Anatomy Research International The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2015 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Inner Synovial Membrane Footprint of the Anterior Elbow Capsule: An Arthroscopic Boundary Tue, 25 Aug 2015 10:27:51 +0000 Introduction. The purpose of this study is to describe the inner synovial membrane (SM) of the anterior elbow capsule, both qualitatively and quantitatively. Materials and Methods. Twenty-two cadaveric human elbows were dissected and the distal humerus and SM attachments were digitized using a digitizer. The transepicondylar line (TEL) was used as the primary descriptor of various landmarks. The distance between the medial epicondyle and medial SM edge, SM apex overlying the coronoid fossa, the central SM nadir, and the apex of the SM insertion overlying the radial fossa and distance from the lateral epicondyle to lateral SM edge along the TEL were measured and further analyzed. Gender and side-to-side statistical comparisons were calculated. Results. The mean age of the subjects was 80.4 years, with six male and five female cadavers. The SM had a distinctive double arched attachment overlying the radial and coronoid fossae. No gender-based or side-to-side quantitative differences were noted. In 18 out of 22 specimens (81.8%), an infolding extension of the SM was observed overlying the medial aspect of the trochlea. The SM did not coincide with the outer fibrous attachment in any specimen. Conclusion. The humeral footprint of the synovial membrane of the anterior elbow capsule is more complex and not as capacious as commonly understood from the current literature. The synovial membrane nadir between the two anterior fossae may help to explain and hence preempt technical difficulties, a reduction in working arthroscopic volume in inflammatory and posttraumatic pathologies. This knowledge should allow the surgeon to approach this aspect of the anterior elbow compartment space with the confidence that detachment of this synovial attachment, to create working space, does not equate to breaching the capsule. Alternatively, stripping the synovial attachment from the anterior humerus does not constitute an anterior capsular release. Srinath Kamineni, Abdo Bachoura, Koichi Sasaki, Danielle Reilly, Kate N. Harris, Anthony Sinai, and Andrew Deane Copyright © 2015 Srinath Kamineni et al. All rights reserved. Study of Posterior Cerebral Artery in Human Cadaveric Brain Mon, 24 Aug 2015 11:27:06 +0000 Objective. Basilar artery (BA) terminates in right and left posterior cerebral arteries (PCAs). Each PCA supplies respective occipital lobe of the cerebrum. The present study is designed to know the morphology, morphometry, branching pattern, and symmetry of PCA. Methods. The study included 340 PCAs dissected from 170 human cadaveric brains. Results. Morphological variations of P1 segment included, aplasia (2.35%), hypoplasia (5.29%), duplication (2.35%), fenestration (1.17%), and common trunk shared with SCA (1.76%). Morphological variations of origin of P2 segment included direct origin of it from BA (1.17%) and ICA (2.35%). Unusually, two P2 segments, each arising separately from BA and ICA, were observed in 1.17%. Unilateral two P2 segments from CW were found in 0.58%. Morphological variations of course of P2 were duplication (0.58%), fenestration (0.58%), and aneurysm (1.76%). Unilateral P2 either adult or fetal was seen in 4.71%. The group II branching pattern was found to be most common. Asymmetry of P2 was 40%. Morphometry of P2 revealed mean length of 52 mm and mean diameter of 2.7 mm. Conclusion. The present study provides the complete anatomical description of PCA regarding morphology, morphometry, symmetry, and its branching pattern. Awareness of these variations is likely to be useful in cerebrovascular procedures. S. A. Gunnal, M. S. Farooqui, and R. N. Wabale Copyright © 2015 S. A. Gunnal et al. All rights reserved. Retromolar Canal Associated with Age, Side, Sex, Bifid Mandibular Canal, and Accessory Mental Foramen in Panoramic Radiographs of Brazilians Thu, 20 Aug 2015 16:13:57 +0000 Background. The retromolar canal (RMC) is an anatomical variation that can cause complications in dental procedures. Method. The RMC was evaluated according to age, sex, and presence of accessory mandibular canal and accessory mental foramen, on both sides in 500 panoramic radiographs, belonging to individuals at the age of 7 to 20 years. The associations of interest were studied through Fisher’s Exact Test and Pearson’s Chi-Square Test, and the correlation was studied through Pearson’s Correlation Coefficient (r). The significance level used was 5%. Results. The RMC was observed in 44 radiographs (8.8%), and out of those 24 were females. There was no statistically significant association between the RMC and age (; Fisher’s Exact Test), sex (; Pearson’s Chi-Square Test), amount of mandibular canals and mental foramina, on both sides (; Pearson’s Chi-Square Test). There was a significant association between RMC and side, the higher frequency of the canal being on the right side (; Fisher’s Exact Test). Conclusions. Despite the low occurrence of the RMC, its identification and the verification of its dimensions and path are relevant, mainly in cases when anesthetic and surgical procedures can present failures or difficulties. Ticiana Sidorenko de O. Capote, Marcela de Almeida Gonçalves, and Juliana Álvares Duarte Bonini Campos Copyright © 2015 Ticiana Sidorenko de O. Capote et al. All rights reserved. Variations in the Root Form and Root Canal Morphology of Permanent Mandibular First Molars in a Sri Lankan Population Thu, 13 Aug 2015 09:46:49 +0000 The present study was conducted to determine the number of roots and morphology of the root canal system of permanent mandibular