About this Journal Submit a Manuscript Table of Contents
Advances in Preventive Medicine
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 547018, 13 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/547018
Review Article

Modifiable Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors among Indigenous Populations

1School of Sport and Exercise, Private Bag 756, Massey University, Wellington 6140, New Zealand
2Institute of Food Nutrition and Human Health, Massey University, Wellington 6140, New Zealand
3Faculty of Applied Sciences, University of Gloucestershire, The Park, Cheltenham, Gloucestershire GL50 2RH, UK
4Warnell School of Forestry, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA
5Health & Fitness Management Program, Office of the Dean, Clayton State University, Morrow, GA 30260, USA
6Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA

Received 12 June 2013; Revised 7 October 2013; Accepted 9 October 2013; Published 6 February 2014

Academic Editor: John Iskander

Copyright © 2014 Adam A. Lucero et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. M. D. Huffman and J. M. Galloway, “Cardiovascular health in indigenous communities: successful programs,” Heart Lung and Circulation, vol. 19, no. 5-6, pp. 351–360, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. G. Danaei, E. L. Ding, D. Mozaffarian et al., “The preventable causes of death in the United States: comparative risk assessment of dietary, lifestyle and metabolic risk factors,” PLoS Medicine, vol. 6, no. 4, Article ID e1000058, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. A. H. Mokdad, J. S. Marks, D. F. Stroup, and J. L. Gerberding, “Actual causes of death in the United States, 2000,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 291, no. 10, pp. 1238–1245, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. L. Stoner, S. P. Shultz, D. M. Lambrick, J. Krebs, M. Weatherall, and B. R. Palmer, “The combating obesity in Māori and Pasifika adolescent school-children study: COMPASS methodology and study protocol,” International Journal of Preventive Medicine, vol. 4, no. 5, pp. 67–81, 2013.
  5. AIHW, “Australia's health 2006,” Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, Canberra, Australia, 2006.
  6. SNZ, “Census 2006,” 2007, http://www.stats.govt.nz/Census/2006CensusHomePage.aspx.
  7. USCB, “Census data 2010,” 2011, http://2010.census.gov/2010census/data/index.php.
  8. USCB, “U.S. Hispanic Population Surpasses 45 Million Now 15 Percent of Total,” 2008, http://www.census.gov/newsroom/releases/archives/population/cb08-67.html.
  9. Affairs UDoII, “Tribal directory,” 2013.
  10. J. E. Holm, N. Vogeltanz-Holm, D. Poltavski, and L. McDonald, “Assessing health status, behavioral risks, and health disparities in American Indians living on the northern plains of the U.S,” Public Health Reports, vol. 125, no. 1, pp. 68–78, 2010. View at Scopus
  11. T. Norris, P. L. Vines, and E. M. Hoeffel, The American Indian and Alaska Native Population: 2010, US Census Bureau, Washington, DC, USA, 2010.
  12. T. A. Gaziano, “Cardiovascular disease in the developing world and its cost-effective management,” Circulation, vol. 112, no. 23, pp. 3547–3553, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. ABS, National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Survey, 2004-05, Australian Bureau of Statistics, Canberra, Australia, 2006.
  14. MOH, Mortality and Demographic Data 2004, Ministry of Health, Wellington, New Zealand, 2007.
  15. M. Tobias, K. Sexton, S. Mann, and N. Sharpe, “How low can it go? projecting ischaemic heart disease mortality in New Zealand to 2015,” New Zealand Medical Journal, vol. 119, no. 1232, 2006. View at Scopus
  16. W. C. Chan, C. Wright, T. Riddell et al., “Ethnic and socioeconomic disparities in the prevalence of cardiovascular disease in New Zealand,” New Zealand Medical Journal, vol. 121, no. 1285, pp. 11–20, 2008. View at Scopus
  17. D. Lloyd-Jones, R. J. Adams, T. M. Brown, M. Carnethon, S. Dai, and G. De Simone, “Heart disease and stroke statistics-2010 update: a report from the American heart association,” Circulation, vol. 121, no. 7, pp. e46–e215, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. R. N. Anderson, “U.S. decennial life tables for 1989–91,” in United States Life Tables Eliminating Certain Causes of Death, vol. 1, Hyattsville, Md, USA, National Center for Health Statistics, 1999.
