Table 4: Comparison of effects of metformin with vitamin C and in combination with placebo on FBG, PPBG, HbA1c, and plasma AA at 12 weeks in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus taking into account the change from baseline.

ParameterChange from baseline at 12 weeks 𝑃 (unpaired)
Group AGroup B

FBG 1 6 . 4 5 ± 3 . 8 0 5 . 4 2 ± 2 . 6 5 <0.05
PPBG 1 5 . 5 4 ± 2 . 4 2 6 . 9 3 ± 2 . 9 9 <0.05
HbA1c 0 . 4 5 1 ± 0 . 0 7 0 . 1 6 9 ± 0 . 1 0 <0.05
Plasma AA 0 . 1 9 ± 0 . 0 1 0 . 0 2 ± 0 . 0 1 <0.001

𝑛 = 3 3 in each group, Group A: vitamin C-treated group, Group B: placebo-treated group, FBG: fasting blood glucose, PPBG: postmeal blood glucose, HbA1c: glycosylated hemoglobin, plasma AA: plasma ascorbic acid. FBG, PPBG, and plasma AA are measured in mg/dL.