Anatomy Research International The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2014 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Mapping the Articular Contact Area of the Long Head of the Biceps Tendon on the Humeral Head Tue, 19 Aug 2014 00:00:00 +0000 The purpose of this investigation was to calculate the contact surface area of the long head of the biceps (LHB) in neutral position and abduction. We sought to determine whether the LHB articulates with the humeral head in a consistent pattern comparing articular contact area in neutral position and abduction. Eleven fresh frozen matched cadaveric shoulders were analyzed. The path of the biceps tendon on the articular surface of the humeral head and the total articular surface were digitized using a MicronTracker 2 H3-60 three-dimensional optical tracker. Contact surface area was significantly less in abduction than in neutral position with a median ratio of 41% (36%, 47.5%). Ratios of contact area in neutral position to full articular surface area were consistent between left and right shoulders , as were ratios of abduction area to full articular surface area , . The articular contact surface area is significantly greater in neutral position than abduction. The ratios of articular contact surface areas to total humeral articular surface areas have a narrow range and are consistent between left and right shoulders of the same cadaver. Brent J. Morris, Ian R. Byram, Ray A. Lathrop, Warren R. Dunn, and John E. Kuhn Copyright © 2014 Brent J. Morris et al. All rights reserved. Midsagittal Anatomy of Lumbar Lordosis in Adult Egyptians: MRI Study Mon, 18 Aug 2014 06:53:24 +0000 Despite the increasing recognition of the functional and clinical importance of lumbar lordosis, little is known about its description, particularly in Egypt. At the same time, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been introduced as a noninvasive diagnostic technique. The aim of this study was to investigate the anatomy of the lumbar lordosis using midsagittal MRIs. Normal lumbar spine MRIs obtained from 93 individuals (46 males, 47 females; 25–57 years old) were evaluated retrospectively. The lumbar spine curvature and its segments “vertebrae and discs” were described and measured. The lumbar lordosis angle (LLA) was larger in females than in males. Its mean values increased by age. The lumbar height (LH) was longer in males than in females. At the same time, the lumbar breadth (LB) was higher in females than in males. Lumbar index (LI = LB/LH × 100) showed significant gender differences (). Lordosis was formed by wedging of intervertebral discs and bodies of lower lumbar vertebrae. In conclusion, MRI might clearly reveal the anatomy of the lumbar lordosis. Use of LI in association with LLA could be useful in evaluation of lumbar lordosis. Abdelmonem A. Hegazy and Raafat A. Hegazy Copyright © 2014 Abdelmonem A. Hegazy and Raafat A. Hegazy. All rights reserved. Relationship of the Lumbar Lordosis Angle to the Level of Termination of the Conus Medullaris and Thecal Sac Thu, 03 Jul 2014 00:00:00 +0000 The level of termination of the conus medullaris (CM) and thecal sac (TS) is subject to variations. We try to correlate in this study these variations with the lumbar lordosis angle (LLA) using MRI scans. A retrospective study was conducted using available MRI scans of the lumbar spine. The CM level of termination (CMLT) and the TS level of termination (TSLT) were identified according to a vertebral level after dividing it into 3 parts. The LLA was also identified for each individual. Linear regression models were fitted to the data available on 141 individuals. Of these 70 were males and 71 were females. The most common site of CMLT was at the upper third of L1 (32.6%) and that of the TSLT was at the middle third of S2 (29.8%). The mean LLA was 46° (20°–81°). The most proximal CMLT was at the upper third of T12, whereas the most distal one was at the upper third of L2. The most proximal TSLT was at the upper third of S1, whereas the most distal one was at S3-S4 disc space. The CMLT showed a positive correlation with the LLA. In conclusion the CMLT and TSLT may be related to variations of the LLA. C. D. Moussallem, H. El Masri, C. El-Yahchouchi, F. Abou Fakher, and A. Ibrahim Copyright © 2014 C. D. Moussallem et al. All rights reserved. Pterygospinous Bar and Foramen in the Adult Human Skulls of North India: Its Incidence and Clinical Relevance Tue, 20 May 2014 11:01:16 +0000 Study of skulls has attracted the attention of anatomists since ages and sporadic attempts have been made to study skulls from time to time. Talking about the pterygoid processes of sphenoid bone, the irregular posterior border of lateral pterygoid plate usually presents, towards its upper part, a pterygospinous process, from which the pterygospinous ligament extends backwards and laterally to the spine of sphenoid. This ligament sometimes gets ossified as pterygospinous bar and a