  19. IHS, Facts on Indian Health Disparities, Indian Health Service, Rockville, Md, USA, 2006.
  20. P. W. Wilson, R. B. D'Agostino, L. Sullivan, H. Parise, and W. B. Kannel, “Overweight and obesity as determinants of cardiovascular risk: the framingham experience,” Archives of Internal Medicine, vol. 162, no. 16, pp. 1867–1872, 2002.
  21. M. Chrostowska, A. Szyndler, P. Paczwa, and K. Narkiewicz, “Impact of abdominal obesity on the frequency of hypertension and cardiovascular disease in Poland—results from the IDEA study (international day for the evaluation of abdominal obesity),” Blood Pressure, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 145–152, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. B. Balkau, J. E. Deanfield, J. P. Despres et al., “International day for the evaluation of abdominal obesity (IDEA): a study of waist circumference, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes mellitus in 168,000 primary care patients in 63 countries,” Circulation, vol. 116, no. 17, pp. 1942–1951, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. B. Cepeda-Valery, G. S. Pressman, V. M. Figueredo, and A. Romero-Corral, “Impact of obesity on total and cardiovascular mortality-fat or fiction?” Nature Reviews Cardiology, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 233–237, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. M. Li and R. A. McDermott, “Using anthropometric indices to predict cardio-metabolic risk factors in Australian indigenous populations,” Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, vol. 87, no. 3, pp. 401–406, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. S. A. Lear, P. T. James, G. T. Ko, and S. Kumanyika, “Appropriateness of waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio cutoffs for different ethnic groups,” European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 64, no. 1, pp. 42–61, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. MOH, A Potrait of Health: Key Results of the 2006-07 New Zealand Health Survey, Ministry of Health, Wellington, New Zealand, 2008.
  27. WHO, Definition, Diagnosis and Classification of Diabetes Mellitus and Its Complications. Part 1: Diagnosis and Classification of Diabetes Mellitus, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, 1999.
  28. ADA, “Diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus,” Diabetes Care, vol. 34, Supplement 1, pp. S62–S69, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  29. S. Wild, G. Roglic, A. Green, R. Sicree, and H. King, “Global prevalence of diabetes: estimates for the year 2000 and projections for 2030,” Diabetes Care, vol. 27, no. 5, pp. 1047–1053, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. E. S. Ford, G. Zhao, and C. Li, “Pre-diabetes and the risk for cardiovascular disease: a systematic review of the evidence,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 55, no. 13, pp. 1310–1317, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. L. G. Mellbin, M. Anselmino, and L. Ryden, “Diabetes, prediabetes and cardiovascular risk,” European Journal of Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation, vol. 17, Supplement 1, pp. S9–S14, 2010.
  32. C. S. Fox, “Cardiovascular disease risk factors, type 2 diabetes mellitus and the framingham heart study,” Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 90–95, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. S. R. Preis, M. J. Pencina, S. J. Hwang et al., “Trends in cardiovascular disease risk factors in individuals with and without diabetes mellitus in the framingham heart study,” Circulation, vol. 120, no. 3, pp. 212–220, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. T. Nakagami, Q. Qiao, J. Tuomilehto et al., “Screen-detected diabetes, hypertension and hypercholesterolemia as predictors of cardiovascular mortality in five populations of Asian origin: the DECODA study,” European Journal of Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 555–561, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. S. N. Rajpathak, V. Aggarwal, and F. B. Hu, “Multifactorial intervention to reduce cardiovascular events in type 2 diabetes,” Current Diabetes Reports, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 16–23, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. A. Chudyk and R. J. Petrella, “Effects of exercise on cardiovascular risk factors in type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis,” Diabetes Care, vol. 34, no. 5, pp. 1228–1237, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. M. R. Salazar, H. A. Carbajal, W. G. Espeche et al., “Relationships among insulin resistance, obesity, diagnosis of the metabolic syndrome and cardio-metabolic risk,” Diabetes and Vascular Disease Research, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 109–116, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. G. M. Reaven, “Relationships among insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, essential hypertension, and cardiovascular disease: similarities and differences,” Journal of Clinical Hypertension, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 238–243, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. D. W. Bowden, A. J. Cox, B. I. Freedman et al., “Review of the diabetes heart study (DHS) family of studies: a comprehensively examined sample for genetic and epidemiological studies of type 2 diabetes and its complications,” The Review of Diabetic Studies, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 188–201, 2010. View at Scopus
  40. A. V. Chobanian, G. L. Bakris, H. R. Black et al., “The seventh report of the joint national committee on prevention, detection, evaluation, and treatment of high blood pressure: the JNC 7 report,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 289, no. 19, pp. 2560–2572, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. ABS, National Health Survey: Summary of Results, 2007-2008, Australian Bureau of Statistics, Canberra, Australia, 2009.