first molars (M1) in a Sri Lankan population. Sample of 529 M1 teeth was used. The number of roots was examined and the lengths of the mesial and distal roots were measured to the nearest 0.01 mm. Vacuum injection protocol was used to inject China ink into the root canal system, making it transparent. Root canal morphology was recorded using Vertucci’s classification. Presence of furcation canals, position of lateral canals, intercanal communications, level of bifurcation, and convergence of the root canal system were recorded. M1 showed three roots in 4.1% of the sample. Commonest root canal morphology of the mesial root was type IV and the distal root was type I. The level of bifurcation of the root canals was commonly observed in the cervical one-third of the root while convergence was observed in the apical one-third in both roots. Prevalence of three rooted mandibular first molars is less than 5%. Mesial root showed the most variable canal morphology. Prevalence of furcation canals was 1.5% while that of middle mesial canals was 0.2%. Roshan Peiris, Uthpala Malwatte, Janak Abayakoon, and Anuradha Wettasinghe Copyright © 2015 Roshan Peiris et al. All rights reserved. The Prevalence and Classification of the Cystoduodenal Ligament Wed, 12 Aug 2015 06:49:26 +0000 Variant patterns of peritoneal folds could be formed due to the complex nature of the embryology of the peritoneum and the gastrointestinal tract. When uncommon peritoneal folds are formed, they could influence aberrant formation of surrounding gastrointestinal structures and create spaces that may harbour peritoneal fluids in cases of infection or malignant tumor. One of such variant peritoneal folds is the cystoduodenal ligament which is a doubled peritoneal membrane attaching the gallbladder to the duodenum. Yet no study was found that had reported the frequency of occurrence of the cystoduodenal ligament. The current study determined the prevalence of the cystoduodenal ligament in forty adult cadavers. The ligament was reported in 35% of cases. The ligament was further classified as types I and II. Type I cystoduodenal ligament was attached partially to the gallbladder (neck and proximal part of body) while type II was attached to the entire extent of the gallbladder. Type I occurrence was found in 44% and type II was found in 56% of the occasions of cystoduodenal ligament formation. It is concluded that the cystoduodenal ligament could be commonly found, it possesses important vascular structures, and it could affect the shape of the gallbladder. Surgeons, radiologists, and anatomists should be kept abreast of these findings. J. O. Ashaolu, J. Olayinka, and V. O. Ukwenya Copyright © 2015 J. O. Ashaolu et al. All rights reserved. Binary Logistic Regression Analysis of Foramen Magnum Dimensions for Sex Determination Wed, 05 Aug 2015 08:47:09 +0000 Purpose. The structural integrity of foramen magnum is usually preserved in fire accidents and explosions due to its resistant nature and secluded anatomical position and this study attempts to determine its sexing potential. Methods. The sagittal and transverse diameters and area of foramen magnum of seventy-two skulls (41 male and 31 female) from south Indian population were measured. The analysis was done using Student’s t-test, linear correlation, histogram, Q-Q plot, and Binary Logistic Regression (BLR) to obtain a model for sex determination. The predicted probabilities of BLR were analysed using Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve. Result. BLR analysis and ROC curve revealed that the predictability of the dimensions in sexing the crania was 69.6% for sagittal diameter, 66.4% for transverse diameter, and 70.3% for area of foramen. Conclusion. The sexual dimorphism of foramen magnum dimensions is established. However, due to considerable overlapping of male and female values, it is unwise to singularly rely on the foramen measurements. However, considering the high sex predictability percentage of its dimensions in the present study and the studies preceding it, the foramen measurements can be used to supplement other sexing evidence available so as to precisely ascertain the sex of the skeleton. Venkatesh Gokuldas Kamath, Muhammed Asif, Radhakrishna Shetty, and Ramakrishna Avadhani Copyright © 2015 Venkatesh Gokuldas Kamath et al. All rights reserved. Use of Digital Panoramic Radiographs in the Study of Styloid Process Elongation Tue, 28 Jul 2015 12:20:10 +0000 This work aimed to evaluate the occurrence of suggestive images of styloid process elongation in panoramic radiographs, noting their frequency according to sex, age, and location, as well as measure and classify the types and patterns of calcification of elongated styloid processes. 2,500 panoramic radiographs were evaluated in a Radiology Clinic in Recife, PE, Brazil, performed between 2008 and 2010, with the age ranging from 25 to 80 years old. 560 of the radiographs analyzed fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Of this total, 216 (38.57%) presented suggestive images of the styloid process elongation, 45 (20.8%) belonging to male and 171 (79.2%) to female, and 84.7% were bilateral. After all measurements, mean values of 35.5 mm (left side) and 37.6 mm (right side) were obtained and these differences were statistically significant (). The most common type of stretching found was elongated (type I) with 73.1%, and the pattern of calcification was partially calcified (62.5%). It was found that the elongation of the styloid process is an anatomical variation, which must be taken into account by dentists, and because panoramic radiography is a technique of easy approach and low cost and routine, it can be used to aid in the diagnosis of elongated styloid process. Carla Cabral dos Santos Accioly Lins, Renan Macêdo