Table 4: Stress logistic regression for breastfeeding duration and exclusivity outcomes modeling for breastfeeding cessation.

Cessation of any BF by 4 WeeksCessation of any BF by 13 WeeksCessation of Exclusiveg BF by 4 WeeksCessation of Exclusiveg BF by 13 Weeks
OR (95% CI) -valueaOR (95% CI) -valueaOR (95% CI) -valueaOR (95% CI) -valuea

Financial Stressb   [Reference]
 Financial Stress [No]0.020.290.180.80
  Yes2.76 (1.25, 6.06)0.70 (0.36, 1.35)1.51 (0.82, 2.78)1.11 (0.51, 2.42)
 Race/Ethnicity
 [White]
NSNSNS0.02
  Black0.21 (0.08, 0.57)
  Hispanic 0.41 (0.12, 1.41)
  Mixed/Other0.33 (0.08, 1.39)
 Education [<High School]0.04NSNSNS
  Unknown4.21 (0.85, 20.83)
  ≥High School2.54 (1.14, 5.64)
 Breastfeeding Plan
 [None/Unknown/Up to 3 months]
<0.01<0.01<0.01<0.01
  4+ Months2.89 (1.52, 5.50)6.80 (3.71, 12.46)4.94 (2.65, 9.24)10.91 (3.54, 33.66)
 Depressionc [No]NS<0.01NSNS
  Yes0.38 (0.19, 0.75)
 BMI [<25.0]NSNS0.01NS
  25.0–29.01.13 (0.58, 2.18)
  >30.00.36 (0.17, 0.77)

Emotional Stressd Reference
 Emotional Stress [No]0.110.910.530.79
  Yes0.56 (0.27, 1.14)1.04 (0.54, 1.99)1.23 (0.65, 2.33)0.89 (0.38, 2.09)
 Race/Ethnicity
 [White]
NSNSNS0.22
  Black0.23 (0.09, 0.61)
  Hispanic 0.41 (0.12, 1.45)
  Mixed/Other0.26 (0.06, 1.22)
 Breastfeeding Plan
 [None/Unknown/Up to 3 months]
<0.01<0.01<0.01<0.01
  4+ Months2.82 (1.48, 5.39)6.65 (3.60, 12.29)4.56 (2.44, 8.52)10.60 (3.45, 32.63)
 Depressionc [No]NS0.02NSNS
  Yes0.45 (0.23–0.88)
 BMI [<25.0]NSNS0.02NS
  25.0–29.01.03 (0.52, 2.01)
  >30.00.37 (0.17, 0.77)
 Alcohol Use
 [Never/Not Now]
NS0.03NSNS
  Current Use0.66 (0.46, 0.95)
 Smoking [Never/Not Now]NS<0.01NSNS
  Current Use0.37 (0.17, 0.76)

Traumatic Stresse Reference
 Traumatic Stress [No]0.710.610.170.04
  Yes1.14 (0.57, 2.27)0.84 (0.43, 1.64)1.59 (0.82, 3.12)2.95 (1.04, 8.38)
 Mom AgeNS0.04NSNS
  Continuous1.07 (1.00, 1.13)
 Breastfeeding Plan
 [None/Unknown/Up to 3 months]
<0.01<0.01<0.01<0.01
  4+ Months2.66 (1.41, 5.01)7.24 (3.92, 13.39)5.24 (2.78, 9.85)12.50 (4.03, 38.77)
 Depressionc [No]NS<0.01NSNS
  Yes0.38 (0.19, 0.76)
 BMI [<25.0]NSNS0.02NS
  25.0–29.01.11 (0.57, 2.17)
  >30.00.40 (0.19, 0.83)
 Smoking [Never/Not Now]NS<0.01NSNS
  Current Use0.37 (0.18, 0.77)

Partner-Associated Stressf Reference
 Partner-Associated
 Stress [No]
0.110.300.790.11
  Yes1.71 (0.88, 3.30)1.37 (0.76, 2.48)1.08 (0.61, 1.93)1.92 (0.86, 4.31)
 Education [<High School]<0.05NSNSNS
  Unknown3.89 (0.77, 19.63)
  ≥High School2.53 (1.14, 5.60)
 Breastfeeding Plan
 [None/Unknown/Up to 3 months]
<0.01<0.01<0.01<0.01
  4+ Months2.84 (1.51, 5.37)7.39 (4.01, 13.63)4.84 (2.61, 9.00)11.46 (3.72, 35.36)
 Depressionc [No]NS0.03<0.05NS
  Yes0.46 (0.24, 0.92)0.50 (0.25, 0.99)
 BMI [<25.0]NSNS0.02NS
  25.0–29.01.09 (0.57, 2.11)
  >30.00.38 (0.18, 0.80)
 Smoking [Never/Not Now]NS<0.01NSNS
  Current Use0.37 (0.18, 0.77)

Note: Reference is “no” for all 4 types of stress. Modeling for breastfeeding cessation. OR score 1< indicates more likely to breastfeed; OR score 1> indicates less likely to breastfeed.
Variables Included in Model: age (continuous), race, language, education, inner-city residence, breastfeeding plan, parity and breastfeeding, depression, BMI, alcohol use, smoking.
Abbreviations: BF: Breastfeeding; NS: not significant.
aGlobal -value.
bFinancial stress defined as answering yes to one of the following occurring during or in the month after pregnancy: big problems with money, moved to a new address.
cSelf-reported depression during or right after pregnancy.
dEmotional stress defined as answering yes to one of the following occurring during or in the month after pregnancy: family member had serious accident/illness, husband/partner had serious accident/illness, husband/partner died, friend/relative died.
eTraumatic stress defined as answering yes to one of the following occurring during or in the month after pregnancy: stayed in a shelter or needed emergency shelter, physical fights with partner/husband or someone else, husband/partner had legal trouble and/or went to jail, mother had legal trouble and/or went to jail, someone very close had a problem with drinking or drugs.
fPartner-Associated stress defined as answering yes to one of the following occurring during or in the month after pregnancy: separated from husband/partner, argued with husband/partner more often, husband/partner said he did not want pregnancy.
gBreastfeeding exclusivity was defined as the infant receiving only breast milk and no other liquid or solid food. This calculated outcome was based on mothers self-report of length of breastfeeding (infant age when last received breastmilk) and age when the infant first received formula, other liquids cereal, or solid foods.