  42. J. Jeppesen, T. W. Hansen, S. Rasmussen, H. Ibsen, and C. Torp-Pedersen, “Metabolic syndrome, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and risk of cardiovascular disease: a population-based study,” Atherosclerosis, vol. 189, no. 2, pp. 369–374, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. D. G. Karalis, “Intensive lowering of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels for primary prevention of coronary artery disease,” Mayo Clinic Proceedings, vol. 84, no. 4, pp. 345–352, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. T. Teramoto, N. Nakaya, S. Yokoyama, Y. Ohashi, K. Mizuno, and H. Nakamura, “Association between lowering low-density lipoprotein cholesterol with pravastatin and primary prevention of cardiovascular disease in mild to moderate hypercholesterolemic Japanese,” Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis, vol. 17, no. 8, pp. 879–887, 2010. View at Scopus
  45. E. V. De Freitas, A. A. Brandao, R. Pozzan et al., “Importance of high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) levels to the incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the elderly,” Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics, vol. 52, no. 2, pp. 217–222, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. E. Windler, M. Schoffauer, and B. C. Zyriax, “The significance of low HDL-cholesterol levels in an ageing society at increased risk for cardiovascular disease,” Diabetes and Vascular Disease Research, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 136–142, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. M. Briel, I. Ferreira-Gonzalez, J. J. You et al., “Association between change in high density lipoprotein cholesterol and cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality: systematic review and meta-regression analysis,” The British Medical Journal, vol. 338, no. 7693, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. M. H. Davidson, “Targeting high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in the management of cardiovascular disease,” The American Heart Hospital Journal, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 210–216, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. N. J. Stone, S. Bilek, and S. Rosenbaum, “Recent national cholesterol education program adult treatment panel III update: adjustments and options,” The American Journal of Cardiology, vol. 96, no. 4, Supplement, pp. 53–59, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. A. V. Chobanian, G. L. Bakris, H. R. Black et al., “Seventh report of the joint national committee on prevention, detection, evaluation and treatment of high blood pressure,” Hypertension, vol. 42, no. 6, pp. 1206–1252, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. O. H. Franco, A. Peeters, L. Bonneux, and C. De Laet, “Blood pressure in adulthood and life expectancy with cardiovascular disease in men and women: life course analysis,” Hypertension, vol. 46, no. 2, pp. 280–286, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. WHO, “The world health report 2002,” World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, 2002.