Cutrim Tavares, and Camila Caroline da Silva Copyright © 2015 Carla Cabral dos Santos Accioly Lins et al. All rights reserved. Anatomical Study of the Ulnar Nerve Variations at High Humeral Level and Their Possible Clinical and Diagnostic Implications Sun, 12 Jul 2015 09:38:45 +0000 Background. Descriptive evaluation of nerve variations plays a pivotal role in the usefulness of clinical or surgical practice, as an anatomical variation often sets a risk of nerve palsy syndrome. Ulnar nerve (UN) is one amongst the major nerves involved in neuropathy. In the present anatomical study, variations related to ulnar nerve have been identified and its potential clinical implications discussed. Materials and Method. We examined 50 upper limb dissected specimens for possible ulnar nerve variations. Careful observation for any aberrant formation and/or communication in relation to UN has been carried out. Results. Four out of 50 limbs (8%) presented with variations related to ulnar nerve. Amongst them, in two cases abnormal communication with neighboring nerve was identified and variation in the formation of UN was noted in remaining two limbs. Conclusion. An unusual relation of UN with its neighboring nerves, thus muscles, and its aberrant formation might jeopardize the normal sensori-motor behavior. Knowledge about anatomical variations of the UN is therefore important for the clinicians in understanding the severity of ulnar nerve neuropathy related complications. Anitha Guru, Naveen Kumar, Swamy Ravindra Shanthakumar, Jyothsna Patil, Satheesha Nayak Badagabettu, Ashwini Aithal Padur, and Venu Madhav Nelluri Copyright © 2015 Anitha Guru et al. All rights reserved. Pes Anserinus Structural Framework and Constituting Tendons Are Grossly Aberrant in Nigerian Population Thu, 09 Jul 2015 12:12:19 +0000 We evaluated the morphological framework of the pes anserinus in both knees of ten Nigerian cadavers and we observed high degree of variability in its morphology and location. The pes anserinus inserted specifically on the superior half of the media border of the tibia, as far inferiorly as 124.44 mm to the tibial tuberosity (prolonged insertion). The insertion was also joined to the part of tibia close to the tibia tuberosity (90%) and to the fascia cruris (10%). The initial insertion point of the pes anserinus was always found at the level of the tibia tuberosity. We found out that accessory bands of sartorius, gracilis, or semitendinosus were part of the pes anserinus in 95% of all occasions studied whereas the combined occurrence of monotendinosus sartorius, gracilis, and semitendinosus tendons was found in only 5% of all occasions. The pes anserinus did not conform to the layered pattern and the tendons of sartorius, gracilis, or semitendinosus were short. The inferior prolongation of the pes anserinus connotes extended surface area of attachment to support the mechanical pull from the hamstring muscles. This information will be useful in precise location and grafting of the pes anserinus. J. O. Ashaolu, T. S. Osinuga, V. O. Ukwenya, E. O. Makinde, and A. J. Adekanmbi Copyright © 2015 J. O. Ashaolu et al. All rights reserved. Artery to Cystic Duct: A Consistent Branch of Cystic Artery Seen in Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy Thu, 09 Jul 2015 11:04:29 +0000 Uncontrolled arterial bleeding during laparoscopic cholecystectomy is a serious problem and may increase the risk of bile duct damage. Therefore, accurate identification of the anatomy of the cystic artery is very important. Cystic artery is notoriously known to have a highly variable branching pattern. We reviewed the anatomy of the cystic artery and its branch to cystic duct as seen through the video laparoscope. A single artery to cystic duct with the classical “H-configuration” was demonstrated in 161 (91.47%) patients. This branch may cause troublesome bleeding during laparoscopic dissection in the hepatobiliary triangle. Careful identification of artery to cystic duct is helpful in the proper dissection of Calot’s triangle as it reduces the chances of hemorrhage and thus may also be helpful in prevention of extrahepatic biliary radical injuries. Arshad Rashid, Majid Mushtaque, Rajandeep Singh Bali, Saima Nazir, Suhail Khuroo, and Sheikh Ishaq Copyright © 2015 Arshad Rashid et al. All rights reserved. Pyramidal Lobe of the Thyroid Gland: Surgical Anatomy in Patients Undergoing Total Thyroidectomy Tue, 07 Jul 2015 11:08:42 +0000 Background. Anatomic variations, the presence of the pyramidal lobe (PL), may impact completeness of thyroidectomy and effect of surgical treatment. Method. This study included 166 patients who underwent total thyroidectomy. The anterior cervical region between the thyroid isthmus and the hyoid bone was dissected during thyroid surgery. The incidence, size, and anatomical features of the PL were established in these patients. Results. The incidence of PL was 65.7%. No gender difference was found for PL incidence. The base of the PL was located at the isthmus in 52.3%, the left lobe in 29.4%, and the right lobe in 18.3% of patients. The mean length of the PL was 22.7 (range, 5–59) mm. The PL was longer than 30 mm in 23% of patients. One-third of the patients with short PL were men whereas women accounted for 80% of patients with long PL. Conclusions. The high incidence indicates that the PL is a common part of the thyroid. The PL generally originates from the isthmus near midline and is of variable length, extending from the isthmus up to the hyoid bone. Considering that the PL is a common structure, the prelaryngeal region should be dissected to achieve the completeness of thyroidectomy. Emin Gurleyik, Gunay Gurleyik, Sami Dogan, Utku Cobek, Fuat Cetin, and Ufuk Onsal Copyright © 2015 Emin Gurleyik et al. All rights