Table 5: The pharmacokinetic parameters (vinpocetine metabolite apovincaminic acid) in dogs after oral administration of 15 mg vinpocetine osmotic pump controlled release tablets and immediate release-tablets (average ± SD, 𝑛 = 6 ).

ParametersImmediate release tabletsOsmotic pump controlled release tablets

𝑇 m a x (h)1.67 ± 0.314.83 ± 1.02*
𝐶 m a x (ng/mL)149.28 ± 31.2252.01 ± 22.39*
AUC (ng/mL·min)453.20 ± 57.55377.19 ± 39.89**
T1/2 (h)4.63 ± 0.644.17 ± 0.22**
MRT (h)6.8 ± 0.8617.29 ± 1.02*
Ke (h−1)0.0851 ± 0.04930.1067 ± 0.0981**

* 𝑃 < . 0 5 , compared to the immediate release tablets ( 𝑡 -test)
** 𝑃 > . 0 5 , compared to the immediate release tablets ( 𝑡 -test).