  53. C. M. Lawes, S. Vander Hoorn, M. R. Law, P. Elliott, S. MacMahon, and A. Rodgers, “Blood pressure and the global burden of disease 2000. part 1: estimates of blood pressure levels,” Journal of Hypertension, vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 413–422, 2006. View at Scopus
  54. V. L. Roger, A. S. Go, D. M. Lloyd-Jones et al., “Heart disease and stroke statistics-2012 update: a report from the American heart association,” Circulation, vol. 125, no. 1, pp. e2–e220, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. F. J. He, C. A. Nowson, M. Lucas, and G. A. MacGregor, “Increased consumption of fruit and vegetables is related to a reduced risk of coronary heart disease: meta-analysis of cohort studies,” Journal of Human Hypertension, vol. 21, no. 9, pp. 717–728, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. L. Dauchet, P. Amouyel, S. Hercberg, and J. Dallongeville, “Fruit and vegetable consumption and risk of coronary heart disease: a meta-analysis of cohort studies,” Journal of Nutrition, vol. 136, no. 10, pp. 2588–2593, 2006. View at Scopus
  57. L. Dauchet, P. Amouyel, and J. Dallongeville, “Fruit and vegetable consumption and risk of stroke: a meta-analysis of cohort studies,” Neurology, vol. 65, no. 8, pp. 1193–1197, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. C. Nishida and R. Uauy, “WHO scientific update on health consequences of trans fatty acids: introduction,” European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 63, no. 2, pp. S1–S4, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. P. N. Mitrou, V. Kipnis, A. C. Thiebaut et al., “Mediterranean dietary pattern and prediction of all-cause mortality in a US population: results from the NIH-AARP diet and health study,” Archives of Internal Medicine, vol. 167, no. 22, pp. 2461–2468, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. D. R. Keast, C. E. O'Neil, and J. M. Jones, “Dried fruit consumption is associated with improved diet quality and reduced obesity in US adults: national health and nutrition examination survey, 1999–2004,” Nutrition Research, vol. 31, no. 6, pp. 460–467, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. C. Agostoni, C. Braegger, T. Decsi et al., “Role of dietary factors and food habits in the development of childhood obesity: a commentary by the ESPGHAN committee on nutrition,” Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, vol. 52, no. 6, pp. 662–669, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. CDC, “State-specific trends in fruit and vegetable consumption among adults—United States, 2000–2009,” Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, vol. 59, no. 35, pp. 1125–11130, 2010.
  63. G. C. Frank, “Taking a bite out of eating behavior: food records and food recalls of children,” The Journal of School Health, vol. 61, no. 5, pp. 198–200, 1991. View at Scopus
  64. W. Mertz, “Food intake measurements: is there a “gold standard”?” Journal of the American Dietetic Association, vol. 92, no. 12, pp. 1463–1465, 1992. View at Scopus
  65. G. Block, “A review of validations of dietary assessment methods,” The American Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 115, no. 4, pp. 492–505, 1982. View at Scopus
  66. A. Flood, A. F. Subar, S. G. Hull, T. P. Zimmerman, D. J. Jenkins, and A. Schatzkin, “Methodology for adding glycemic load values to the national cancer institute diet history questionnaire database,” Journal of the American Dietetic Association, vol. 106, no. 3, pp. 393–402, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. A. E. Millen, D. Midthune, F. E. Thompson, V. Kipnis, and A. F. Subar, “The national cancer institute diet history questionnaire: validation of pyramid food servings,” American Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 163, no. 3, pp. 279–288, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. A. F. Subar, “Developing dietary assessment tools,” Journal of the American Dietetic Association, vol. 104, no. 5, pp. 769–770, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. T. C. Carithers, S. A. Talegawkar, M. L. Rowser et al., “Validity and calibration of food frequency questionnaires used with African-American adults in the Jackson heart study,” Journal of the American Dietetic Association, vol. 109, no. 7, pp. 1184–1193, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. L. H. Kushi, “Gaps in epidemiologic research methods: design considerations for studies that use food-frequency questionnaires,” The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 59, Supplement 1, pp. 180S–184S, 1994. View at Scopus
  71. W. Willett, Nutritional Epidemiology, Oxford University Press, New York, NY, USA, 2nd edition, 1998.
  72. L. Harnack, N. Sherwood, and M. Story, “Diet and physical activity patterns of urban American Indian women,” American Journal of Health Promotion, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 233–236, 1999. View at Scopus
  73. L. Harnack, M. Story, and B. H. Rock, “Diet and physical activity patterns of Lakota Indian adults,” Journal of the American Dietetic Association, vol. 99, no. 7, pp. 829–835, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. B. DeGonzague, O. Receveur, D. Wedll, and H. V. Kuhnlein, “Dietary intake and body mass index of adults in 2 Ojibwe communities,” Journal of the American Dietetic Association, vol. 99, no. 6, pp. 710–716, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. S. E. Jones, K. Anderson, R. Lowry, and H. Conner, “Risks to health among American Indian/Alaska native high school students in the United States,” Preventing Chronic Disease, vol. 8, no. 4, article A76, 2011.