reserved. Histology and Morphology of the Brain Subarachnoid Trabeculae Sun, 24 May 2015 14:07:52 +0000 The interface between the brain and the skull consists of three fibrous tissue layers, dura mater, arachnoid, and pia mater, known as the meninges, and strands of collagen tissues connecting the arachnoid to the pia mater, known as trabeculae. The space between the arachnoid and the pia mater is filled with cerebrospinal fluid which stabilizes the shape and position of the brain during head movements or impacts. The histology and architecture of the subarachnoid space trabeculae in the brain are not well established in the literature. The only recognized fact about the trabeculae is that they are made of collagen fibers surrounded by fibroblast cells and they have pillar- and veil-like structures. In this work the histology and the architecture of the brain trabeculae were studied, via a series of in vivo and in vitro experiments using cadaveric and animal tissue. In the cadaveric study fluorescence and bright field microscopy were employed while scanning and transmission electron microscopy were used for the animal studies. The results of this study reveal that the trabeculae are collagen based type I, and their architecture is in the form of tree-shaped rods, pillars, and plates and, in some regions, they have a complex network morphology. Parisa Saboori and Ali Sadegh Copyright © 2015 Parisa Saboori and Ali Sadegh. All rights reserved. Immunohistological Analysis of the Jun Family and the Signal Transducers and Activators of Transcription in Thymus Wed, 18 Mar 2015 10:04:25 +0000 The Jun family and the signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) are involved in proliferation and apoptosis. Moreover, c-Jun and STAT3 cooperate to regulate apoptosis. Therefore, we used double immunostaining to investigate the immunotopographical distribution of phospho-c-Jun (p-c-Jun), JunB, JunD, p-STAT3, p-STAT5, and p-STAT6 in human thymus. JunD was frequently expressed by thymocytes with higher expression in medullary compared to cortical thymocytes. p-c-Jun was frequently expressed by cortical and medullary thymic epithelial cells (TEC) and Hassall bodies (HB). p-STAT3 was frequently expressed by TEC with higher expression in cortical compared to medullary TEC and HB. p-c-Jun, JunB, p-STAT3, p-STAT5, and p-STAT6 were rarely expressed by thymocytes. JunB and JunD were expressed by rare cortical TEC with higher expression in medullary TEC. p-STAT5 and p-STAT6 were expressed by rare cortical and medullary TEC. Double immunostaining revealed p-c-Jun and JunD expression in rare CD11c positive dendritic cells. Our findings suggest a notable implication of JunD in the physiology of thymocytes and p-c-Jun and p-STAT3 in the physiology of TEC. The diversity of the immunotopographical distribution and the expression levels of p-c-Jun, JunB, JunD, p-STAT3, p-STAT5, and p-STAT6 indicates that they are differentially involved in the differentiation of TEC, thymocytes, and dendritic cells. Alexandra Papoudou-Bai, Alexandra Barbouti, Vassiliki Galani, Kalliopi Stefanaki, and Panagiotis Kanavaros Copyright © 2015 Alexandra Papoudou-Bai et al. All rights reserved. The Quality Assessment of Stored Red Blood Cells Probed Using Atomic-Force Microscopy Sun, 28 Dec 2014 11:43:08 +0000 At the moment the suitability of stored red blood cells (sRBC) for transfusion is checked by routine methods such as haemoglobin estimation and the level of haemolysis. These methods cannot characterize directly the quality of the membranes of sRBC. The aim of this work is to assess the quality of sRBC based on such criteria as the membrane’s stiffness and the size and the form of sRBC. Materials and Methods. We have investigated 5 series of dry cytosmears of the sRBC which had been kept in blood bank in a period from 1 to 35 days. After AFM imaging, in every specimen, 5 RBC were chosen at random; the diameter, the height, and the stiffness were measured on each of them. Results. The present study shows high increase of the mean values of YM and height of RBC after 35 days of storage and decrease of the mean values of their diameter. Conclusion. Statistically significant high increase of the mean values of YM indicates the decrease of the elasticity of the cells in the course of storing of the RBC. This parameter along with the morphological characteristics can be used as criterion for assessment of applicability of the sRBC for blood transfusion. I. M. Lamzin and R. M. Khayrullin Copyright © 2014 I. M. Lamzin and R. M. Khayrullin. All rights reserved. Variability in the Branching Pattern of the Internal Iliac Artery in Indian Population and Its Clinical Importance Mon, 15 Dec 2014 00:10:07 +0000 Internal iliac artery (IIA) is one of the terminal branches of the common iliac artery and is the prime artery of pelvis. The artery has many parietal and visceral branches and hence the variations are frequently noted. The larger branches, namely, the inferior gluteal artery, the superior gluteal artery, and the internal pudendal artery, show sufficient regularity in their patterns of origin to allow typing. The variability of the IIA and its branching pattern were studied by dissecting sixty-eight male pelvic halves (34 right and 34 left) and forty-eight female pelvic halves (24 right and 24 left sides). In significant number of specimens, IIA terminated without dividing into 2 trunks as against the usual description. There was also considerable interchange of branches between the 2 terminal divisions. The patterns of branching noted were grouped as per Adachi’s classification. The incidence was noted to be as follows: type Ia in 60.6%, type Ib in 2.6%, type IIa in 15.8%, and type III in 21%. The other types were not observed in this study. Conclusion. Interventions in the pelvic region must take into account the variability of the IIA and its branches that can modify the expected relations and may lead to undesired hemorrhagic or embolic accidents. Sumathilatha Sakthivelavan, Sharmila Aristotle, Anandarani Sivanandan, Sakthivelavan Sendiladibban, and Christilda Felicia Jebakani Copyright © 2014 Sumathilatha Sakthivelavan et al. All rights reserved. Comparison of Two Methods for the Measurement of Medial and Lateral Metapodial Bones in Karagouniko Sheep (Ovis aries, L. 1758) and Hellenic Goat (Capra hircus, L. 1758) Thu, 30 Oct 2014 00:00:00 +0000 The objective of this study was to compare the metapodial lengths of sheep and goats measured with a caliper with those measured using a 2-dimensional digital method. Complementarily, the lengths of medial and lateral metapodials in these species were compared. The limbs of 30 ewes and 30 goats were used. After preparation, the lateral and medial length of the metacarpals and metatarsals were measured twice with a caliper. Afterwards, each bone was scanned and the same lengths were digitally measured twice using commercial software. Data analysis revealed strong linear relationship between the two methods but the absolute relative deviation of the measurements with the caliper was significantly higher than those with the 2-dimensional method (). All lengths measured with the caliper were significantly higher compared to those measured with the 2-dimensional method (). In goats, the lateral length of both metacarpals and metatarsals was significantly higher than medial length (); in sheep the lateral length was significantly higher compared to the medial one only in metatarsal bones (). In conclusion, the 2-dimensional method is more accurate for the measurement of the metapodials’ length than the caliper and there is asymmetry between the medial and lateral metapodials in these species. Aris Pourlis, Theodoros Chatzis, and Panagiotis Katsoulos Copyright © 2014 Aris Pourlis et al. All rights reserved. Photoelastic and Finite Element Analyses of Occlusal Loads in Mandibular Body Wed, 08 Oct 2014 11:46:15 +0000 This study proposed to evaluate the mandibular biomechanics in the posterior dentition based on experimental and computational analyses. The analyses were performed on a model of human mandible, which was modeled by epoxy resin for photoelastic analysis and by computer-aided design for finite element analysis. To standardize the evaluation, specific areas were determined at the lateral surface of mandibular body. The photoelastic analysis was configured through a vertical load on the first upper molar and fixed support at the ramus of mandible. The same configuration was used in the computer simulation. Force magnitudes of 50, 100, 150, and 200 N were applied to evaluate the bone stress. The stress results presented similar distribution in both analyses, with the more intense stress being at retromolar area and oblique line and alveolar process at molar level. This study presented the similarity of results in the experimental and computational analyses and, thus, showed the high importance of morphology biomechanical characterization at posterior dentition. Ana Cláudia Rossi, Alexandre Rodrigues Freire, Felippe Bevilacqua Prado, Luciana Asprino, Lourenço Correr-Sobrinho, and Paulo Henrique Ferreira Caria Copyright © 2014 Ana Cláudia Rossi et al. All rights reserved. Analysis of Occlusal Vertical Dimension and Mandibular Basal Bone Height in a Nigerian Population Thu, 02 Oct 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Background. The actual basal bone height of the reconstructed mandible is relevant to achieve normal occlusal vertical dimension for the prosthesis fabricated. The purpose of the study was to determine the mean and baseline values of the occlusal vertical dimension and height of the mandibular basal bone in a Nigerian population. Method. Each participant was asked to bring the upper and lower teeth into contact, while the distance between the nasal sill and dimple on the lower lip was measured (OVD). The skin at lower border of the mandible was marked and the distance between this point and the landmark on the lower lip was measured, MBH. Result. 200 subjects were evaluated. Age range was 16–30 years, mean (SD), 21.6 (3.1) years. Males had mean ± (SD) of 42.10 (5.34) mm for OVD and females 39.72 (5.25) mm; acceptable baseline range of OVD for any population will be 34–48 mm (3.4–4.8) cm. All the males had a mean (SD), 30.54 (6.13) mm for MBH, and all the females 29.63 (5.23) mm. Acceptable baseline range of MBH for any population will be 24–37 mm (2.4–3.7) cm. Conclusion. To reconstruct the mandible and still maintain the OVD, heights of bone grafts must not be less than 2 cm or greater than 4 cm. Babatunde O. Akinbami and Prince E. Nsirim Copyright © 2014 Babatunde O. Akinbami and Prince E. Nsirim. All rights reserved. Occurrence of the Retromolar Foramen in Dry Mandibles of South-Eastern Part of India: A Morphological Study with Review of the Literature Mon, 29 Sep 2014 08:13:42 +0000 The retromolar foramen (RMF) is a rare anatomical structure situated in the retromolar fossa behind the third molar tooth. When it is present, the foramen is connected with the mandibular canal and is believed to transmit neurovascular structures that provide accessory source to the mandibular molars and the buccal area. Reports from the literature show that the presence of RMF could pose a challenge in complete blockage of the inferior alveolar nerve during mandibular surgeries. We report the incidence of retromolar foramen from ninety-four dry mandibles of south-eastern part of Karnataka State, India. The foramen was observed in 11 mandibles out of 94 included in the study (11.7%). In three mandibles, the foramen was present bilaterally (3.2%) and in three it was on the left side (3.2%) and in five it was on the right side (5.3%). For the first time, we also measured the dimensions of the retromolar area and distance of the foramen from third molar tooth to understand its risks during the surgical extraction of the lower third molar tooth. A thorough review of the literature has also been done to compare the present findings with the studies reported from the various populations. Bhagath Kumar Potu, Vinod Kumar, Abdel-Halim Salem, and Marwan Abu-Hijleh Copyright © 2014 Bhagath Kumar Potu et al. All rights reserved. Variation in Anatomical Position of Vermiform Appendix among Iranian Population: An Old Issue Which Has Not Lost Its Importance Wed, 10 Sep 2014 07:28:47 +0000 Vermiform appendix has diverse anatomical positions, lengths, and conditions of mesoappendix. Knowing the exact anatomical position of vermiform appendix is important in view of surgeons for on-time diagnosis and management of acute appendicitis. The aim of present study is determination of these characteristics of vermiform appendix among Iranian population. The present study was conducted on 200 bodies, selected from the dead bodies that had been referred to local bureau of legal medicine, Zenjan province, Iran, for medicolegal autopsy since 21 Mar 2010 to 21 Mar 2011. According to the results, the anatomical positions of the appendix were pelvic, subcecal, retroileal, retrocecal, ectopic, and preileal in 55.8%, 19%, 12.5%, 7%, 4.2%, and 1.5% of the bodies, respectively. The mean length of vermiform appendix was 91.2 mm and 80.3 mm in men and women, respectively. Mesoappendix was complete in 79.5% of the bodies. No association was found between sex and anatomical position of vermiform appendix. Anterior anatomical position was the most common position for vermiform appendix. It is inconsistent with most related reports from western countries. It might be possible that some factors, such as race, geographical changes, and dietary habits, play roles in determining the position of vermiform appendix. Ahmad Ghorbani, Mehdi Forouzesh, and Amir Mohammad Kazemifar Copyright © 2014 Ahmad Ghorbani et al. All rights reserved. A Comparative Study of Palatal Rugae Patterns among Igbo and Ikwerre Ethnic Groups of Nigeria: A University of Port Harcourt Study Mon, 08 Sep 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Background. Palatal rugae pattern of an individual is species specific and is said to be as unique as finger print. Aims and Objectives. The aim of this study was to identify and compare the rugae pattern of Igbo and Ikwerre populations in Nigeria for human identification purposes. Materials and Methods. The present study was conducted from random sampling of University of Port Harcourt students. A total number of 140 subjects (70 Igbos and 70 Ikwerres) of age bracket of 18–30 were used. Results. The different shapes of rugae were obviously observed with varying degrees of predominance among the two tribes. The most predominant patterns are wavy and curvy followed by straight. The Igbos were predominantly wavy while the Ikwerres were predominantly of curve and straight patterns. The Igbo males and females had more wavy pattern with percentage values of 51.6% and 59.9% which is significantly higher in proportion () as compared to the Ikwerre males and females with percentage values of 35.6% and 40.6%. On the other hand, Ikwerre males and females proved to be curve dominant with percentage values of 45.2% and 34.4% and this showed significant difference in proportion () as compared to the Igbo males and females with percentage curve values of 27.9% and 26.1%. Conclusion. The result obtained from this study is clear evidence of ethnic differences in relation to sex; hence the incidence of predominance is population dependent. P. C. Ibeachu, B. C. Didia, and A. O. Arigbede Copyright © 2014 P. C. Ibeachu et al. All rights reserved. Microanatomical Study of Embryonic Gonadal Development in Japanese Quail (Coturnix japonica) Wed, 03 Sep 2014 08:57:22 +0000 Gonadal development of quail embryos was examined histologically using histological and histochemical methods. In the present study, quail embryos were studied at various stages of incubation period based on phases of gonadogenesis. Germ cell migration was observed on day 3-4 but gonadal differentiation and gonadal function were observed on day 6–8 and day 11–14, respectively. During germ cell migration, quail primordial germ cells (qPGCs) were successfully detected in both left and right genital ridges as well as the dorsal mesentery by lectin histochemistry. Unexpectedly, qPGCs-like cells were found next to the neural tube by Mallory-AZAN stain. During gonadal differentiation, embryonic sex can be distinguished histologically since day 8 of incubation. Embryonic testis exhibited a thin cortex, whereas embryonic ovary exhibited a thick cortex. Testicular cord formation was found in the medulla of embryonic testes while the lacunae and fat-laden cells were found in the medulla of embryonic ovary during gonadal function. This is the first report on a comparison of phases of gonadogenesis and histochemical study of quail embryonic gonads in both sexes. Sittipon Intarapat and Orawan Satayalai Copyright © 2014 Sittipon Intarapat and Orawan Satayalai. All rights reserved. Anterior Mandibular Lingual Foramina: An In Vivo Investigation Mon, 25 Aug 2014 10:41:26 +0000 In descriptions of surgical procedures in mandible, often there is no mention of an anatomical variance, the genial spinal foramina, where nerves and vessels go through. Aim of this study is to investigate frequency, shape, and dimensions of these foramina. 