Table 7: CT abnormalities by helmet use.

CT abnormality ( )Helmeted ( )Nonhelmeted ( )P value

Cranial and intracranial
Fracture of skull13 (10.7%)68 (22.7%)0.004
Calvarial fracture through carotid canal/foramen magnum08 (2.71)
Epidural, subdural, and subarachnoid hemorrhages39 (32.2%)133 (44.5%)0.02
Intraparenchymal hemorrhage including intraventricular hemorrhage and contusions22 (18.2%)90 (30.1%)0.01
Diffuse axonal injury9 (7.4%)13 (4.3%)NS

Extracranial
Fractures of maxillo-facial bones14 (11.6%)61 (20.4%)0.033
Extracalvarial soft tissue swelling/defect7 (5.8%)66 (22%)<0.0001