  76. T. L. LaRowe, A. K. Adams, J. B. Jobe, K. A. Cronin, S. M. Vannatter, and R. J. Prince, “Dietary intakes and physical activity among preschool-aged children living in rural American Indian communities before a family-based healthy lifestyle intervention,” Journal of the American Dietetic Association, vol. 110, no. 7, pp. 1049–1057, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  77. P. E. Ronksley, S. E. Brien, B. J. Turner, K. J. Mukamal, and W. A. Ghali, “Association of alcohol consumption with selected cardiovascular disease outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” The British Medical Journal, vol. 342, article d671, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  78. G. Corrao, L. Rubbiati, V. Bagnardi, A. Zambon, and K. Poikolainen, “Alcohol and coronary heart disease: a meta-analysis,” Addiction, vol. 95, no. 10, pp. 1505–1523, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  79. J. H. O'Keefe, K. A. Bybee, and C. J. Lavie, “Alcohol and cardiovascular health. the razor-sharp double-edged sword,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 50, no. 11, pp. 1009–1014, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  80. D. L. Lucas, R. A. Brown, M. Wassef, and T. D. Giles, “Alcohol and the cardiovascular system: research challenges and opportunities,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 45, no. 12, pp. 1916–1924, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  81. MOH, Alcohol Use in New Zealand: Key Results of the 2007/08 New Zealand Alcohol and Drug Use Survey, Ministry of Health, Wellington, New Zealand, 2009.
  82. SAMHSA, “2007 National survey on drug use and health, detailed tables, dependence, abuse and treatment, table 2.46B,” 2008, http://oas.samhsa.gov/NSDUH/2k7NSDUH/tabs/Sect2peTabs43to84.htm#Tab2.
  83. W. J. Szlemko, J. W. Wood, and P. J. Thurman, “Native Americans and alcohol: past, present, and future,” Journal of General Psychology, vol. 133, no. 4, pp. 435–451, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  84. J. Beals, P. Spicer, C. M. Mitchell et al., “Racial disparities in alcohol use: comparison of 2 American Indian reservation populations with national data,” American Journal of Public Health, vol. 93, no. 10, pp. 1683–1685, 2003. View at Scopus
  85. P. A. May and P. Gossage, “New data on the epidemiology of adult drinking and substance use among American Indians of the northern states: male and female data on prevalence, patterns and consequences,” American Indian and Alaska Native Mental Health Research, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 1–26, 2001. View at Scopus
  86. S. Yusuf, S. Hawken, S. Ounpuu et al., “Effect of potentially modifiable risk factors associated with myocardial infarction in 52 countries (the INTERHEART study): case-control study,” Lancet, vol. 364, no. 9438, pp. 937–952, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  87. J. Sattelmair, J. Pertman, E. L. Ding, H. W. Kohl III, W. Haskell, and I. M. Lee, “Dose response between physical activity and risk of coronary heart disease: a meta-analysis,” Circulation, vol. 124, no. 7, pp. 789–795, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  88. K. Mansikkaniemi, M. Juonala, S. Taimela, M. Hirvensalo, R. Telama, and R. Huupponen, “Cross-sectional associations between physical activity and selected coronary heart disease risk factors in young adults. the cardiovascular risk in young finns study,” Annals of Medicine, vol. 44, no. 7, pp. 733–744, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  89. T. Moholdt, U. Wisloff, T. I. Nilsen, and S. A. Slordahl, “Physical activity and mortality in men and women with coronary heart disease: a prospective population-based cohort study in Norway (the HUNT study),” The European Journal of Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation, vol. 15, no. 6, pp. 639–645, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  90. T. Church, “Exercise in obesity, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes,” Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases, vol. 53, no. 6, pp. 412–418, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  91. S. Carroll and M. Dudfield, “What is the relationship between exercise and metabolic abnormalities? A review of the metabolic syndrome,” Sports Medicine, vol. 34, no. 6, pp. 371–418, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  92. A. N. Long and S. Dagogo-Jack, “Comorbidities of diabetes and hypertension: mechanisms and approach to target organ protection,” Journal of Clinical Hypertension, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 