Table 4: The pharmacokinetic parameters (vinpocetine) in dogs after oral administration of 15 mg vinpocetine osmotic pump controlled release tablets and immediate release-tablets (average ± SD, 𝑛 = 6 ).

ParametersImmediate release tabletsOsmotic pump controlled release tablets

𝑇 m a x (h)1.54 ± 0.644.83 ± 2.32*
𝐶 m a x (ng/mL)10.21 ± 1.553.62 ± 1.34*
AUC (ng/mL min)34.80 ± 22.5240.87 ± 17.75**
𝑇 1 / 2 (h)3.98 ± 1.063.77 ± 1.02**
MRT (h)13.76 ± 1.526.27 ± 2.1*
Ke (h−1)0.0756 ± 0.01640.0798 ± 0.0159**

* 𝑃 < . 0 5 , compared to the immediate release tablets ( 𝑡 -test)
** 𝑃 > . 0 5 , compared to the immediate release tablets ( 𝑡 -test).