56 computed tomography dentascans were analyzed with an implant planning software. The considered parameters were frequency, number, position, diameters, and length of canals; the collected data were inserted in a spreadsheet and statistically analyzed; therefore, they were compared with those found in the literature. The measurements agree with the ones found in earlier studies, except for the length of the inferior spinal canals, which resulted lesser than that found in the literature. The frequency of the inferior spinal foramina, the data related to the inferior spinal foramina diameter (cross scan), and the measurements related to the superior spinal foramina diameter (axial scan) resulted to be major compared to those reported in literature. These obtained results are clinically interesting because an implant planning software has been employed, daily used by operators, and that permits in vivo investigations. Furthermore, due to the possibility of hemorrhagic accidents in this mandibular region, these data are particularly interesting for all of the operators who make interventions in this area. Sara Bernardi, Claudio Rastelli, Cinzia Leuter, Roberto Gatto, and Maria Adelaide Continenza Copyright © 2014 Sara Bernardi et al. All rights reserved. Morphometric Analysis of Lateral Masses of Axis Vertebrae in North Indians Sun, 24 Aug 2014 09:24:19 +0000 Background and Objective. The lateral masses of axis have good cancellous bone quality beneath the articular surface of facets that make this area a good site for the insertion of an internal fixation device. Methods. 60 dry axis vertebrae were obtained for anatomic evaluation focused on pedicle, superior and inferior articular facets, and foramen transversarium. Based upon linear and angular parameters the mean, range, and standard deviation were calculated. Results. The mean length, width, and height of the pedicle were 21.61 ± 2.37 mm, 8.82 ± 2.43 mm, and 5.63 ± 2.06 mm. The mean pedicle superior angle and median angle were 23.3 and 32.2 degrees. The mean superior articular facet length, width, and external and internal height were 16.34 ± 1.56 mm, 14.35 ± 1.75 mm, 8.98 ± 1.36 mm, and 4.23 ± 0.81 mm. Depth of vertebral artery was 4.72 ± 0.83 mm. Mean inferior articular facet length and width were 11.13 ± 1.43 mm and 7.89 ± 1.30 mm. The mean foramen transversarium length and width were 5.11 ± 0.91 mm and 5.06 ± 1.23 mm. Conclusions. The study may provide information for the surgeons to determine the safe site of entry and trajectory for the screw implantation and also to avoid injuries to vital structures while operating around axis. Monika Lalit, Sanjay Piplani, J. S. Kullar, and Anupama Mahajan Copyright © 2014 Monika Lalit et al. All rights reserved. Mapping the Articular Contact Area of the Long Head of the Biceps Tendon on the Humeral Head Tue, 19 Aug 2014 00:00:00 +0000 The purpose of this investigation was to calculate the contact surface area of the long head of the biceps (LHB) in neutral position and abduction. We sought to determine whether the LHB articulates with the humeral head in a consistent pattern comparing articular contact area in neutral position and abduction. Eleven fresh frozen matched cadaveric shoulders were analyzed. The path of the biceps tendon on the articular surface of the humeral head and the total articular surface were digitized using a MicronTracker 2 H3-60 three-dimensional optical tracker. Contact surface area was significantly less in abduction than in neutral position with a median ratio of 41% (36%, 47.5%). Ratios of contact area in neutral position to full articular surface area were consistent between left and right shoulders , as were ratios of abduction area to full articular surface area , . The articular contact surface area is significantly greater in neutral position than abduction. The ratios of articular contact surface areas to total humeral articular surface areas have a narrow range and are consistent between left and right shoulders of the same cadaver. Brent J. Morris, Ian R. Byram, Ray A. Lathrop, Warren R. Dunn, and John E. Kuhn Copyright © 2014 Brent J. Morris et al. All rights reserved. Midsagittal Anatomy of Lumbar Lordosis in Adult Egyptians: MRI Study Mon, 18 Aug 2014 06:53:24 +0000 Despite the increasing recognition of the functional and clinical importance of lumbar lordosis, little is known about its description, particularly in Egypt. At the same time, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been introduced as a noninvasive diagnostic technique. The aim of this study was to investigate the anatomy of the lumbar lordosis using midsagittal MRIs. Normal lumbar spine MRIs obtained from 93 individuals (46 males, 47 females; 25–57 years old) were evaluated retrospectively. The lumbar spine curvature and its segments “vertebrae and discs” were described and measured. The lumbar lordosis angle (LLA) was larger in females than in males. Its mean values increased by age. The lumbar height (LH) was longer in males than in females. At the same time, the lumbar breadth (LB) was higher in females than in males. Lumbar index (LI = LB/LH × 100) showed significant gender differences (). Lordosis was formed by wedging of intervertebral discs and bodies of lower lumbar vertebrae. In conclusion, MRI might clearly reveal the anatomy of the lumbar lordosis. Use of LI in association with LLA could be useful in evaluation of lumbar lordosis. Abdelmonem A. Hegazy and Raafat A. Hegazy Copyright © 2014 Abdelmonem A. Hegazy and Raafat A. Hegazy. All rights reserved. Relationship of the Lumbar Lordosis Angle to the Level of Termination of the Conus Medullaris and Thecal Sac Thu, 03 Jul 2014 00:00:00 +0000 The level of termination of the conus medullaris (CM) and thecal sac (TS) is subject to variations. We try to correlate in this study these variations with the lumbar lordosis angle (LLA) using MRI