244–251, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  93. C. E. Garber, B. Blissmer, M. R. Deschenes et al., “American college of sports medicine position stand. quantity and quality of exercise for developing and maintaining cardiorespiratory, musculoskeletal and neuromotor fitness in apparently healthy adults: guidance for prescribing exercise,” Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, vol. 43, no. 7, pp. 1334–1359, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  94. J. Dollman, A. D. Okely, L. Hardy, A. Timperio, J. Salmon, and A. P. Hills, “A hitchhiker's guide to assessing young people's physical activity: deciding what method to use,” Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, vol. 12, no. 5, pp. 518–525, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  95. M. A. Alomari, E. F. Keewan, R. Qhatan et al., “Blood pressure and circulatory relationships with physical activity level in young normotensive individuals: IPAQ validity and reliability considerations,” Clinical and Experimental Hypertension, vol. 33, no. 5, pp. 345–353, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  96. A. Bauman, B. E. Ainsworth, J. F. Sallis et al., “The descriptive epidemiology of sitting a 20-country comparison using the international physical activity questionnaire (IPAQ),” The American Journal of Preventive Medicine, vol. 41, no. 2, pp. 228–235, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  97. S. M. Schembre and D. A. Riebe, “Non-exercise estimation of VO(2)max using the international physical activity questionnaire,” Measurement in Physical Education and Exercise Science, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 168–181, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  98. K. Tomioka, J. Iwamoto, K. Saeki, and N. Okamoto, “Reliability and validity of the international physical activity questionnaire (IPAQ) in elderly adults: the Fujiwara-kyo study,” Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 21, no. 6, pp. 459–465, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  99. C. L. Craig, A. L. Marshall, M. Sjostrom et al., “International physical activity questionnaire: 12-country reliability and validity,” Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, vol. 35, no. 8, pp. 1381–1395, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  100. C. Ottevaere, I. Huybrechts, I. De Bourdeaudhuij et al., “Comparison of the IPAQ-A and actigraph in relation to VO2max among European adolescents: the HELENA study,” Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 317–324, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  101. V. Rangul, T. L. Holmen, N. Kurtze, K. Cuypers, and K. Midthjell, “Reliability and validity of two frequently used self-administered physical activity questionnaires in adolescents,” BMC Medical Research Methodology, vol. 8, article 47, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  102. M. Hagstromer, P. Bergman, I. De Bourdeaudhuij et al., “Concurrent validity of a modified version of the international physical activity questionnaire (IPAQ-A) in European adolescents: the HELENA Study,” International Journal of Obesity, vol. 32, no. 5, pp. S42–S48, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  103. C. Ottevaere, I. Huybrechts, F. De Meester, I. De Bourdeaudhuij, M. Cuenca-Garcia, and S. De Henauw, “The use of accelerometry in adolescents and its implementation with non-wear time activity diaries in free-living conditions,” Journal of Sports Sciences, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 103–113, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  104. AIHW, The Burden of Disease and Injury in Australia 2003, Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW), Canberra, New Zealand, 2007.
  105. T. Vos, B. Barker, S. Begg, L. Stanley, and A. D. Lopez, “Burden of disease and injury in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples: the indigenous health gap,” International Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 38, no. 2, pp. 470–477, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  106. K. L. Moy, R. K. Scragg, G. McLean, and H. Carr, “The New Zealand physical activity questionnaires: validation by heart-rate monitoring in a multiethnic population,” Journal of Physical Activity and Health, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. S45–S61, 2008. View at Scopus
  107. J. R. Pleis, J. W. Lucas, and B. W. Ward, “Summary health statistics for U.S. adults: national health interview survey, 2008,” Vital and Health Statistics, vol. 10, no. 242, pp. 1–157, 2009.
