Anatomy Research International The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2014 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. The Thoracic Shape of Hominoids Wed, 09 Apr 2014 08:28:12 +0000 In hominoids, the broad thorax has been assumed to contribute to their dorsal scapular position. However, the dorsoventral diameter of their cranial thorax was found in one study to be longer in hominoids. There are insufficient data on thoracic shape to explain the relationship between broad thorax and dorsal scapular position. The current study presents data on multilevel cross-sectional shape and volume distribution in a range of primates. Biplanar radiographs of intact fluid-preserved cadavers were taken to measure the cross-sectional shape of ten equally spaced levels through the sternum (called decisternal levels) and the relative volume of the nine intervening thoracic segments. It was found that the cranial thorax of hominoids is larger and broader (except in the first two decisternal levels) than that of other primates. The cranial thorax of hominoids has a longer dorsoventral diameter because the increase in dorsoventral diameter caused by the increase in the volume of the cranial thorax overcompensates for the decrease caused by the broadening of the cranial thorax. The larger and broader cranial thorax in hominoids can be explained as a locomotor adaptation for scapular gliding and as a respiratory adaptation for reducing the effects of orthograde posture on ventilation-perfusion inequality. Lap Ki Chan Copyright © 2014 Lap Ki Chan. All rights reserved. Pelvic Incidence: A Predictive Factor for Three-Dimensional Acetabular Orientation—A Preliminary Study Tue, 18 Mar 2014 09:42:41 +0000 Acetabular cup orientation (inclination and anteversion) is a fundamental topic in orthopaedics and depends on pelvis tilt (positional parameter) emphasising the notion of a safe range of pelvis tilt. The hypothesis was that pelvic incidence (morphologic parameter) could yield a more accurate and reliable assessment than pelvis tilt. The aim was to find out a predictive equation of acetabular 3D orientation parameters which were determined by pelvic incidence to include in the model. The second aim was to consider the asymmetry between the right and left acetabulae. Twelve pelvic anatomic specimens were measured with an electromagnetic Fastrak system (Polhemus Society) providing 3D position of anatomical landmarks to allow measurement of acetabular and pelvic parameters. Acetabulum and pelvis data were correlated by a Spearman matrix. A robust linear regression analysis provided prediction of acetabulum axes. The orientation of each acetabulum could be predicted by the incidence. The incidence is correlated with the morphology of acetabula. The asymmetry of the acetabular roof was correlated with pelvic incidence. This study allowed analysis of relationships of acetabular orientation and pelvic incidence. Pelvic incidence (morphologic parameter) could determine the safe range of pelvis tilt (positional parameter) for an individual and not a group. Christophe Boulay, Gérard Bollini, Jean Legaye, Christine Tardieu, Dominique Prat-Pradal, Brigitte Chabrol, Jean-Luc Jouve, Ginette Duval-Beaupère, and Jacques Pélissier Copyright © 2014 Christophe Boulay et al. All rights reserved. Features of Atherosclerosis in the Tunica Adventitia of Coronary and Carotid Arteries in a Black Kenyan Population Mon, 17 Mar 2014 08:00:57 +0000 Introduction. Histologic changes which occur in the tunica adventitia during initiation, progression, and complications of atherosclerosis are seldom reported. This study aimed at describing the features of atherosclerosis in the tunica adventitia of two of the commonly afflicted arteries, namely, left anterior descending coronary and common carotid in black Kenyans. Materials and Methods. Specimens from 108 individuals [76 males and 32 females, mean age 34.6] were processed for paraffin embedding. Seven micron thick sections were stained with Mason’s trichrome and Haematoxylin/Eosin and examined with a light microscope. Results. Features of atherosclerosis were present in the tunica adventitia of 14.8% of left anterior descending arteries and 11.1% of common carotid arteries. Increase in adventitial thickness was associated with increased density of vasa vasora in 8.3% of both arteries. In the left anterior descending and common carotid