scans. A retrospective study was conducted using available MRI scans of the lumbar spine. The CM level of termination (CMLT) and the TS level of termination (TSLT) were identified according to a vertebral level after dividing it into 3 parts. The LLA was also identified for each individual. Linear regression models were fitted to the data available on 141 individuals. Of these 70 were males and 71 were females. The most common site of CMLT was at the upper third of L1 (32.6%) and that of the TSLT was at the middle third of S2 (29.8%). The mean LLA was 46° (20°–81°). The most proximal CMLT was at the upper third of T12, whereas the most distal one was at the upper third of L2. The most proximal TSLT was at the upper third of S1, whereas the most distal one was at S3-S4 disc space. The CMLT showed a positive correlation with the LLA. In conclusion the CMLT and TSLT may be related to variations of the LLA. C. D. Moussallem, H. El Masri, C. El-Yahchouchi, F. Abou Fakher, and A. Ibrahim Copyright © 2014 C. D. Moussallem et al. All rights reserved. Pterygospinous Bar and Foramen in the Adult Human Skulls of North India: Its Incidence and Clinical Relevance Tue, 20 May 2014 11:01:16 +0000 Study of skulls has attracted the attention of anatomists since ages and sporadic attempts have been made to study skulls from time to time. Talking about the pterygoid processes of sphenoid bone, the irregular posterior border of lateral pterygoid plate usually presents, towards its upper part, a pterygospinous process, from which the pterygospinous ligament extends backwards and laterally to the spine of sphenoid. This ligament sometimes gets ossified as pterygospinous bar and a foramen is then formed, named pterygospinous foramen, for the passage of muscular branches of mandibular nerve. The present study was undertaken to observe the incidence and status of pterygospinous bony bridge and foramen, its variations, and clinical relevance in the adult human skulls of North India. For this purpose, 500 skulls were observed, belonging to the Anthropology Museum of Department of Anatomy, GSVM Medical College, Kanpur. Pterygospinous bars were found to be present in 51 skulls (10.2%), out of which completely ossified pterygospinous bony bridges were present in 20 skulls (4%) while 31 skulls (6.2%) had incompletely ossified pterygospinous ligaments. Such variations are of clinical significance for radiologists, neurologists, maxillofacial and dental surgeons, and anaesthetists, too. Anjoo Yadav, Vinod Kumar, and Richa Niranjan Copyright © 2014 Anjoo Yadav et al. All rights reserved. Sex Determination Using Inion-Opistocranium-Asterion (IOA) Triangle in Nigerians’ Skulls Sun, 18 May 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Background. Determination of sex is an important concern to the forensic anthropologists as it is critical for individual identification. This study has investigated the existence of sexual dimorphism in the dimensions and the area of the IOA triangle. Methods. A total of 100 adult dry skulls, (78 males; 22 females) from departments of anatomy in Nigerian universities were used for this study. Automatic digital calliper was used for the measurement. Coefficient of variation, correlation, linear regression, percentiles, and sexual dimorphism ratio were computed from the IOA triangle measurements. The IOA triangle area was compared between sexes. Results. The male parameters were significantly () higher than female parameters. The left opistocranium-asterion length was and  mm and the right opistocranium-asterion length was and  mm for male and female, respectively. A total area of IOA triangle of 1938.88 mm2 and 1305.68 mm2 for male and female, respectively, was calculated. The left IOA indices were 46.42% and 37.40% in males and females, respectively, while the right IOA indices for males and females were 47.19% and 38.87%, respectively. Conclusion. The anthropometry of inion-opistocranium-asterion IOA triangle can be a guide in gender determination of unknown individuals. C. N. Orish, B. C. Didia, and H. B. Fawehinmi Copyright © 2014 C. N. Orish et al. All rights reserved. Root Canal Morphology of Permanent Maxillary and Mandibular Canines in Indian Population Using Cone Beam Computed Tomography Tue, 06 May 2014 15:56:21 +0000 Aim. To investigate the root canal anatomy of single-rooted permanent maxillary and mandibular canines in an Indian population using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). Methodology. A total of 250 permanent maxillary canines and 250 permanent mandibular canines were selected and scanned using CBCT. The root anatomy of each tooth was evaluated for the following parameters: the pattern of the root canals, anatomic length of the crown and the root, the presence of accessory canals, the shape of the access cavity, the position of the apical foramina, root diameter, and dentin thickness of the root. Results. Majority of the teeth had a Type I canal configuration in both maxillary canines (81.6%) and mandibular canines (79.6%). In maxillary canine the other canal patterns found were Type III (11.6%), Type II (2.8%), Type V (2%), Type XIX (1.2%), and Type IV (0.8%). In mandibular canines the various other canal patterns found were Type III (13.6%), Type II (3.2%), Type V (2%), and Type XIX (1.6%). Apical foramina were laterally positioned in the majority of the teeth, 70.4% and 65.6% in maxillary and mandibular canines, respectively. 12% of the maxillary canines and 12.8% of the mandibular canines had accessory canals. Conclusion. The root canal anatomy of permanent maxillary and mandibular canines varied widely in an Indian population. Nikhita Somalinga Amardeep, Sandhya Raghu, and Velmurugan Natanasabapathy Copyright © 2014 Nikhita Somalinga Amardeep et al. All rights reserved.