foramen is then formed, named pterygospinous foramen, for the passage of muscular branches of mandibular nerve. The present study was undertaken to observe the incidence and status of pterygospinous bony bridge and foramen, its variations, and clinical relevance in the adult human skulls of North India. For this purpose, 500 skulls were observed, belonging to the Anthropology Museum of Department of Anatomy, GSVM Medical College, Kanpur. Pterygospinous bars were found to be present in 51 skulls (10.2%), out of which completely ossified pterygospinous bony bridges were present in 20 skulls (4%) while 31 skulls (6.2%) had incompletely ossified pterygospinous ligaments. Such variations are of clinical significance for radiologists, neurologists, maxillofacial and dental surgeons, and anaesthetists, too. Anjoo Yadav, Vinod Kumar, and Richa Niranjan Copyright © 2014 Anjoo Yadav et al. All rights reserved. Sex Determination Using Inion-Opistocranium-Asterion (IOA) Triangle in Nigerians’ Skulls Sun, 18 May 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Background. Determination of sex is an important concern to the forensic anthropologists as it is critical for individual identification. This study has investigated the existence of sexual dimorphism in the dimensions and the area of the IOA triangle. Methods. A total of 100 adult dry skulls, (78 males; 22 females) from departments of anatomy in Nigerian universities were used for this study. Automatic digital calliper was used for the measurement. Coefficient of variation, correlation, linear regression, percentiles, and sexual dimorphism ratio were computed from the IOA triangle measurements. The IOA triangle area was compared between sexes. Results. The male parameters were significantly () higher than female parameters. The left opistocranium-asterion length was and  mm and the right opistocranium-asterion length was and  mm for male and female, respectively. A total area of IOA triangle of 1938.88 mm2 and 1305.68 mm2 for male and female, respectively, was calculated. The left IOA indices were 46.42% and 37.40% in males and females, respectively, while the right IOA indices for males and females were 47.19% and 38.87%, respectively. Conclusion. The anthropometry of inion-opistocranium-asterion IOA triangle can be a guide in gender determination of unknown individuals. C. N. Orish, B. C. Didia, and H. B. Fawehinmi Copyright © 2014 C. N. Orish et al. All rights reserved. Root Canal Morphology of Permanent Maxillary and Mandibular Canines in Indian Population Using Cone Beam Computed Tomography Tue, 06 May 2014 15:56:21 +0000 Aim. To investigate the root canal anatomy of single-rooted permanent maxillary and mandibular canines in an Indian population using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). Methodology. A total of 250 permanent maxillary canines and 250 permanent mandibular canines were selected and scanned using CBCT. The root anatomy of each tooth was evaluated for the following parameters: the pattern of the root canals, anatomic length of the crown and the root, the presence of accessory canals, the shape of the access cavity, the position of the apical foramina, root diameter, and dentin thickness of the root. Results. Majority of the teeth had a Type I canal configuration in both maxillary canines (81.6%) and mandibular canines (79.6%). In maxillary canine the other canal patterns found were Type III (11.6%), Type II (2.8%), Type V (2%), Type XIX (1.2%), and Type IV (0.8%). In mandibular canines the various other canal patterns found were Type III (13.6%), Type II (3.2%), Type V (2%), and Type XIX (1.6%). Apical foramina were laterally positioned in the majority of the teeth, 70.4% and 65.6% in maxillary and mandibular canines, respectively. 12% of the maxillary canines and 12.8% of the mandibular canines had accessory canals. Conclusion. The root canal anatomy of permanent maxillary and mandibular canines varied widely in an Indian population. Nikhita Somalinga Amardeep, Sandhya Raghu, and Velmurugan Natanasabapathy Copyright © 2014 Nikhita Somalinga Amardeep et al. All rights reserved. Morphogenesis of Mammary Glands in Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) Sun, 27 Apr 2014 08:03:05 +0000 The present research was elucidated on the morphogenesis of mammary gland of buffalo during prenatal development. Total of 16 foetuses ranging from 1.2 cm (34 days) to 108 cm CVRL (curved crown rump length) (317 days) were used for study. The study revealed that mammary line was first observed at 1.2 cm CVRL (34 days), mammary hillock at 1.7 cm (37 days), and mammary bud at 2.6 cm CVRL (41 days) foetuses. Epidermal cone was found at 6.7 cm CVRL (58 days) whereas primary and secondary ducts were observed at 7.4 cm CVRL (62 days) and 15 cm CVRL (96 days), respectively. Connective tissue whorls were reported at 18.2 cm CVRL (110 days) and internal elastic lamina and muscle layers at 24.1 cm CVRL (129 days). Lobules were