  108. A. K. Kurian and K. M. Cardarelli, “Racial and ethnic differences in cardiovascular disease risk factors: a systematic review,” Ethnicity and Disease, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 143–152, 2007. View at Scopus
  109. C. B. Steele, C. J. Cardinez, L. C. Richardson, L. Tom-Orme, and K. M. Shaw, “Surveillance for health behaviors of American Indians and Alaska natives-findings from the behavioral risk factor surveillance system, 2000–2006,” Cancer, vol. 113, Supplement 5, pp. 1131–1141, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  110. C. H. Denny, D. Holtzman, and N. Cobb, “Surveillance for health behaviors of American Indians and Alaska natives. findings from the behavioral risk factor surveillance system, 1997–2000,” Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, vol. 52, no. 7, pp. 1–13, 2003. View at Scopus
  111. F. S. Hodge, B. G. Cantrell, and S. Kim, “Health status and sociodemographic characteristics of the morbidly obese American Indians,” Ethnicity and Disease, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 52–57, 2011. View at Scopus
  112. G. E. Duncan, J. Goldberg, D. Buchwald, Y. Wen, and J. A. Henderson, “Epidemiology of physical activity in American Indians in the education and research towards health cohort,” American Journal of Preventive Medicine, vol. 37, no. 6, pp. 488–494, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  113. K. L. Storti, V. C. Arena, M. M. Barmada et al., “Physical activity levels in American-Indian adults. the strong heart family study,” The American Journal of Preventive Medicine, vol. 37, no. 6, pp. 481–487, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  114. ABS, Population Distribution, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians, 2006, Australian Bureau of Statistics, Canberra, Australia, 2007.
  115. AIHW, “Life expectancy,” 2011, http://www.aihw.gov.au/life-expectancy/.
  116. SNZ, “New Zealand life tables: 2005–07,” 2008, http://www.stats.govt.nz/browse_for_stats/health/life_expectancy/nzlifetables_hotp05-07.aspx.
  117. C. D. Mathers and D. Loncar, “Projections of global mortality and burden of disease from 2002 to 2030,” PLoS Medicine, vol. 3, no. 11, article e442, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  118. M. R. Law, J. K. Morris, and N. J. Wald, “Environmental tobacco smoke exposure and ischaemic heart disease: an evaluation of the evidence,” The British Medical Journal, vol. 315, no. 7114, pp. 973–980, 1997. View at Scopus
  119. J. A. Ambrose and R. S. Barua, “The pathophysiology of cigarette smoking and cardiovascular disease: an update,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 43, no. 10, pp. 1731–1737, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  120. D. Conen, B. M. Everett, T. Kurth et al., “Smoking, smoking status, and risk for symptomatic peripheral artery disease in women,” Annals of Internal Medicine, vol. 154, no. 11, pp. 719–726, 2011. View at Scopus
  121. Y. H. Lee, M. H. Shin, S. S. Kweon et al., “Cumulative smoking exposure, duration of smoking cessation and peripheral arterial disease in middle-aged and older Korean men,” BMC Public Health, vol. 11, article 94, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  122. H. Tomiyama, H. Hashimoto, H. Tanaka et al., “Continuous smoking and progression of arterial stiffening: a prospective study,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 55, no. 18, pp. 1979–1987, 2010. View at Scopus
  123. L. Stoner, M. J. Sabatier, C. D. Black, and K. K. McCully, “Occasional cigarette smoking chronically affects arterial function,” Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology, vol. 34, no. 12, pp. 1885–1892, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  124. R. Doll, R. Peto, J. Boreham, and I. Sutherland, “Mortality in relation to smoking: 50 years' observations on male British doctors,” The British Medical Journal, vol. 328, no. 7455, pp. 1519–1528, 2004. View at Scopus
  125. K. Wilson, N. Gibson, A. Willan, and D. Cook, “Effect of smoking cessation on mortality after myocardial infarction: meta-analysis of cohort studies,” Archives of Internal Medicine, vol. 160, no. 7, pp. 939–944, 2000. View at Scopus
  126. J. A. Critchley and S. Capewell, “Mortality risk reduction associated with smoking cessation in patients with coronary heart disease: a systematic review,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 290, no. 1, pp. 86–97, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  127. CDC, “Smoking-attributable mortality, years of potential life lost, and productivity losses: United States, 2000–2004,” Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, vol. 57, pp. 1226–1228, 2008.