arteries, 6.5% and 3.7% of cases, respectively, the tunica adventitia thickened without intimal hyperplasia. Conclusion. Features of atherosclerosis occur in the tunica adventitia of coronary and carotid arteries in over 10% of the black Kenyans studied. These features often precede the intimo medial changes. Tunica adventitia should therefore be prioritized in evaluation for atherosclerosis, in individuals at risk. This may enhance early detection and intervention. Julius Ogeng’o, Kevin Ongeti, Moses Obimbo, Beda Olabu, and Philip Mwachaka Copyright © 2014 Julius Ogeng’o et al. All rights reserved. Imhotep and the Discovery of Cerebrospinal Fluid Thu, 13 Mar 2014 12:43:35 +0000 Herbowski (2013) suggested recently the Egyptian Imhotep from the 3rd dynasty in Egypt to be the discoverer of cerebrospinal fluid. There are, however, no sources within the first 2000 years after Imhotep suggesting him to be in any way connected with the field of medicine. Over the course of three millennia Imhotep evolves into the sage who besides architecture also masters the arts of medicine, magic, astronomy, and astrology, at the same time as him being transformed from man to demi-God, and finally to a God. The identification of Imhotep as a doctor has thus little to do with facts and it is unlikely that he had anything to do with the Edwin-Smith papyrus from a much later period where CSF is first mentioned. Patric Blomstedt Copyright © 2014 Patric Blomstedt. All rights reserved. Anatomical Considerations of the Suprascapular Nerve in Rotator Cuff Repairs Mon, 03 Mar 2014 09:27:47 +0000 Introduction. When using the double interval slide technique for arthroscopic repair of chronic large or massive rotator cuff tears, the posterior interval release is directed toward the scapular spine until the fat pad that protects the suprascapular nerve is reached. Injury to the suprascapular nerve can occur due to the nerve’s proximity to the operative field. This study aimed to identify safe margins for avoiding injury to the suprascapular nerve. Materials and Methods. For 20 shoulders in ten cadavers, the distance was measured from the suprascapular notch to the glenoid rim, the articular margin of the rotator cuff footprint, and the lateral border of the acromion. Results. From the suprascapular notch, the suprascapular nerve coursed an average of 3.42 cm to the glenoid rim, 5.34 cm to the articular margin of the rotator cuff footprint, and 6.09 cm to the lateral border of the acromion. Conclusions. The results of this study define a safe zone, using anatomic landmarks, to help surgeons avoid iatrogenic injury to the suprascapular nerve when employing the double interval slide technique in arthroscopic repair of the rotator cuff. James A. Tom, Addisu Mesfin, Mitesh P. Shah, Mitra Javandel, Dan J. Lee, Douglas L. Cerynik, and Nirav H. Amin Copyright © 2014 James A. Tom et al. All rights reserved. Quantification of Contralateral Differences of the Scaphoid: A Comparison of Bone Geometry in Three Dimensions Tue, 11 Feb 2014 09:40:29 +0000 The purpose of this study was to accurately quantify contralateral differences of the scaphoid in three-dimensional space to evaluate the feasibility of using the healthy contralateral bone as a reconstruction template in the preoperative planning of complex mal- or nonunions. Three-dimensional surface models of the left and right scaphoids were reconstructed from computed tomography images and compared in 26 individuals. Left-right differences were quantified with respect to volume, surface area, length, and surface-to-surface deviation. The average left-right differences in volume, surface area, and length were 95.4 mm3 (SD 66.2 mm3), 32.7 mm2 (SD 22.9 mm32), and 0.28 mm (SD 0.4 mm), respectively. The average surface-to-surface deviation between the sides was 0.26 mm (SD 0.2 mm). High statistical correlation (Pearson) between the left and the right side was found in all evaluated measures. Claudio Letta, Andreas Schweizer, and Philipp Fürnstahl Copyright © 2014 Claudio Letta et al. All rights reserved. Analysis by Light, Scanning, and Transmission Microscopy of the Intima Synovial of the Temporomandibular Joint of Human Fetuses during the Development Sun, 12 Jan 2014 08:54:15 +0000 Objective. To characterize morphologically and ultrastructurally using light microscopy, the scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy the intima synovial