observed at 29.3 cm CVRL (140 days), rosette of furstenberg at 39.5 cm CVRL (163 days), and keratin plug at 45.5 cm CVRL (176 days) foetus. Primordia of sweat and sebaceous glands around hair follicle were seen at 21.2 cm CVRL (122 days) of foetal life. Differentiation of all the skin layers along with cornification was observed at 69 cm (229 days) in group III foetuses. Amit Challana, Anuradha Gupta, Neelam Bansal, and Varinder Uppal Copyright © 2014 Amit Challana et al. All rights reserved. The Thoracic Shape of Hominoids Wed, 09 Apr 2014 08:28:12 +0000 In hominoids, the broad thorax has been assumed to contribute to their dorsal scapular position. However, the dorsoventral diameter of their cranial thorax was found in one study to be longer in hominoids. There are insufficient data on thoracic shape to explain the relationship between broad thorax and dorsal scapular position. The current study presents data on multilevel cross-sectional shape and volume distribution in a range of primates. Biplanar radiographs of intact fluid-preserved cadavers were taken to measure the cross-sectional shape of ten equally spaced levels through the sternum (called decisternal levels) and the relative volume of the nine intervening thoracic segments. It was found that the cranial thorax of hominoids is larger and broader (except in the first two decisternal levels) than that of other primates. The cranial thorax of hominoids has a longer dorsoventral diameter because the increase in dorsoventral diameter caused by the increase in the volume of the cranial thorax overcompensates for the decrease caused by the broadening of the cranial thorax. The larger and broader cranial thorax in hominoids can be explained as a locomotor adaptation for scapular gliding and as a respiratory adaptation for reducing the effects of orthograde posture on ventilation-perfusion inequality. Lap Ki Chan Copyright © 2014 Lap Ki Chan. All rights reserved. Pelvic Incidence: A Predictive Factor for Three-Dimensional Acetabular Orientation—A Preliminary Study Tue, 18 Mar 2014 09:42:41 +0000 Acetabular cup orientation (inclination and anteversion) is a fundamental topic in orthopaedics and depends on pelvis tilt (positional parameter) emphasising the notion of a safe range of pelvis tilt. The hypothesis was that pelvic incidence (morphologic parameter) could yield a more accurate and reliable assessment than pelvis tilt. The aim was to find out a predictive equation of acetabular 3D orientation parameters which were determined by pelvic incidence to include in the model. The second aim was to consider the asymmetry between the right and left acetabulae. Twelve pelvic anatomic specimens were measured with an electromagnetic Fastrak system (Polhemus Society) providing 3D position of anatomical landmarks to allow measurement of acetabular and pelvic parameters. Acetabulum and pelvis data were correlated by a Spearman matrix. A robust linear regression analysis provided prediction of acetabulum axes. The orientation of each acetabulum could be predicted by the incidence. The incidence is correlated with the morphology of acetabula. The asymmetry of the acetabular roof was correlated with pelvic incidence. This study allowed analysis of relationships of acetabular orientation and pelvic incidence. Pelvic incidence (morphologic parameter) could determine the safe range of pelvis tilt (positional parameter) for an individual and not a group. Christophe Boulay, Gérard Bollini, Jean Legaye, Christine Tardieu, Dominique Prat-Pradal, Brigitte Chabrol, Jean-Luc Jouve, Ginette Duval-Beaupère, and Jacques Pélissier Copyright © 2014 Christophe Boulay et al. All rights reserved. Features of Atherosclerosis in the Tunica Adventitia of Coronary and Carotid Arteries in a Black Kenyan Population Mon, 17 Mar 2014 08:00:57 +0000 Introduction. Histologic changes which occur in the tunica adventitia during initiation, progression, and complications of atherosclerosis are seldom reported. This study aimed at describing the features of atherosclerosis in the tunica adventitia of two of the commonly afflicted arteries, namely, left anterior descending coronary and common carotid in black Kenyans. Materials and Methods. Specimens from 108 individuals [76 males and 32 females, mean age 34.6] were processed for paraffin embedding. Seven micron thick sections were stained with Mason’s trichrome and Haematoxylin/Eosin and examined with a light microscope. Results. Features of atherosclerosis were present in the tunica adventitia of 14.8% of left anterior descending arteries and 11.1% of common carotid arteries. Increase in adventitial thickness was associated with increased density of vasa vasora in 8.3% of both arteries. In the left anterior descending and common carotid arteries, 6.5% and 3.7% of cases, respectively, the tunica adventitia thickened without intimal hyperplasia. Conclusion. Features of atherosclerosis occur in the tunica adventitia of coronary and carotid