Advances in Radiology The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2014 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Identifying Sources of Hepatic Lipogenic Acetyl-CoA Using Stable Isotope Tracers and NMR Mon, 11 Aug 2014 08:04:46 +0000 The role of hepatic de novo lipogenesis (DNL) in promoting fatty liver disease and hypertriglyceridemia during excessive nutrient intake is becoming firmly established. Certain nutrients such as fructose promote hepatic DNL activity and this has been at least partly attributed to their efficient conversion to the acetyl-CoA precursors of DNL. However, tracer studies indicate a paradoxically low level of fructose incorporation into lipids, which begs the question of what the actual lipogenic acetyl-CoA sources are under these and other conditions. Here, we describe novel approaches for measuring substrate contributions to lipogenic hepatic acetyl-CoA using 13C-tracers and 13C-NMR analysis of lipids and acetyl-CoA probes. We review and address aspects of hepatic intermediary fluxes and acetyl-CoA compartmentation that can confound the relationship between 13C-precursor substrate and lipogenic 13C-acetyl-CoA enrichments and demonstrate novel methodologies that can provide realistic estimates of 13C-enriched substrate contributions to DNL. The most striking realization is that the principal substrate contributors to lipogenic acetyl-CoA have yet to be identified, but they are probably not the so-called “lipogenic substrates” such as fructose. The proposed methods may improve our insight into the nutrient sources of DNL under various feeding and disease states. John G. Jones Copyright © 2014 John G. Jones. All rights reserved. An Assessment of Final-Year Medical Students and Interns Awareness of Radiation Exposure to Common Diagnostic Imaging Procedures Thu, 24 Jul 2014 11:46:29 +0000 Objectives. To evaluate the level of knowledge about the radiation exposure to diagnostic imaging procedures among the final-year medical students and interns and to suggest how education could be improved. Material and Methods. All 355 final-year medical students and interns from Tikur Anbessa Teaching Hospital in Addis Ababa were included in the study. Participants were asked to complete a questionnaire consisting of their actual knowledge on ionizing radiation and on their preferred method of learning. All questions were in multiple choice formats ranging from 4 to 7 choices. The obtained data were analyzed using statistical software. Results. A total of 343 completed questionnaires were received. Up to 78.9% of respondents underestimated or do not know the radiation dose from commonly requested radiological procedures. Surprisingly, 245 (71.4%) and 254 (79.3%) students incorrectly believed that ultrasound and MRI, respectively, emit ionizing radiation or they do not know if they emit radiation or not. Both interns and medical students did not have significant difference in their knowledge of ionizing radiation. A combination of tutorials or workshops (29.7%) and learning modules (19.8%) combined were their first and last preferred methods of teaching for future radiation awareness, respectively.  Conclusion. This study has clearly shown that awareness of ionizing radiation from diagnostic imaging is lacking among senior medical students and interns. The results highlight the need for improved education to minimize unnecessary exposure of patients. Seife Teferi Dellie, Daniel Admassie, and Yenework Ewnetu Copyright © 2014 Seife Teferi Dellie et al. All rights reserved. Variations in the Branching Pattern of the Aortic Arch Detected with Computerized Tomography Angiography Sun, 29 Jun 2014 11:21:32 +0000 Objectives. The aim was to determine the prevalence of aortic arch variations in 881 patients who underwent neck CT angiography for various reasons. Material and Methods. 881 patients were included in the study who had undergone neck CT angiography between 2010 and 2013. Results. Of 881 patients, 770 (87.4%) patients with classic branching pattern of the aortic arch (AA) were observed. Variations in branching pattern were seen in 111 (12.6%) patients. The most common variation was the origination of the left common carotid artery (LCCA) from the brachiocephalic trunk (BCT). This pattern was observed in 64 (7.2%) cases. In 25 (2.8%) cases, the left vertebral artery (LVA) originated directly from the AA between the origin of the LCCA and left subclavian artery (SCA). 17 (1.9%) cases had aberrant right subclavian artery. Three (0.3%) cases showed right aortic arch. Two cases had right aortic arch with aberrant left subclavian artery. Conclusions. Variations in the branching pattern of the AA are not rare. Head and neck surgeons and interventional radiologists should be aware of aortic arch variations. CTA is a reliable imaging method for demonstrating anatomical features and variations of the AA. Pasaoglu Lale, Ugur Toprak, Gökhan Yagız, Tunca Kaya, and Sadık Ahmet Uyanık Copyright © 2014 Pasaoglu Lale et al. All rights reserved.