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Advances in Pharmacological Sciences
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 532969, 6 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/532969
Research Article

Effects of Melatonin and Epiphyseal Proteins on Fluoride-Induced Adverse Changes in Antioxidant Status of Heart, Liver, and Kidney of Rats

1Division of Physiology and Climatology, Indian Veterinary Research Institute (IVRI), Izatnagar, Uttar Pradesh 243122, India
2Nutrition and Toxicology Laboratory, Defence Institute of High Altitude Research (DIHAR), Defence Research and Development Organization (DRDO), Ministry of Defence, C/o- 56 APO, Leh 194101, India
3Division of Animal Reproduction, Indian Veterinary Research Institute (IVRI), Izatnagar, Uttar Pradesh 243122, India
4Somnogen Inc., College Street, Toronto, ON, Canada M6H 1C5
5Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto and Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, 250 College Street, Toronto, ON, Canada M5T 1R8

Received 11 January 2014; Revised 24 February 2014; Accepted 25 February 2014; Published 26 March 2014

Academic Editor: Mustafa F. Lokhandwala

Copyright © 2014 Vijay K. Bharti et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Several experimental and clinical reports indicated the oxidative stress-mediated adverse changes in vital organs of human and animal in fluoride (F) toxicity. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the therapeutic effect of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) epiphyseal (pineal) proteins (BEP) and melatonin (MEL) against F-induced oxidative stress in heart, liver, and kidney of experimental adult female rats. To accomplish this experimental objective, twenty-four adult female Wistar rats (123–143 g body weights) were divided into four groups, namely, control, F, F + BEP, and F + MEL and were administered sodium fluoride (NaF, 150 ppm elemental F in drinking water), MEL (10 mg/kg BW, i.p.), and BEP (100 µg/kg BW, i.p.) for 28 days. There were significantly high levels of lipid peroxidation and catalase and low levels of reduced glutathione, superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione peroxidase in cardiac, hepatic, and renal tissues of F-treated rats. Administration of BEP and MEL in F-treated rats, however, significantly attenuated these adverse changes in all the target components of antioxidant defense system of cardiac, hepatic, and renal tissues. The present data suggest that F can induce oxidative stress in liver, heart, and kidney of female rats which may be a mechanism in F toxicity and these adverse effects can be ameliorated by buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) epiphyseal proteins and melatonin by upregulation of antioxidant defense system of heart, liver, and kidney of rats.