Table 1: Effects of GSE, VC, and VE on ulcer indexes and MDA gastric concentrations in rats with aspirin-induced ulcer.

TreatmentDoses (mg/kg)Ulcer index (mm) 𝐈 (%)MDA (nmol/mg of pt) 𝐈 (%)

Negative control (vehicle)00 ± 0**** 1.02 ± 0.21**
Positive control (vehicle + aspirin)027.06 ± 5.6012.28 ± 0.81
VC + aspirin25 10.91 ± 2.33**59.7 8.7 ± 0.28***31.8
VC + aspirin250 8.36 ± 1.23***69.1 4.69 ± 0.92**67.4
VE + aspirin25 13.72 ± 3.60*49.3 6.33 ± 0.86***52.8
VE + aspirin250 10.31 ± 2.70*61.9 3.11 ± 0.43***81.4
GSE + aspirin25 11.56 ± 3.50*57.3 5.11 ± 0.79***a63.6
GSE + aspirin250 11.81 ± 3.03*56.3 1.95 ± 0.28***at91.7

GSE: grape seed extract, VC: vitamin C, VE: vitamin E, MDA: malondialdehyde.
Data as means ± MSE (mean standard error).
* 𝑃 < 0 . 0 5 , ** 𝑃 < 0 . 0 1 , *** 𝑃 < 0 . 0 0 1 ; comparisons with positive controls, a 𝑃 < 0 . 0 1 ; comparisons with the same dose of VC; t 𝑃 = 0 . 0 5 4 ; comparisons with that of VE, (Mann-Whitney 𝑈 test).