of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) of human fetuses between the 10th and the 38th week of development. Materials and Methods. The TMJ was dissected bilaterally in 37 human fetuses belonging to the Institute of Embryology of the University Complutense of Madrid and of the Federal University of São Paulo. Results. The outcome by light microscopy showed the morphology of the TMJ and that the formation of inferior joint cavity precedes the superior joint cavity and the presence of blood vessels in the synovial. Conclusion. By scanning and transmission electron microscopy we observed the presence of two well-defined cell types in the intima layer of synovial of the TMJ of human fetuses, macrophage-like type A cell and fibroblast-like type B cell, and the presence of the a third cell type, defined by the name of intermediate lining cell in the intima layer of the synovial. Carlos Sabu Alvez, Luis Otavio Carvalho de Moraes, Sergio R. Marques, Roberto C. Tedesco, Leandro J. C. Harb, Jose F. Rodríguez-Vázquez, Jose R. Mérida-Velasco, and Luis Garcia Alonso Copyright © 2014 Carlos Sabu Alvez et al. All rights reserved. Root Anatomy and Root Canal Configuration of Human Permanent Mandibular Premolars: A Systematic Review Sun, 22 Dec 2013 09:03:05 +0000 Introduction. Mandibular premolars have been reported with complex anatomical aberrations, making them one of the most difficult teeth to manage endodontically. Methodology. An exhaustive search was undertaken to identify associated anatomic studies of mandibular premolars through MEDLINE/PubMed database using keywords, and a systematic review of the relevant articles was performed. Chi-square test with Yates correction was performed to assess the statistical significance of any anatomic variations between ethnicities and within populations of the same ethnicity. Documented case reports of variations in mandibular premolar anatomy were also identified and reviewed. Results. Thirty-six anatomic studies were analyzed which included 12,752 first premolars and nineteen studies assessing 6646 second premolars. A significant variation in the number of roots, root canals, and apical foramen was observed between Caucasian, Indian, Mongoloid, and Middle Eastern ethnicities.The most common anatomic variation was C-shaped canals in mandibular first premolars with highest incidence in Mongoloid populations (upto 24%) while dens invaginatus was the most common developmental anomaly. Conclusions. A systematic review of mandibular premolars based on ethnicity and geographic clusters offered enhanced analysis of the prevalence of number of roots and canals, their canal configuration, and other related anatomy. Jojo Kottoor, Denzil Albuquerque, Natanasabapathy Velmurugan, and Jacob Kuruvilla Copyright © 2013 Jojo Kottoor et al. All rights reserved. The Superior Transverse Scapular Ligament in Fetuses Wed, 18 Dec 2013 13:19:20 +0000 Introduction. The superior transverse scapular ligament (STSL) links the margins of the suprascapular notch and converts it into a foramen, through which, the suprascapular nerve and, on some rare occasions, the suprascapular vessels pass. This conversion often results from partial or complete ossification of the STSL and may produce compressive symptoms in the suprascapular nerve. Material and Method. Twenty shoulders from human fetuses were dissected without the aid of optical instruments and, using a digital pachymeter of precision 0.01 millimeters, length measurements and thickness measurements were made. The fetal age was from 21 to 33 weeks of gestation, with a mean of weeks. Results. There was no statistically significant difference in STSL length or any difference in the thicknesses at the medial and lateral extremities between the halves of the body (). However, in the left half of the body, the medial extremity of the STSL was significantly thinner than the lateral extremity (). Conclusion. Anatomical and morphometric details about the STSL were described in human fetuses. These findings, in fetuses, may encourage the pursuit of further studies to understand the morphofunctional role and meaning of this small ligament. José Aderval Aragão, Luiza Neves de Santana Teles, Ana Bárbara de Jesus Chaves, Jéssica Cândida Oliveira Prado, Priscila Soares Pereira, João Gabriel Lima Dantas, and Francisco Prado Reis Copyright © 2013 José Aderval Aragão et al. All rights reserved. Anatomy of the Human Subthalamic Nucleus: A Combined Morphometric Study Sun, 15 Dec 2013 16:22:30 +0000 Purpose. Our purpose was to provide a combined clinically oriented study focused on the detailed anatomy of the human STN, with great respect to its targeting. Methods. For our imaging study, we used cerebral magnetic resonance images (MRIs) from 26 neurosurgical patients and for our anatomic study 32 cerebral hemispheres from 18 normal brains from cadaver donors. We measured and analyzed the STN dimensions (based on its stereotactic coordinates). Results. At stereotactic level , the STN length was 7.7 mm on MRIs and 8.1 mm in anatomic specimens. Its width was 6 mm on MRIs and 6.3 mm in anatomic specimens. The STN was averagely visible in 3.2 transverse MRI slices and its maximum dimension was 8.5 mm. The intercommissural distance was 26.3 mm on MRIs and 27.3 mm in anatomic specimens. We found statistically significant difference of the STN width and length between individuals <60 and ≥60 years old. Conclusion. The identification of the STN limits was easier in anatomic specimens than on MRIs and easier on T2 compared to T1-weighted MRIs sections. STN dimensions appear slightly smaller on MRIs. Younger people have wider and longer STN. Ioannis Mavridis, Efstathios Boviatsis, and Sophia Anagnostopoulou Copyright © 2013 Ioannis Mavridis et al. All rights reserved. The Maze of the Cerebrospinal Fluid Discovery Thu, 12 Dec 2013 11:19:26 +0000 The author analyzes a historical, long, and tortuous way to discover the cerebrospinal fluid. At least 35 physicians and anatomists described in the text have laid the fundamentals of recognition of this biological fluid’s presence. On the basis of crucial anatomical, experimental, and clinical works there are four greatest physicians who should be considered as equal cerebrospinal fluid’s discoverers: Egyptian Imhotep, Venetian Nicolo Massa, Italian Domenico Felice Cotugno, and French François Magendie. Leszek Herbowski Copyright © 2013 Leszek Herbowski. All rights reserved. Scapulothoracic Anatomy and Snapping Scapula Syndrome Thu, 28 Nov 2013 10:35:02 +0000 The scapulothoracic articulation is a sliding junction between the deep aspect of the scapula and thoracic rib cage at the levels of ribs 2 through 7. Motion at this articulation is dynamically stabilized by a variety of muscular attachments, allowing for controlled positioning of the glenoid to assist in glenohumeral joint function. A thorough understanding of the complex anatomic relationships, including the various muscles, and bursa, is critical to the evaluation of patients presenting with scapulothoracic disorders. The snapping scapula syndrome is caused by either osseous lesions or scapulothoracic bursitis and can be difficult to recognize and treat. The purpose of this review is to discuss the anatomy of the scapulothoracic articulation with an emphasis on the pathology associated with snapping scapula syndrome. Rachel M. Frank, Jose Ramirez, Peter N. Chalmers, Frank M. McCormick, and Anthony A. Romeo Copyright © 2013 Rachel M. Frank et al. All rights reserved. The Anatomical Correlation between the Internal Venous Vertebral System and the Cranial Venae Cavae in Rabbit Thu, 21 Nov 2013 11:02:53 +0000 The aim of this study was to describe the possible variations in the connection between the internal venous vertebral system and the cranial vena cava in rabbit using corrosion technique. The study was carried out on 40 adult New Zealand white rabbits. The venous system was injected by using Batson's corrosion casting kit number 17. We found the connection between the internal venous vertebral system and the cranial vena cava by means of the vertebral veins and the right azygos vein. The vertebral vein was present as independent tributary in 36 cases (90%). In the rest of the cases, it was found as being double, being triple, or forming a common trunk with other veins. The azygos vein was present as independent tributary of the cranial vena cava in 39 cases (97.5%). We found also a common trunk formed by the junction of the deep cervical vein, the right vertebral vein, and the azygos vein in one case (2.5%). The azygos vein received 6, 7, 8, or 9 pairs of dorsal intercostal veins. Documenting the anatomical variations in the rabbit will aid in the planning of future experimental studies and determining the clinical relevance on such studies. David Mazensky, Eva Petrovova, and