arteries in over 10% of the black Kenyans studied. These features often precede the intimo medial changes. Tunica adventitia should therefore be prioritized in evaluation for atherosclerosis, in individuals at risk. This may enhance early detection and intervention. Julius Ogeng’o, Kevin Ongeti, Moses Obimbo, Beda Olabu, and Philip Mwachaka Copyright © 2014 Julius Ogeng’o et al. All rights reserved. Imhotep and the Discovery of Cerebrospinal Fluid Thu, 13 Mar 2014 12:43:35 +0000 Herbowski (2013) suggested recently the Egyptian Imhotep from the 3rd dynasty in Egypt to be the discoverer of cerebrospinal fluid. There are, however, no sources within the first 2000 years after Imhotep suggesting him to be in any way connected with the field of medicine. Over the course of three millennia Imhotep evolves into the sage who besides architecture also masters the arts of medicine, magic, astronomy, and astrology, at the same time as him being transformed from man to demi-God, and finally to a God. The identification of Imhotep as a doctor has thus little to do with facts and it is unlikely that he had anything to do with the Edwin-Smith papyrus from a much later period where CSF is first mentioned. Patric Blomstedt Copyright © 2014 Patric Blomstedt. All rights reserved. Anatomical Considerations of the Suprascapular Nerve in Rotator Cuff Repairs Mon, 03 Mar 2014 09:27:47 +0000 Introduction. When using the double interval slide technique for arthroscopic repair of chronic large or massive rotator cuff tears, the posterior interval release is directed toward the scapular spine until the fat pad that protects the suprascapular nerve is reached. Injury to the suprascapular nerve can occur due to the nerve’s proximity to the operative field. This study aimed to identify safe margins for avoiding injury to the suprascapular nerve. Materials and Methods. For 20 shoulders in ten cadavers, the distance was measured from the suprascapular notch to the glenoid rim, the articular margin of the rotator cuff footprint, and the lateral border of the acromion. Results. From the suprascapular notch, the suprascapular nerve coursed an average of 3.42 cm to the glenoid rim, 5.34 cm to the articular margin of the rotator cuff footprint, and 6.09 cm to the lateral border of the acromion. Conclusions. The results of this study define a safe zone, using anatomic landmarks, to help surgeons avoid iatrogenic injury to the suprascapular nerve when employing the double interval slide technique in arthroscopic repair of the rotator cuff. James A. Tom, Addisu Mesfin, Mitesh P. Shah, Mitra Javandel, Dan J. Lee, Douglas L. Cerynik, and Nirav H. Amin Copyright © 2014 James A. Tom et al. All rights reserved. Quantification of Contralateral Differences of the Scaphoid: A Comparison of Bone Geometry in Three Dimensions Tue, 11 Feb 2014 09:40:29 +0000 The purpose of this study was to accurately quantify contralateral differences of the scaphoid in three-dimensional space to evaluate the feasibility of using the healthy contralateral bone as a reconstruction template in the preoperative planning of complex mal- or nonunions. Three-dimensional surface models of the left and right scaphoids were reconstructed from computed tomography images and compared in 26 individuals. Left-right differences were quantified with respect to volume, surface area, length, and surface-to-surface deviation. The average left-right differences in volume, surface area, and length were 95.4 mm3 (SD 66.2 mm3), 32.7 mm2 (SD 22.9 mm32), and 0.28 mm (SD 0.4 mm), respectively. The average surface-to-surface deviation between the sides was 0.26 mm (SD 0.2 mm). High statistical correlation (Pearson) between the left and the right side was found in all evaluated measures. Claudio Letta, Andreas Schweizer, and Philipp Fürnstahl Copyright © 2014 Claudio Letta et al. All rights reserved. Analysis by Light, Scanning, and Transmission Microscopy of the Intima Synovial of the Temporomandibular Joint of Human Fetuses during the Development Sun, 12 Jan 2014 08:54:15 +0000 Objective. To characterize morphologically and ultrastructurally using light microscopy, the scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy the intima synovial of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) of human fetuses between the 10th and the 38th week of development. Materials and Methods. The TMJ was dissected bilaterally in 37 human fetuses belonging to the Institute of Embryology of the University Complutense of Madrid and of the Federal University of São Paulo. Results. The outcome by light microscopy showed the morphology of the TMJ and that the formation of inferior joint cavity precedes the superior joint cavity and the presence of blood vessels in the synovial. Conclusion. By scanning and transmission electron microscopy we observed the presence of two well-defined cell types in the intima layer of synovial of the TMJ of human fetuses, macrophage-like type A cell and fibroblast-like type B cell, and the presence of the a third cell type, defined by the name of intermediate lining cell in the intima layer of the synovial. Carlos Sabu Alvez, Luis Otavio Carvalho de Moraes, Sergio R. Marques, Roberto C. Tedesco, Leandro J. C. Harb, Jose F. Rodríguez-Vázquez, Jose R. Mérida-Velasco, and Luis Garcia Alonso Copyright © 2014 Carlos Sabu Alvez et al. All rights reserved. Root Anatomy and Root Canal Configuration of Human Permanent Mandibular Premolars: A Systematic Review Sun, 22 Dec 2013 09:03:05 +0000 Introduction. Mandibular premolars have been reported with complex anatomical aberrations, making them one of the most difficult teeth to manage endodontically. Methodology. An exhaustive search was undertaken to identify associated anatomic studies of mandibular premolars through MEDLINE/PubMed database using keywords, and a systematic review of the relevant articles was performed. Chi-square test with Yates correction was performed to assess the statistical significance of any anatomic variations between ethnicities and within populations of the same ethnicity. Documented case reports of variations in mandibular premolar anatomy were also identified and reviewed. Results. Thirty-six anatomic studies were analyzed which included 12,752 first premolars and nineteen studies assessing 6646 second premolars. A significant variation in the number of roots, root canals, and apical foramen was observed between Caucasian, Indian, Mongoloid, and Middle Eastern ethnicities.The most common anatomic variation was C-shaped canals in mandibular first premolars with highest incidence in Mongoloid populations (upto 24%) while dens invaginatus was the most common developmental anomaly. Conclusions. A systematic review of mandibular premolars based on ethnicity and geographic clusters offered enhanced analysis of the prevalence of number of roots and canals, their canal configuration, and other related anatomy. Jojo Kottoor, Denzil Albuquerque, Natanasabapathy Velmurugan, and Jacob Kuruvilla Copyright © 2013 Jojo Kottoor et al. All rights reserved. The Superior Transverse Scapular Ligament in Fetuses Wed, 18 Dec 2013 13:19:20 +0000 Introduction. The superior transverse scapular ligament (STSL) links the margins of the suprascapular notch and converts it into a foramen, through which, the suprascapular nerve and, on some rare occasions, the suprascapular vessels pass. This conversion often results from partial or complete ossification of the STSL and may produce compressive symptoms in the suprascapular nerve. Material and Method. Twenty shoulders from human fetuses were dissected without the aid of optical instruments and, using a digital pachymeter of precision 0.01 millimeters, length measurements and thickness measurements were made. The fetal age was from 21 to 33 weeks of gestation, with a mean of weeks. Results. There was no statistically significant difference in STSL length or any difference in the thicknesses at the medial and lateral extremities between the halves of the body (). However, in the left half of the body, the medial extremity of the STSL was significantly thinner than the lateral extremity (). Conclusion. Anatomical and morphometric details about the STSL were described in human fetuses. These findings, in fetuses, may encourage the pursuit of further studies to understand the morphofunctional role and meaning of this small ligament. José Aderval Aragão, Luiza Neves de Santana Teles, Ana Bárbara de Jesus Chaves, Jéssica Cândida Oliveira Prado, Priscila Soares Pereira, João Gabriel Lima Dantas, and Francisco Prado Reis Copyright © 2013 José Aderval Aragão et al. All rights reserved. Anatomy of the Human Subthalamic Nucleus: A Combined Morphometric Study Sun, 15 Dec 2013 16:22:30 +0000 Purpose. Our purpose was to provide a combined clinically oriented study focused on the detailed anatomy of the human STN, with great respect to its targeting. Methods. For our imaging study, we used cerebral magnetic resonance images (MRIs) from 26 neurosurgical patients and for our anatomic study 32 cerebral hemispheres from 18 normal brains from cadaver donors. We measured and analyzed the STN dimensions (based on its stereotactic coordinates). Results. At stereotactic level , the STN length was 7.7 mm on MRIs and 8.1 mm in anatomic specimens. Its width was 6 mm on MRIs and 6.3 mm in anatomic specimens. The STN was averagely visible in 3.2 transverse MRI slices and its maximum dimension was 8.5 mm. The intercommissural distance was 26.3 mm on MRIs and 27.3 mm in anatomic specimens. We found statistically significant difference of the STN width and length between individuals <60 and ≥60 years old. Conclusion. The identification of the STN limits was easier in anatomic specimens than on MRIs and easier on T2 compared to T1-weighted MRIs sections. STN dimensions appear slightly smaller on MRIs. Younger people have wider and longer STN. Ioannis Mavridis, Efstathios Boviatsis, and Sophia Anagnostopoulou Copyright © 2013 Ioannis Mavridis et al. All rights reserved. The Maze of the Cerebrospinal Fluid Discovery Thu, 12 Dec 2013 11:19:26 +0000 The author analyzes a historical, long, and tortuous way to discover the cerebrospinal fluid. At least 35 physicians and anatomists described in the text have laid the fundamentals of recognition of this biological fluid’s presence. On the basis of crucial anatomical, experimental, and clinical works there are four greatest physicians who should be considered as equal cerebrospinal fluid’s discoverers: Egyptian Imhotep, Venetian Nicolo Massa, Italian Domenico Felice Cotugno, and French François Magendie. Leszek Herbowski Copyright © 2013 Leszek Herbowski. All rights reserved. Scapulothoracic Anatomy and Snapping Scapula Syndrome Thu, 28 Nov 2013 10:35:02 +0000 The scapulothoracic articulation is a sliding junction between the deep aspect of the scapula and thoracic rib cage at the levels of ribs 2 through 7. Motion at this articulation is dynamically stabilized by a variety of muscular attachments, allowing for controlled positioning of the glenoid to assist in glenohumeral joint function. A thorough understanding of the complex anatomic relationships, including the various muscles, and bursa, is critical to the evaluation of patients presenting with scapulothoracic disorders. The snapping scapula syndrome is caused by either osseous lesions or scapulothoracic bursitis and can be difficult to recognize and treat. The purpose of this review is to discuss the anatomy of the scapulothoracic articulation with an emphasis on the pathology associated with snapping scapula syndrome. Rachel M. Frank, Jose Ramirez, Peter N. Chalmers, Frank M. McCormick, and Anthony A. Romeo Copyright © 2013 Rachel M. Frank et al. All rights reserved. The Anatomical Correlation between the Internal Venous Vertebral System and the Cranial Venae Cavae in Rabbit Thu, 21 Nov 2013 11:02:53 +0000 The aim of this study was to describe the possible variations in the connection between the internal venous vertebral system and the cranial vena cava in rabbit using corrosion technique. The study was carried out on 40 adult New Zealand white rabbits. The venous system was injected by using Batson's corrosion casting kit number 17. We found the connection between the internal venous vertebral system and the cranial vena cava by means of the vertebral veins and the right azygos vein. The vertebral vein was present as independent tributary in 36 cases (90%). In the rest of the cases, it was found as being double, being triple, or forming a common trunk with other veins. The azygos vein was present as independent tributary of the cranial vena cava in 39 cases (97.5%). We found also a common trunk formed by the junction of the deep cervical vein, the right vertebral vein, and the azygos vein in one case (2.5%). The azygos vein received 6, 7, 8, or 9 pairs of dorsal intercostal veins. Documenting the anatomical variations in the rabbit will aid in the planning of future experimental studies and determining the clinical relevance on such studies. David Mazensky, Eva Petrovova, and Jan Danko Copyright © 2013 David Mazensky et al. All rights reserved. The Superficial Musculoaponeurotic System of the Face: A Model Explored Mon, 04 Nov 2013 17:29:22 +0000 Regional differences in the integument of the body are explained, at least in part, by differences in fascial arrangements. In the face, where the skin is more mobile due to the action of the underlying facial muscles, fascial organisation is important for support and separation of muscle groups. This study used bequeathed cadaver material to investigate a current model of the SMAS proposed by Macchi et al., the original boundaries of which were explored and extended using both histology and gross dissection. As a clearly identifiable structure spanning the lateral and midface, the SMAS in the specimen supported the model proposed by Macchi et al. The three main findings that support the model were the layered morphological appearance of the SMAS, its progression from fibrous to aponeurotic in a lateral to medial direction, and the enveloping of the zygomaticus musculature. Extension beyond the proposed model into the temporal region was observed, but nasal and forehead regions showed no evidence of SMAS, while its presence in the cervical platysma region remained inconclusive. Fascial and soft tissue variability was considerable within facial regions of the examined specimen, helping to explain the debate around the SMAS in the literature. M. Broughton and G. M. Fyfe Copyright © 2013 M. Broughton and G. M. Fyfe. All rights reserved. Open and Arthroscopic Surgical Anatomy of the Ankle Tue, 29 Oct 2013 10:23:19 +0000 Ankle-related complaints are among the most commonly encountered problems for musculoskeletal clinicians. Ankle pathology is widely variable, including, but not limited to, fractures, deformity, infection, oncologic diseases, neuromuscular conditions, and arthritis. While nonoperative management with activity modification, bracing and/or shoe modifications, and medications is usually indicated as first line of treatment, surgical intervention may become necessary. A thorough understanding of the complex anatomy and biomechanics of the ankle, and in particular, the potential neurovascular structures that may be encountered, is important to reduce complications and obtain good surgical outcomes. The purpose of this review is to discuss the most common open and arthroscopic exposures to the ankle with a focus on surgically relevant anatomy for each approach. Rachel M. Frank, Andrew R. Hsu, Christopher E. Gross, David M. Walton, and Simon Lee Copyright © 2013 Rachel M. Frank et al. All rights reserved. SEM, TEM, and IHC Analysis of the Sinus Node and Its Implications for the Cardiac Conduction System Sun, 27 Oct 2013 19:24:05 +0000 More than 100 years after the discovery of the sinus node (SN) by Keith and Flack, the function and structure of the SN have not been completely established yet. The anatomic architecture of the SN has often been described as devoid of an organized structure; the origin of the sinus impulse is still a matter of debate, and a definite description of the long postulated internodal specialized tract conducting the impulse from the SN to the atrioventricular node (AVN) is still missing. In our previously published study, we proposed a morphologically ordered structure for the SN. As a confirmation of what was presented then, we have added the results of additional observations regarding the structural particularities of the SN. We investigated the morphology of the sinus node in the human hearts of healthy individuals using histochemical, immunohistochemical, optical, and electron microscopy (SEM, TEM). Our results confirmed that the SN presents a previously unseen highly organized architecture. D. Mandrioli, F. Ceci, T. Balbi, C. Ghimenton, and G. Pierini Copyright © 2013 D. Mandrioli et al. All rights reserved. Relationship of Sternal Foramina to Vital Structures of the Chest: A Computed Tomographic Study Thu, 10 Oct 2013 13:27:20 +0000 Sternal foramina are a well-known variant anatomy of the sternum and carry the risk of life-threatening complications like pneumothorax or even pericardial/cardial punction during sternal biopsy or acupuncture. There have been numerous studies numerous studies examinimg prevalence of sternal foramina, but the study of the exact anatomical relationship to intrathoracic structures has received little attention. In a retrospective study of 15 patients with sternal foramina, the topographical anatomy in respect to vital chest organs was examined. In most patients, the directly adjacent structure was the lung (53.3%) or mediastinal fat (33.3%). Only in three patients, the heart was located directly adjacent to a sternal foramen (20%). Theoretically, if the needle is inserted deep enough it will at some point perforate the pericardium in all examined patients. There was no correlation between the patient habitus (i.e., thickness of the subcutaneous fat) and the distance to a vital organ. In this sample, pericardial punction would have not occured if the needle is not inserted deeper than 2.5 cm. Given the preliminary nature of the data, general conclusions of a safe threshold for needle depth should be made with caution. To minimize the risk of hazardous complications, especially with sternal biopsy, preprocedural screening or image guidance is advocated. J. Gossner Copyright © 2013 J. Gossner. All rights reserved. Scanning Electron Microscopic Studies of the Pecten Oculi in the Quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) Wed, 02 Oct 2013 13:11:08 +0000 The main purpose of this study is to extend the microscopic investigations of the pecten oculi in the quail in order to add some information on the unresolved functional anatomy of this unique avian organ. The pecten oculi of the quail was studied by scanning electron microscopy. Eighteen- to-twenty two highly vascularised accordion-like folds were joined apically by a heavily pigmented bridge of tissue, which holds the pecten in a fanlike shape, widest at the base. The structure of the double layered limiting membrane was recorded. The presence of hyalocytes with macrophage-like appearance was illustrated. It is assumed that the pecten oculi of the quail resembles that of the chicken. Illustrated morphological features of this species may add information on the active physiological role of the pecten. But still, the functional significance of this organ is a matter of controversies. Aris F. Pourlis Copyright © 2013 Aris F. Pourlis. All rights reserved. Locomotor Anatomy and Behavior of Patas Monkeys (Erythrocebus patas) with Comparison to Vervet Monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops) Thu, 26 Sep 2013 15:08:09 +0000 Patas monkeys (Erythrocebus patas) living in African savanna woodlands and grassland habitats