Women and New Mothers Project in Ukraine,” HealthRight International, 2010, http://www.healthright.org.ua/en/leafletmama.
  47. Women and HIV in prison settings, UNODC, 2008, http://www.unodc.org/documents/hiv-aids/Women%20and%20HIV%20in%20prison%20settings.pdf.
  48. Comprehensive Support to Women Released from Penitentiary Institutions. St. Petersburg, Doctors to Children, 2011, http://doctors2children.ru/publications/methodological%20materials/.
  49. J. Baillargeon, T. P. Giordano, J. D. Rich et al., “Accessing antiretroviral therapy following release from prison,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 301, no. 8, pp. 848–857, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. J. G. Baillargeon, T. P. Giordano, A. J. Harzke, G. Baillargeon, J. D. Rich, and D. P. Paar, “Enrollment in outpatient care among newly released prison inmates with HIV infection,” Public Health Reports, vol. 125, supplement 1, pp. 64–71, 2010. View at Scopus
  51. R. Yorick, K. Zakharov, A. Shaboltas, et al., “HIV prevention and access to care for HIV-positive street youth in St. Petersburg, Russia,” in Proceedings of the 17th International AIDS Conference, Mexico City, Mexico, August 2008.
  52. R. Yorick, J. Batluk, A. Shaboltas, et al., “HIV prevention for street youth in St. Petersburg, Russia,” in Proceedings of the 18th International AIDS Conference, Vienna, Austria, July 2010.
  53. “STEPS Prevention Training Program for Adolescents,” Trainer's Guide. St. Petersburg, Doctors to Children, 2009, http://doctors2children.ru/files/DTC_STEPS_Trainer%E2%80%99s_%20Guide%20.pdf.
  54. “STEPS Educational Training for Adolescents,” Kalita, Kyiv, Ukraine, 2010, http://www.healthright.org.ua/sites/default/files/ourbook3.pdf.
  55. Guidebook on Integrated Assistance to Street Youth. St. Petersburg, Doctors to Children, 2009, http://doctors2children.ru/files/dtc_guidebook__assistance_to__street_youth_.pdf.
  56. Guidebook on HIV prevention and Assistance to HIV-positive Street Children and Youth. St. Petersburg, Doctors to Children, 2009, http://doctors2children.ru/publications/methodological%20materials/.
  57. Comprehensive Care and Assistance to Homeless and Neglected Children: Methodological Recommendations, Kalita, Kyiv, Ukraine, 2010.
  58. “Guidebook on Multidisciplinary Case Management in Working with Homeless Minors,” HealthRight International, Kyiv, Ukraine, 2010, http://www.healthright.org.ua/sites/default/files/ourbook2.pdf.
  59. H. Skipalska, N. Grytsaienko, R. Yorick, et al., “Targeted, gender-sensitive support for street girls: linking the most vulnerable to care,” in Proceedings of the 19th International AIDS Conference, Washington, DC, USA, July 2012.