  128. NCHS, Health, United States, 2008 With Chartbook, National Center for Health Statistics, Hyattsville, Md, USA, 2009.
  129. J. E. Eichner, W. Wang, Y. Zhang, E. T. Lee, and T. K. Welty, “Tobacco use and cardiovascular disease among American Indians: the strong heart study,” International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, vol. 7, no. 10, pp. 3816–3830, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  130. J. J. Smith, E. D. Ferucci, D. A. Dillard, and A. P. Lanier, “Tobacco use among Alaska native people in the EARTH study,” Nicotine and Tobacco Research, vol. 12, no. 8, pp. 839–844, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  131. N. Mattsson, T. Ronnemaa, M. Juonala et al., “Arterial structure and function in young adults with the metabolic syndrome: the cardiovascular risk in young finns study,” The European Heart Journal, vol. 29, no. 6, pp. 784–791, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  132. S. M. Kerr, M. B. Livingstone, T. A. McCrorie, and J. M. Wallace, “Endothelial dysfunction associated with obesity and the effect of weight loss interventions,” Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, vol. 70, no. 4, pp. 418–425, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  133. V. Palmieri, C. Russo, S. Pezzullo, M. N. Di Minno, and A. Celentano, “Relation of flow-mediated dilation to global arterial load: impact of hypertension and additional cardiovascular risk factors,” International Journal of Cardiology, vol. 152, no. 2, pp. 225–230, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  134. S. Bleda, J. De Haro, C. Varela, L. Esparza, J. Rodriguez, and F. Acin, “Improving total-cholesterol/HDL-cholesterol ratio results in an endothelial dysfunction recovery in peripheral artery disease patients,” Cholesterol, vol. 2012, Article ID 895326, 6 pages, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  135. B. Metcalf, W. Henley, and T. Wilkin, “Effectiveness of intervention on physical activity of children: systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled trials with objectively measured outcomes (EarlyBird 54),” The British Medical Journal, vol. 345, article e5888, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  136. S. Javaheri, A. Storfer-Isser, C. L. Rosen, and S. Redline, “Sleep quality and elevated blood pressure in adolescents,” Circulation, vol. 118, no. 10, pp. 1034–1040, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  137. S. Javaheri, A. Storfer-Isser, C. L. Rosen, and S. Redline, “Association of short and long sleep durations with insulin sensitivity in adolescents,” Journal of Pediatrics, vol. 158, no. 4, pp. 617–623, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  138. BHC, “Aboriginal health—barriers to physical activity,” 2012, http://www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au/bhcv2/bhcarticles.nsf/pages/Aboriginal_health_physical_activity.
  139. P. Te Rito, “Leadership in Māori, European cultures and in the world of sport,” MAI Review, vol. 1, no. 8, pp. 1–19, 2006.
  140. P. Bergin, “Maori sport and cultural identity in Australia,” The Australian Journal of Anthropology, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 257–269, 2002. View at Scopus
  141. L. M. Jamieson, Y. C. Paradies, S. Eades, A. Chong, L. Maple-Brown, and P. Morris, “Ten principles relevant to health research among Indigenous Australian populations,” The Medical Journal Australia, vol. 197, no. 1, pp. 16–18, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  142. OMH, “The national CLAS standards,” 2013, http://minorityhealth.hhs.gov/templates/browse.aspx?lvl=2&lvlID=15.
  143. C. L. Paul, R. Sanson-Fisher, J. Stewart, and A. E. Anderson, “Being sorry is not enough. the sorry state of the evidence base for improving the health of indigenous populations,” The American Journal of Preventive Medicine, vol. 38, no. 5, pp. 566–568, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus