Anatomy Research International The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2015 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Immunohistological Analysis of the Jun Family and the Signal Transducers and Activators of Transcription in Thymus Wed, 18 Mar 2015 10:04:25 +0000 The Jun family and the signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) are involved in proliferation and apoptosis. Moreover, c-Jun and STAT3 cooperate to regulate apoptosis. Therefore, we used double immunostaining to investigate the immunotopographical distribution of phospho-c-Jun (p-c-Jun), JunB, JunD, p-STAT3, p-STAT5, and p-STAT6 in human thymus. JunD was frequently expressed by thymocytes with higher expression in medullary compared to cortical thymocytes. p-c-Jun was frequently expressed by cortical and medullary thymic epithelial cells (TEC) and Hassall bodies (HB). p-STAT3 was frequently expressed by TEC with higher expression in cortical compared to medullary TEC and HB. p-c-Jun, JunB, p-STAT3, p-STAT5, and p-STAT6 were rarely expressed by thymocytes. JunB and JunD were expressed by rare cortical TEC with higher expression in medullary TEC. p-STAT5 and p-STAT6 were expressed by rare cortical and medullary TEC. Double immunostaining revealed p-c-Jun and JunD expression in rare CD11c positive dendritic cells. Our findings suggest a notable implication of JunD in the physiology of thymocytes and p-c-Jun and p-STAT3 in the physiology of TEC. The diversity of the immunotopographical distribution and the expression levels of p-c-Jun, JunB, JunD, p-STAT3, p-STAT5, and p-STAT6 indicates that they are differentially involved in the differentiation of TEC, thymocytes, and dendritic cells. Alexandra Papoudou-Bai, Alexandra Barbouti, Vassiliki Galani, Kalliopi Stefanaki, and Panagiotis Kanavaros Copyright © 2015 Alexandra Papoudou-Bai et al. All rights reserved. The Quality Assessment of Stored Red Blood Cells Probed Using Atomic-Force Microscopy Sun, 28 Dec 2014 11:43:08 +0000 At the moment the suitability of stored red blood cells (sRBC) for transfusion is checked by routine methods such as haemoglobin estimation and the level of haemolysis. These methods cannot characterize directly the quality of the membranes of sRBC. The aim of this work is to assess the quality of sRBC based on such criteria as the membrane’s stiffness and the size and the form of sRBC. Materials and Methods. We have investigated 5 series of dry cytosmears of the sRBC which had been kept in blood bank in a period from 1 to 35 days. After AFM imaging, in every specimen, 5 RBC were chosen at random; the diameter, the height, and the stiffness were measured on each of them. Results. The present study shows high increase of the mean values of YM and height of RBC after 35 days of storage and decrease of the mean values of their diameter. Conclusion. Statistically significant high increase of the mean values of YM indicates the decrease of the elasticity of the cells in the course of storing of the RBC. This parameter along with the morphological characteristics can be used as criterion for assessment of applicability of the sRBC for blood transfusion. I. M. Lamzin and R. M. Khayrullin Copyright © 2014 I. M. Lamzin and R. M. Khayrullin. All rights reserved. Variability in the Branching Pattern of the Internal Iliac Artery in Indian Population and Its Clinical Importance Mon, 15 Dec 2014 00:10:07 +0000 Internal iliac artery (IIA) is one of the terminal branches of the common iliac artery and is the prime artery of pelvis. The artery has many parietal and visceral branches and hence the variations are frequently noted. The larger branches, namely, the inferior gluteal artery, the superior gluteal artery, and the internal pudendal artery, show sufficient regularity in their patterns of origin to allow typing. The variability of the IIA and its branching pattern were studied by dissecting sixty-eight male pelvic halves (34 right and 34 left) and forty-eight female pelvic halves (24 right and 24 left sides). In significant number of specimens, IIA terminated without dividing into 2 trunks as against the usual description. There was also considerable interchange of branches between the 2 terminal divisions. The patterns of branching noted were grouped as per Adachi’s classification. The incidence was noted to be as follows: type Ia in 60.6%, type Ib in 2.6%, type IIa in 15.8%, and type III in 21%. The other types were not observed in this study. Conclusion. Interventions in the pelvic region must take into account the variability of the IIA and its branches that can modify the expected relations and may lead to undesired hemorrhagic or embolic accidents. Sumathilatha Sakthivelavan, Sharmila Aristotle, Anandarani Sivanandan, Sakthivelavan Sendiladibban, and Christilda Felicia Jebakani Copyright © 2014 Sumathilatha Sakthivelavan et al. All rights reserved. Comparison of Two Methods for the Measurement of Medial and Lateral Metapodial Bones in Karagouniko Sheep (Ovis aries, L. 1758) and Hellenic Goat (Capra hircus, L. 1758) Thu, 30 Oct 2014 00:00:00 +0000 The objective of this study was to compare the metapodial lengths of sheep and goats measured with a caliper with those measured using a 2-dimensional digital method. Complementarily, the lengths of medial and lateral metapodials in these species were compared. The limbs of 30 ewes and 30 goats were used. After preparation, the lateral and medial length of the metacarpals and metatarsals were measured twice with a caliper. Afterwards, each bone was scanned and the same lengths were digitally measured twice using commercial software. Data analysis revealed strong linear relationship between the two methods but the absolute relative deviation of the measurements with the caliper was significantly higher than those with the 2-dimensional method (). All lengths measured with the caliper were significantly higher compared to those measured with the 2-dimensional method (). In goats, the lateral length of both metacarpals and metatarsals was significantly higher than medial length (); in sheep the lateral length was significantly higher compared to the medial one only in metatarsal bones (). In conclusion, the 2-dimensional method is more accurate for the measurement of the metapodials’ length than the caliper and there is asymmetry between the medial and lateral metapodials in these species. Aris Pourlis, Theodoros Chatzis, and Panagiotis Katsoulos Copyright © 2014 Aris Pourlis et al. All rights reserved. Photoelastic and Finite Element Analyses of Occlusal Loads in Mandibular Body Wed, 08 Oct 2014 11:46:15 +0000 This study proposed to evaluate the mandibular biomechanics in the posterior dentition based on experimental and computational analyses. The analyses were performed on a model of human mandible, which was modeled by epoxy resin for photoelastic analysis and by computer-aided design for finite element analysis. To standardize the evaluation, specific areas were determined at the lateral surface of mandibular body. The photoelastic analysis was configured through a vertical load on the first upper molar and fixed support at the ramus of mandible. The same configuration was used in the computer simulation. Force magnitudes of 50, 100, 150, and 200 N were applied to evaluate the bone stress. The stress results presented similar distribution in both analyses, with the more intense stress being at retromolar area and oblique line and alveolar process at molar level. This study presented the similarity of results in the experimental and computational analyses and, thus, showed the high importance of morphology biomechanical characterization at posterior dentition. Ana Cláudia Rossi, Alexandre Rodrigues Freire, Felippe Bevilacqua Prado, Luciana Asprino, Lourenço Correr-Sobrinho, and Paulo Henrique Ferreira Caria Copyright © 2014 Ana Cláudia Rossi et al. All rights reserved. Analysis of Occlusal Vertical Dimension and Mandibular Basal Bone Height in a Nigerian Population Thu, 02 Oct 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Background. The actual basal bone height of the reconstructed mandible is relevant to achieve normal occlusal vertical dimension for the prosthesis fabricated. The purpose of the study was to determine the mean and baseline values of the occlusal vertical dimension and height of the mandibular basal bone in a Nigerian population. Method. Each participant was asked to bring the upper and lower teeth into contact, while the distance between the nasal sill and dimple on the lower lip was measured (OVD). The skin at lower border of the mandible was marked and the distance between this point and the landmark on the lower lip was measured, MBH. Result. 200 subjects were evaluated. Age range was 16–30 years, mean (SD), 21.6 (3.1) years. Males had mean ± (SD) of 42.10 (5.34) mm for OVD and females 39.72 (5.25) mm; acceptable baseline range of OVD for any population will be 34–48 mm (3.4–4.8) cm. All the males had a mean (SD), 30.54 (6.13) mm for MBH, and all the females 29.63 (5.23) mm. Acceptable baseline range of MBH for any population will be 24–37 mm (2.4–3.7) cm. Conclusion. To reconstruct the mandible and still maintain the OVD, heights of bone grafts must not be less than 2 cm or greater than 4 cm. Babatunde O. Akinbami and Prince E. Nsirim Copyright © 2014 Babatunde O. Akinbami and Prince E. Nsirim. All rights reserved. Occurrence of the Retromolar Foramen in Dry Mandibles of South-Eastern Part of India: A Morphological Study with Review of the Literature Mon, 29 Sep 2014 08:13:42 +0000 The retromolar foramen (RMF) is a rare anatomical structure situated in the retromolar fossa behind the third molar tooth. When it is present, the foramen is connected with the mandibular canal and is believed to transmit neurovascular structures that provide accessory source to the mandibular molars and the buccal area. Reports from the literature show that the presence of RMF could pose a challenge in complete blockage of the inferior alveolar nerve during mandibular surgeries. We report the incidence of retromolar foramen from ninety-four dry mandibles of south-eastern part of Karnataka State, India. The foramen was observed in 11 mandibles out of 94 included in the study (11.7%). In three mandibles, the foramen was present bilaterally (3.2%) and in three it was on the left side (3.2%) and in five it was on the right side (5.3%). For the first time, we also measured the dimensions of the retromolar area and distance of the foramen from third molar tooth to understand its risks during the surgical extraction of the lower third molar tooth. A thorough review of the literature has also been done to compare the present findings with the studies reported from the various populations. Bhagath Kumar Potu, Vinod Kumar, Abdel-Halim Salem, and Marwan Abu-Hijleh Copyright © 2014 Bhagath Kumar Potu et al. All rights reserved. Variation in Anatomical Position of Vermiform Appendix among Iranian Population: An Old Issue Which Has Not Lost Its Importance Wed, 10 Sep 2014 07:28:47 +0000 Vermiform appendix has diverse anatomical positions, lengths, and conditions of mesoappendix. Knowing the exact anatomical position of vermiform appendix is important in view of surgeons for on-time diagnosis and management of acute appendicitis. The aim of present study is determination of these characteristics of vermiform appendix among Iranian population. The present study was conducted on 200 bodies, selected from the dead bodies that had been referred to local bureau of legal medicine, Zenjan province, Iran, for medicolegal autopsy since 21 Mar 2010 to 21 Mar 2011. According to the results, the anatomical positions of the appendix were pelvic, subcecal, retroileal, retrocecal, ectopic, and preileal in 55.8%, 19%, 12.5%, 7%, 4.2%, and 1.5% of the bodies, respectively. The mean length of vermiform appendix was 91.2 mm and 80.3 mm in men and women, respectively. Mesoappendix was complete in 79.5% of the bodies. No association was found between sex and anatomical position of vermiform appendix. Anterior anatomical position was the most common position for vermiform appendix. It is inconsistent with most related reports from western countries. It might be possible that some factors, such as race, geographical changes, and dietary habits, play roles in determining the position of vermiform appendix. Ahmad Ghorbani, Mehdi Forouzesh, and Amir Mohammad Kazemifar Copyright © 2014 Ahmad Ghorbani et al. All rights reserved. A Comparative Study of Palatal Rugae Patterns among Igbo and Ikwerre Ethnic Groups of Nigeria: A University of Port Harcourt Study Mon, 08 Sep 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Background. Palatal rugae pattern of an individual is species specific and is said to be as unique as finger print. Aims and Objectives. The aim of this study was to identify and compare the rugae pattern of Igbo and Ikwerre populations in Nigeria for human identification purposes. Materials and Methods. The present study was conducted from random sampling of University of Port Harcourt students. A total number of 140 subjects (70 Igbos and 70 Ikwerres) of age bracket of 18–30 were used. Results. The different shapes of rugae were obviously observed with varying degrees of predominance among the two tribes. The most predominant patterns are wavy and curvy followed by straight. The Igbos were predominantly wavy while the Ikwerres were predominantly of curve and straight patterns. The Igbo males and females had more wavy pattern with percentage values of 51.6% and 59.9% which is significantly higher in proportion () as compared to the Ikwerre males and females with percentage values of 35.6% and 40.6%. On the other hand, Ikwerre males and females proved to be curve dominant with percentage values of 45.2% and 34.4% and this showed significant difference in proportion () as compared to the Igbo males and females with percentage curve values of 27.9% and 26.1%. Conclusion. The result obtained from this study is clear evidence of ethnic differences in relation to sex; hence the incidence of predominance is population dependent. P. C. Ibeachu, B. C. Didia, and A. O. Arigbede Copyright © 2014 P. C. Ibeachu et al. All rights reserved. Microanatomical Study of Embryonic Gonadal Development in Japanese Quail (Coturnix japonica) Wed, 03 Sep 2014 08:57:22 +0000 Gonadal development of quail embryos was examined histologically using histological and histochemical methods. In the present study, quail embryos were studied at various stages of incubation period based on phases of gonadogenesis. Germ cell migration was observed on day 3-4 but gonadal differentiation and gonadal function were observed on day 6–8 and day 11–14, respectively. During germ cell migration, quail primordial germ cells (qPGCs) were successfully detected in both left and right genital ridges as well as the dorsal mesentery by lectin histochemistry. Unexpectedly, qPGCs-like cells were found next to the neural tube by Mallory-AZAN stain. During gonadal differentiation, embryonic sex can be distinguished histologically since day 8 of incubation. Embryonic testis exhibited a thin cortex, whereas embryonic ovary exhibited a thick cortex. Testicular cord formation was found in the medulla of embryonic testes while the lacunae and fat-laden cells were found in the medulla of embryonic ovary during gonadal function. This is the first report on a comparison of phases of gonadogenesis and histochemical study of quail embryonic gonads in both sexes. Sittipon Intarapat and Orawan Satayalai Copyright © 2014 Sittipon Intarapat and Orawan Satayalai. All rights reserved. Anterior Mandibular Lingual Foramina: An In Vivo Investigation Mon, 25 Aug 2014 10:41:26 +0000 In descriptions of surgical procedures in mandible, often there is no mention of an anatomical variance, the genial spinal foramina, where nerves and vessels go through. Aim of this study is to investigate frequency, shape, and dimensions of these foramina. 56 computed tomography dentascans were analyzed with an implant planning software. The considered parameters were frequency, number, position, diameters, and length of canals; the collected data were inserted in a spreadsheet and statistically analyzed; therefore, they were compared with those found in the literature. The measurements agree with the ones found in earlier studies, except for the length of the inferior spinal canals, which resulted lesser than that found in the literature. The frequency of the inferior spinal foramina, the data related to the inferior spinal foramina diameter (cross scan), and the measurements related to the superior spinal foramina diameter (axial scan) resulted to be major compared to those reported in literature. These obtained results are clinically interesting because an implant planning software has been employed, daily used by operators, and that permits in vivo investigations. Furthermore, due to the possibility of hemorrhagic accidents in this mandibular region, these data are particularly interesting for all of the operators who make interventions in this area. Sara Bernardi, Claudio Rastelli, Cinzia Leuter, Roberto Gatto, and Maria Adelaide Continenza Copyright © 2014 Sara Bernardi et al. All rights reserved. Morphometric Analysis of Lateral Masses of Axis Vertebrae in North Indians Sun, 24 Aug 2014 09:24:19 +0000 Background and Objective. The lateral masses of axis have good cancellous bone quality beneath the articular surface of facets that make this area a good site for the insertion of an internal fixation device. Methods. 60 dry axis vertebrae were obtained for anatomic evaluation focused on pedicle, superior and inferior articular facets, and foramen transversarium. Based upon linear and angular parameters the mean, range, and standard deviation were calculated. Results. The mean length, width, and height of the pedicle were 21.61 ± 2.37 mm, 8.82 ± 2.43 mm, and 5.63 ± 2.06 mm. The mean pedicle superior angle and median angle were 23.3 and 32.2 degrees. The mean superior articular facet length, width, and external and internal height were 16.34 ± 1.56 mm, 14.35 ± 1.75 mm, 8.98 ± 1.36 mm, and 4.23 ± 0.81 mm. Depth of vertebral artery was 4.72 ± 0.83 mm. Mean inferior articular facet length and width were 11.13 ± 1.43 mm and 7.89 ± 1.30 mm. The mean foramen transversarium length and width were 5.11 ± 0.91 mm and 5.06 ± 1.23 mm. Conclusions. The study may provide information for the surgeons to determine the safe site of entry and trajectory for the screw implantation and also to avoid injuries to vital structures while operating around axis. Monika Lalit, Sanjay Piplani, J. S. Kullar, and Anupama Mahajan Copyright © 2014 Monika Lalit et al. All rights reserved. Mapping the Articular Contact Area of the Long Head of the Biceps Tendon on the Humeral Head Tue, 19 Aug 2014 00:00:00 +0000 The purpose of this investigation was to calculate the contact surface area of the long head of the biceps (LHB) in neutral position and abduction. We sought to determine whether the LHB articulates with the humeral head in a consistent pattern comparing articular contact area in neutral position and abduction. Eleven fresh frozen matched cadaveric shoulders were analyzed. The path of the biceps tendon on the articular surface of the humeral head and the total articular surface were digitized using a MicronTracker 2 H3-60 three-dimensional optical tracker. Contact surface area was significantly less in abduction than in neutral position with a median ratio of 41% (36%, 47.5%). Ratios of contact area in neutral position to full articular surface area were consistent between left and right shoulders , as were ratios of abduction area to full articular surface area , . The articular contact surface area is significantly greater in neutral position than abduction. The ratios of articular contact surface areas to total humeral articular surface areas have a narrow range and are consistent between left and right shoulders of the same cadaver. Brent J. Morris, Ian R. Byram, Ray A. Lathrop, Warren R. Dunn, and John E. Kuhn Copyright © 2014 Brent J. Morris et al. All rights reserved. Midsagittal Anatomy of Lumbar Lordosis in Adult Egyptians: MRI Study Mon, 18 Aug 2014 06:53:24 +0000 Despite the increasing recognition of the functional and clinical importance of lumbar lordosis, little is known about its description, particularly in Egypt. At the same time, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been introduced as a noninvasive diagnostic technique. The aim of this study was to investigate the anatomy of the lumbar lordosis using midsagittal MRIs. Normal lumbar spine MRIs obtained from 93 individuals (46 males, 47 females; 25–57 years old) were evaluated retrospectively. The lumbar spine curvature and its segments “vertebrae and discs” were described and measured. The lumbar lordosis angle (LLA) was larger in females than in males. Its mean values increased by age. The lumbar height (LH) was longer in males than in females. At the same time, the lumbar breadth (LB) was higher in females than in males. Lumbar index (LI = LB/LH × 100) showed significant gender differences (). Lordosis was formed by wedging of intervertebral discs and bodies of lower lumbar vertebrae. In conclusion, MRI might clearly reveal the anatomy of the lumbar lordosis. Use of LI in association with LLA could be useful in evaluation of lumbar lordosis. Abdelmonem A. Hegazy and Raafat A. Hegazy Copyright © 2014 Abdelmonem A. Hegazy and Raafat A. Hegazy. All rights reserved. Relationship of the Lumbar Lordosis Angle to the Level of Termination of the Conus Medullaris and Thecal Sac Thu, 03 Jul 2014 00:00:00 +0000 The level of termination of the conus medullaris (CM) and thecal sac (TS) is subject to variations. We try to correlate in this study these variations with the lumbar lordosis angle (LLA) using MRI scans. A retrospective study was conducted using available MRI scans of the lumbar spine. The CM level of termination (CMLT) and the TS level of termination (TSLT) were identified according to a vertebral level after dividing it into 3 parts. The LLA was also identified for each individual. Linear regression models were fitted to the data available on 141 individuals. Of these 70 were males and 71 were females. The most common site of CMLT was at the upper third of L1 (32.6%) and that of the TSLT was at the middle third of S2 (29.8%). The mean LLA was 46° (20°–81°). The most proximal CMLT was at the upper third of T12, whereas the most distal one was at the upper third of L2. The most proximal TSLT was at the upper third of S1, whereas the most distal one was at S3-S4 disc space. The CMLT showed a positive correlation with the LLA. In conclusion the CMLT and TSLT may be related to variations of the LLA. C. D. Moussallem, H. El Masri, C. El-Yahchouchi, F. Abou Fakher, and A. Ibrahim Copyright © 2014 C. D. Moussallem et al. All rights reserved. Pterygospinous Bar and Foramen in the Adult Human Skulls of North India: Its Incidence and Clinical Relevance Tue, 20 May 2014 11:01:16 +0000 Study of skulls has attracted the attention of anatomists since ages and sporadic attempts have been made to study skulls from time to time. Talking about the pterygoid processes of sphenoid bone, the irregular posterior border of lateral pterygoid plate usually presents, towards its upper part, a pterygospinous process, from which the pterygospinous ligament extends backwards and laterally to the spine of sphenoid. This ligament sometimes gets ossified as pterygospinous bar and a foramen is then formed, named pterygospinous foramen, for the passage of muscular branches of mandibular nerve. The present study was undertaken to observe the incidence and status of pterygospinous bony bridge and foramen, its variations, and clinical relevance in the adult human skulls of North India. For this purpose, 500 skulls were observed, belonging to the Anthropology Museum of Department of Anatomy, GSVM Medical College, Kanpur. Pterygospinous bars were found to be present in 51 skulls (10.2%), out of which completely ossified pterygospinous bony bridges were present in 20 skulls (4%) while 31 skulls (6.2%) had incompletely ossified pterygospinous ligaments. Such variations are of clinical significance for radiologists, neurologists, maxillofacial and dental surgeons, and anaesthetists, too. Anjoo Yadav, Vinod Kumar, and Richa Niranjan Copyright © 2014 Anjoo Yadav et al. All rights reserved. Sex Determination Using Inion-Opistocranium-Asterion (IOA) Triangle in Nigerians’ Skulls Sun, 18 May 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Background. Determination of sex is an important concern to the forensic anthropologists as it is critical for individual identification. This study has investigated the existence of sexual dimorphism in the dimensions and the area of the IOA triangle. Methods. A total of 100 adult dry skulls, (78 males; 22 females) from departments of anatomy in Nigerian universities were used for this study. Automatic digital calliper was used for the measurement. Coefficient of variation, correlation, linear regression, percentiles, and sexual dimorphism ratio were computed from the IOA triangle measurements. The IOA triangle area was compared between sexes. Results. The male parameters were significantly () higher than female parameters. The left opistocranium-asterion length was and  mm and the right opistocranium-asterion length was and  mm for male and female, respectively. A total area of IOA triangle of 1938.88 mm2 and 1305.68 mm2 for male and female, respectively, was calculated. The left IOA indices were 46.42% and 37.40% in males and females, respectively, while the right IOA indices for males and females were 47.19% and 38.87%, respectively. Conclusion. The anthropometry of inion-opistocranium-asterion IOA triangle can be a guide in gender determination of unknown individuals. C. N. Orish, B. C. Didia, and H. B. Fawehinmi Copyright © 2014 C. N. Orish et al. All rights reserved. Root Canal Morphology of Permanent Maxillary and Mandibular Canines in Indian Population Using Cone Beam Computed Tomography Tue, 06 May 2014 15:56:21 +0000 Aim. To investigate the root canal anatomy of single-rooted permanent maxillary and mandibular canines in an Indian population using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). Methodology. A total of 250 permanent maxillary canines and 250 permanent mandibular canines were selected and scanned using CBCT. The root anatomy of each tooth was evaluated for the following parameters: the pattern of the root canals, anatomic length of the crown and the root, the presence of accessory canals, the shape of the access cavity, the position of the apical foramina, root diameter, and dentin thickness of the root. Results. Majority of the teeth had a Type I canal configuration in both maxillary canines (81.6%) and mandibular canines (79.6%). In maxillary canine the other canal patterns found were Type III (11.6%), Type II (2.8%), Type V (2%), Type XIX (1.2%), and Type IV (0.8%). In mandibular canines the various other canal patterns found were Type III (13.6%), Type II (3.2%), Type V (2%), and Type XIX (1.6%). Apical foramina were laterally positioned in the majority of the teeth, 70.4% and 65.6% in maxillary and mandibular canines, respectively. 12% of the maxillary canines and 12.8% of the mandibular canines had accessory canals. Conclusion. The root canal anatomy of permanent maxillary and mandibular canines varied widely in an Indian population. Nikhita Somalinga Amardeep, Sandhya Raghu, and Velmurugan Natanasabapathy Copyright © 2014 Nikhita Somalinga Amardeep et al. All rights reserved. Morphogenesis of Mammary Glands in Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) Sun, 27 Apr 2014 08:03:05 +0000 The present research was elucidated on the morphogenesis of mammary gland of buffalo during prenatal development. Total of 16 foetuses ranging from 1.2 cm (34 days) to 108 cm CVRL (curved crown rump length) (317 days) were used for study. The study revealed that mammary line was first observed at 1.2 cm CVRL (34 days), mammary hillock at 1.7 cm (37 days), and mammary bud at 2.6 cm CVRL (41 days) foetuses. Epidermal cone was found at 6.7 cm CVRL (58 days) whereas primary and secondary ducts were observed at 7.4 cm CVRL (62 days) and 15 cm CVRL (96 days), respectively. Connective tissue whorls were reported at 18.2 cm CVRL (110 days) and internal elastic lamina and muscle layers at 24.1 cm CVRL (129 days). Lobules were observed at 29.3 cm CVRL (140 days), rosette of furstenberg at 39.5 cm CVRL (163 days), and keratin plug at 45.5 cm CVRL (176 days) foetus. Primordia of sweat and sebaceous glands around hair follicle were seen at 21.2 cm CVRL (122 days) of foetal life. Differentiation of all the skin layers along with cornification was observed at 69 cm (229 days) in group III foetuses. Amit Challana, Anuradha Gupta, Neelam Bansal, and Varinder Uppal Copyright © 2014 Amit Challana et al. All rights reserved. The Thoracic Shape of Hominoids Wed, 09 Apr 2014 08:28:12 +0000 In hominoids, the broad thorax has been assumed to contribute to their dorsal scapular position. However, the dorsoventral diameter of their cranial thorax was found in one study to be longer in hominoids. There are insufficient data on thoracic shape to explain the relationship between broad thorax and dorsal scapular position. The current study presents data on multilevel cross-sectional shape and volume distribution in a range of primates. Biplanar radiographs of intact fluid-preserved cadavers were taken to measure the cross-sectional shape of ten equally spaced levels through the sternum (called decisternal levels) and the relative volume of the nine intervening thoracic segments. It was found that the cranial thorax of hominoids is larger and broader (except in the first two decisternal levels) than that of other primates. The cranial thorax of hominoids has a longer dorsoventral diameter because the increase in dorsoventral diameter caused by the increase in the volume of the cranial thorax overcompensates for the decrease caused by the broadening of the cranial thorax. The larger and broader cranial thorax in hominoids can be explained as a locomotor adaptation for scapular gliding and as a respiratory adaptation for reducing the effects of orthograde posture on ventilation-perfusion inequality. Lap Ki Chan Copyright © 2014 Lap Ki Chan. All rights reserved. Pelvic Incidence: A Predictive Factor for Three-Dimensional Acetabular Orientation—A Preliminary Study Tue, 18 Mar 2014 09:42:41 +0000 Acetabular cup orientation (inclination and anteversion) is a fundamental topic in orthopaedics and depends on pelvis tilt (positional parameter) emphasising the notion of a safe range of pelvis tilt. The hypothesis was that pelvic incidence (morphologic parameter) could yield a more accurate and reliable assessment than pelvis tilt. The aim was to find out a predictive equation of acetabular 3D orientation parameters which were determined by pelvic incidence to include in the model. The second aim was to consider the asymmetry between the right and left acetabulae. Twelve pelvic anatomic specimens were measured with an electromagnetic Fastrak system (Polhemus Society) providing 3D position of anatomical landmarks to allow measurement of acetabular and pelvic parameters. Acetabulum and pelvis data were correlated by a Spearman matrix. A robust linear regression analysis provided prediction of acetabulum axes. The orientation of each acetabulum could be predicted by the incidence. The incidence is correlated with the morphology of acetabula. The asymmetry of the acetabular roof was correlated with pelvic incidence. This study allowed analysis of relationships of acetabular orientation and pelvic incidence. Pelvic incidence (morphologic parameter) could determine the safe range of pelvis tilt (positional parameter) for an individual and not a group. Christophe Boulay, Gérard Bollini, Jean Legaye, Christine Tardieu, Dominique Prat-Pradal, Brigitte Chabrol, Jean-Luc Jouve, Ginette Duval-Beaupère, and Jacques Pélissier Copyright © 2014 Christophe Boulay et al. All rights reserved. Features of Atherosclerosis in the Tunica Adventitia of Coronary and Carotid Arteries in a Black Kenyan Population Mon, 17 Mar 2014 08:00:57 +0000 Introduction. Histologic changes which occur in the tunica adventitia during initiation, progression, and complications of atherosclerosis are seldom reported. This study aimed at describing the features of atherosclerosis in the tunica adventitia of two of the commonly afflicted arteries, namely, left anterior descending coronary and common carotid in black Kenyans. Materials and Methods. Specimens from 108 individuals [76 males and 32 females, mean age 34.6] were processed for paraffin embedding. Seven micron thick sections were stained with Mason’s trichrome and Haematoxylin/Eosin and examined with a light microscope. Results. Features of atherosclerosis were present in the tunica adventitia of 14.8% of left anterior descending arteries and 11.1% of common carotid arteries. Increase in adventitial thickness was associated with increased density of vasa vasora in 8.3% of both arteries. In the left anterior descending and common carotid arteries, 6.5% and 3.7% of cases, respectively, the tunica adventitia thickened without intimal hyperplasia. Conclusion. Features of atherosclerosis occur in the tunica adventitia of coronary and carotid arteries in over 10% of the black Kenyans studied. These features often precede the intimo medial changes. Tunica adventitia should therefore be prioritized in evaluation for atherosclerosis, in individuals at risk. This may enhance early detection and intervention. Julius Ogeng’o, Kevin Ongeti, Moses Obimbo, Beda Olabu, and Philip Mwachaka Copyright © 2014 Julius Ogeng’o et al. All rights reserved. Imhotep and the Discovery of Cerebrospinal Fluid Thu, 13 Mar 2014 12:43:35 +0000 Herbowski (2013) suggested recently the Egyptian Imhotep from the 3rd dynasty in Egypt to be the discoverer of cerebrospinal fluid. There are, however, no sources within the first 2000 years after Imhotep suggesting him to be in any way connected with the field of medicine. Over the course of three millennia Imhotep evolves into the sage who besides architecture also masters the arts of medicine, magic, astronomy, and astrology, at the same time as him being transformed from man to demi-God, and finally to a God. The identification of Imhotep as a doctor has thus little to do with facts and it is unlikely that he had anything to do with the Edwin-Smith papyrus from a much later period where CSF is first mentioned. Patric Blomstedt Copyright © 2014 Patric Blomstedt. All rights reserved. Anatomical Considerations of the Suprascapular Nerve in Rotator Cuff Repairs Mon, 03 Mar 2014 09:27:47 +0000 Introduction. When using the double interval slide technique for arthroscopic repair of chronic large or massive rotator cuff tears, the posterior interval release is directed toward the scapular spine until the fat pad that protects the suprascapular nerve is reached. Injury to the suprascapular nerve can occur due to the nerve’s proximity to the operative field. This study aimed to identify safe margins for avoiding injury to the suprascapular nerve. Materials and Methods. For 20 shoulders in ten cadavers, the distance was measured from the suprascapular notch to the glenoid rim, the articular margin of the rotator cuff footprint, and the lateral border of the acromion. Results. From the suprascapular notch, the suprascapular nerve coursed an average of 3.42 cm to the glenoid rim, 5.34 cm to the articular margin of the rotator cuff footprint, and 6.09 cm to the lateral border of the acromion. Conclusions. The results of this study define a safe zone, using anatomic landmarks, to help surgeons avoid iatrogenic injury to the suprascapular nerve when employing the double interval slide technique in arthroscopic repair of the rotator cuff. James A. Tom, Addisu Mesfin, Mitesh P. Shah, Mitra Javandel, Dan J. Lee, Douglas L. Cerynik, and Nirav H. Amin Copyright © 2014 James A. Tom et al. All rights reserved. Quantification of Contralateral Differences of the Scaphoid: A Comparison of Bone Geometry in Three Dimensions Tue, 11 Feb 2014 09:40:29 +0000 The purpose of this study was to accurately quantify contralateral differences of the scaphoid in three-dimensional space to evaluate the feasibility of using the healthy contralateral bone as a reconstruction template in the preoperative planning of complex mal- or nonunions. Three-dimensional surface models of the left and right scaphoids were reconstructed from computed tomography images and compared in 26 individuals. Left-right differences were quantified with respect to volume, surface area, length, and surface-to-surface deviation. The average left-right differences in volume, surface area, and length were 95.4 mm3 (SD 66.2 mm3), 32.7 mm2 (SD 22.9 mm32), and 0.28 mm (SD 0.4 mm), respectively. The average surface-to-surface deviation between the sides was 0.26 mm (SD 0.2 mm). High statistical correlation (Pearson) between the left and the right side was found in all evaluated measures. Claudio Letta, Andreas Schweizer, and Philipp Fürnstahl Copyright © 2014 Claudio Letta et al. All rights reserved. Analysis by Light, Scanning, and Transmission Microscopy of the Intima Synovial of the Temporomandibular Joint of Human Fetuses during the Development Sun, 12 Jan 2014 08:54:15 +0000 Objective. To characterize morphologically and ultrastructurally using light microscopy, the scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy the intima synovial of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) of human fetuses between the 10th and the 38th week of development. Materials and Methods. The TMJ was dissected bilaterally in 37 human fetuses belonging to the Institute of Embryology of the University Complutense of Madrid and of the Federal University of São Paulo. Results. The outcome by light microscopy showed the morphology of the TMJ and that the formation of inferior joint cavity precedes the superior joint cavity and the presence of blood vessels in the synovial. Conclusion. By scanning and transmission electron microscopy we observed the presence of two well-defined cell types in the intima layer of synovial of the TMJ of human fetuses, macrophage-like type A cell and fibroblast-like type B cell, and the presence of the a third cell type, defined by the name of intermediate lining cell in the intima layer of the synovial. Carlos Sabu Alvez, Luis Otavio Carvalho de Moraes, Sergio R. Marques, Roberto C. Tedesco, Leandro J. C. Harb, Jose F. Rodríguez-Vázquez, Jose R. Mérida-Velasco, and Luis Garcia Alonso Copyright © 2014 Carlos Sabu Alvez et al. All rights reserved. Root Anatomy and Root Canal Configuration of Human Permanent Mandibular Premolars: A Systematic Review Sun, 22 Dec 2013 09:03:05 +0000 Introduction. Mandibular premolars have been reported with complex anatomical aberrations, making them one of the most difficult teeth to manage endodontically. Methodology. An exhaustive search was undertaken to identify associated anatomic studies of mandibular premolars through MEDLINE/PubMed database using keywords, and a systematic review of the relevant articles was performed. Chi-square test with Yates correction was performed to assess the statistical significance of any anatomic variations between ethnicities and within populations of the same ethnicity. Documented case reports of variations in mandibular premolar anatomy were also identified and reviewed. Results. Thirty-six anatomic studies were analyzed which included 12,752 first premolars and nineteen studies assessing 6646 second premolars. A significant variation in the number of roots, root canals, and apical foramen was observed between Caucasian, Indian, Mongoloid, and Middle Eastern ethnicities.The most common anatomic variation was C-shaped canals in mandibular first premolars with highest incidence in Mongoloid populations (upto 24%) while dens invaginatus was the most common developmental anomaly. Conclusions. A systematic review of mandibular premolars based on ethnicity and geographic clusters offered enhanced analysis of the prevalence of number of roots and canals, their canal configuration, and other related anatomy. Jojo Kottoor, Denzil Albuquerque, Natanasabapathy Velmurugan, and Jacob Kuruvilla Copyright © 2013 Jojo Kottoor et al. All rights reserved. The Superior Transverse Scapular Ligament in Fetuses Wed, 18 Dec 2013 13:19:20 +0000 Introduction. The superior transverse scapular ligament (STSL) links the margins of the suprascapular notch and converts it into a foramen, through which, the suprascapular nerve and, on some rare occasions, the suprascapular vessels pass. This conversion often results from partial or complete ossification of the STSL and may produce compressive symptoms in the suprascapular nerve. Material and Method. Twenty shoulders from human fetuses were dissected without the aid of optical instruments and, using a digital pachymeter of precision 0.01 millimeters, length measurements and thickness measurements were made. The fetal age was from 21 to 33 weeks of gestation, with a mean of weeks. Results. There was no statistically significant difference in STSL length or any difference in the thicknesses at the medial and lateral extremities between the halves of the body (). However, in the left half of the body, the medial extremity of the STSL was significantly thinner than the lateral extremity (). Conclusion. Anatomical and morphometric details about the STSL were described in human fetuses. These findings, in fetuses, may encourage the pursuit of further studies to understand the morphofunctional role and meaning of this small ligament. José Aderval Aragão, Luiza Neves de Santana Teles, Ana Bárbara de Jesus Chaves, Jéssica Cândida Oliveira Prado, Priscila Soares Pereira, João Gabriel Lima Dantas, and Francisco Prado Reis Copyright © 2013 José Aderval Aragão et al. All rights reserved. Anatomy of the Human Subthalamic Nucleus: A Combined Morphometric Study Sun, 15 Dec 2013 16:22:30 +0000 Purpose. Our purpose was to provide a combined clinically oriented study focused on the detailed anatomy of the human STN, with great respect to its targeting. Methods. For our imaging study, we used cerebral magnetic resonance images (MRIs) from 26 neurosurgical patients and for our anatomic study 32 cerebral hemispheres from 18 normal brains from cadaver donors. We measured and analyzed the STN dimensions (based on its stereotactic coordinates). Results. At stereotactic level , the STN length was 7.7 mm on MRIs and 8.1 mm in anatomic specimens. Its width was 6 mm on MRIs and 6.3 mm in anatomic specimens. The STN was averagely visible in 3.2 transverse MRI slices and its maximum dimension was 8.5 mm. The intercommissural distance was 26.3 mm on MRIs and 27.3 mm in anatomic specimens. We found statistically significant difference of the STN width and length between individuals <60 and ≥60 years old. Conclusion. The identification of the STN limits was easier in anatomic specimens than on MRIs and easier on T2 compared to T1-weighted MRIs sections. STN dimensions appear slightly smaller on MRIs. Younger people have wider and longer STN. Ioannis Mavridis, Efstathios Boviatsis, and Sophia Anagnostopoulou Copyright © 2013 Ioannis Mavridis et al. All rights reserved. The Maze of the Cerebrospinal Fluid Discovery Thu, 12 Dec 2013 11:19:26 +0000 The author analyzes a historical, long, and tortuous way to discover the cerebrospinal fluid. At least 35 physicians and anatomists described in the text have laid the fundamentals of recognition of this biological fluid’s presence. On the basis of crucial anatomical, experimental, and clinical works there are four greatest physicians who should be considered as equal cerebrospinal fluid’s discoverers: Egyptian Imhotep, Venetian Nicolo Massa, Italian Domenico Felice Cotugno, and French François Magendie. Leszek Herbowski Copyright © 2013 Leszek Herbowski. All rights reserved.