have a locomotor system that allows them to run fast, presumably to avoid predators. Long fore- and hindlimbs, long foot bones, short toes, and a digitigrade foot posture were proposed as anatomical correlates with speed. In addition to skeletal proportions, soft tissue and whole body proportions are important components of the locomotor system. To further distinguish patas anatomy from other Old World monkeys, a comparative study based on dissection of skin, muscle, and bone from complete individuals of patas and vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops) was undertaken. Analysis reveals that small adjustments in patas skeletal proportions, relative mass of limbs and tail, and specific muscle groups promote efficient sagittal limb motion. The ability to run fast is based on a locomotor system adapted for long distance walking. The patas’ larger home range and longer daily range than those of vervets give them access to highly dispersed, nutritious foods, water, and sleeping trees. Furthermore, patas monkeys have physiological adaptations that enable them to tolerate and dissipate heat. These features all contribute to the distinct adaptation that is the patas monkeys’ basis for survival in grassland and savanna woodland areas. Adrienne L. Zihlman and Carol E. Underwood Copyright © 2013 Adrienne L. Zihlman and Carol E. Underwood. All rights reserved. Erratum to “Adequacy of Semitendinosus Tendon Alone for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Graft and Prediction of Hamstring Graft Size by Evaluating Simple Anthropometric Parameters” Wed, 10 Apr 2013 14:42:10 +0000 S. G. Papastergiou, G. A. Konstantinidis, K. Natsis, E. Papathanasiou, N. Koukoulias, and A. G. Papadopoulos Copyright © 2013 S. G. Papastergiou et al. All rights reserved. The Human Knee: Gross, Microscopic, Surgical, and Radiological Anatomy Mon, 10 Dec 2012 09:14:46 +0000 Konstantinos Natsis, Nikolaos Anastasopoulos, Eleftherios Kellis, Juergen Koebke, Antonia Sioga, and Ioannis Tsitouridis Copyright © 2012 Konstantinos Natsis et al. All rights reserved. Origin and Regenerative Potential of Vertebrate Mechanoreceptor-Associated Stem Cells Tue, 02 Oct 2012 13:29:58 +0000 Meissner corpuscles and Merkel cell neurite complexes are highly specialized mechanoreceptors present in the hairy and glabrous skin, as well as in different types of mucosa. Several reports suggest that after injury, such as after nerve crush, freeze injury, or dissection of the nerve, they are able to regenerate, particularly including reinnervation and repopulation of the mechanoreceptors by Schwann cells. However, little is known about mammalian cells responsible for these regenerative processes. Here we review cellular origin of this plasticity in the light of newly described adult neural crest-derived stem cell populations. We also discuss further potential multipotent stem cell populations with the ability to regenerate disrupted innervation and to functionally recover the mechanoreceptors. These capabilities are discussed as in context to cellularly reprogrammed Schwann cells and tissue resident adult mesenchymal stem cells. Darius Widera, Stefan Hauser, Christian Kaltschmidt, and Barbara Kaltschmidt Copyright © 2012 Darius Widera et al. All rights reserved. Anatomic Variations of the Right Hepatic Duct: Results and Surgical Implications from a Cadaveric Study Sat, 29 Sep 2012 16:12:47 +0000 Purpose. Thorough understanding of biliary anatomy is required when performing surgical interventions in the hepatobiliary system. This study describes the anatomical variations of right bile ducts in terms of branching and drainage patterns, and determines their frequency. Methods. We studied 73 samples of cadaveric material, focusing on the relationship of the right anterior and posterior segmental branches, the way they form the right hepatic duct, and the main variations of their drainage pattern. Results. The anatomy of the right hepatic duct was typical in 65.75% of samples. Ectopic drainage of the right anterior duct into the common hepatic duct was found in 15.07% and triple confluence in 9.59%. Ectopic drainage of the right posterior duct into the common hepatic duct was discovered in 2.74% and ectopic drainage of the right posterior duct into the left hepatic duct in 4.11%. Ectopic drainage of the right anterior duct into the left hepatic ductal system and ectopic drainage of the right posterior duct into the cystic duct was found in 1.37%. Conclusion. The branching pattern of the right hepatic duct was atypical in 34.25% of cases. Thus, knowledge of the anatomical variations of the extrahepatic bile ducts is important in many surgical cases. Theodoros Mariolis-Sapsakos, Vasileios Kalles, Konstantinos Papatheodorou, Nikolaos Goutas, Ioannis Papapanagiotou, Ioannis Flessas, Ioannis Kaklamanos, Demetrios L. Arvanitis, Evangelos Konstantinou, and Markos N. Sgantzos Copyright © 2012 Theodoros Mariolis-Sapsakos et al. All rights reserved.