Jan Danko Copyright © 2013 David Mazensky et al. All rights reserved. The Superficial Musculoaponeurotic System of the Face: A Model Explored Mon, 04 Nov 2013 17:29:22 +0000 Regional differences in the integument of the body are explained, at least in part, by differences in fascial arrangements. In the face, where the skin is more mobile due to the action of the underlying facial muscles, fascial organisation is important for support and separation of muscle groups. This study used bequeathed cadaver material to investigate a current model of the SMAS proposed by Macchi et al., the original boundaries of which were explored and extended using both histology and gross dissection. As a clearly identifiable structure spanning the lateral and midface, the SMAS in the specimen supported the model proposed by Macchi et al. The three main findings that support the model were the layered morphological appearance of the SMAS, its progression from fibrous to aponeurotic in a lateral to medial direction, and the enveloping of the zygomaticus musculature. Extension beyond the proposed model into the temporal region was observed, but nasal and forehead regions showed no evidence of SMAS, while its presence in the cervical platysma region remained inconclusive. Fascial and soft tissue variability was considerable within facial regions of the examined specimen, helping to explain the debate around the SMAS in the literature. M. Broughton and G. M. Fyfe Copyright © 2013 M. Broughton and G. M. Fyfe. All rights reserved. Open and Arthroscopic Surgical Anatomy of the Ankle Tue, 29 Oct 2013 10:23:19 +0000 Ankle-related complaints are among the most commonly encountered problems for musculoskeletal clinicians. Ankle pathology is widely variable, including, but not limited to, fractures, deformity, infection, oncologic diseases, neuromuscular conditions, and arthritis. While nonoperative management with activity modification, bracing and/or shoe modifications, and medications is usually indicated as first line of treatment, surgical intervention may become necessary. A thorough understanding of the complex anatomy and biomechanics of the ankle, and in particular, the potential neurovascular structures that may be encountered, is important to reduce complications and obtain good surgical outcomes. The purpose of this review is to discuss the most common open and arthroscopic exposures to the ankle with a focus on surgically relevant anatomy for each approach. Rachel M. Frank, Andrew R. Hsu, Christopher E. Gross, David M. Walton, and Simon Lee Copyright © 2013 Rachel M. Frank et al. All rights reserved. SEM, TEM, and IHC Analysis of the Sinus Node and Its Implications for the Cardiac Conduction System Sun, 27 Oct 2013 19:24:05 +0000 More than 100 years after the discovery of the sinus node (SN) by Keith and Flack, the function and structure of the SN have not been completely established yet. The anatomic architecture of the SN has often been described as devoid of an organized structure; the origin of the sinus impulse is still a matter of debate, and a definite description of the long postulated internodal specialized tract conducting the impulse from the SN to the atrioventricular node (AVN) is still missing. In our previously published study, we proposed a morphologically ordered structure for the SN. As a confirmation of what was presented then, we have added the results of additional observations regarding the structural particularities of the SN. We investigated the morphology of the sinus node in the human hearts of healthy individuals using histochemical, immunohistochemical, optical, and electron microscopy (SEM, TEM). Our results confirmed that the SN presents a previously unseen highly organized architecture. D. Mandrioli, F. Ceci, T. Balbi, C. Ghimenton, and G. Pierini Copyright © 2013 D. Mandrioli et al. All rights reserved. Relationship of Sternal Foramina to Vital Structures of the Chest: A Computed Tomographic Study Thu, 10 Oct 2013 13:27:20 +0000 Sternal foramina are a well-known variant anatomy of the sternum and carry the risk of life-threatening complications like pneumothorax or even pericardial/cardial punction during sternal biopsy or acupuncture. There have been numerous studies numerous studies examinimg prevalence of sternal foramina, but the study of the exact anatomical relationship to intrathoracic structures has received little attention. In a retrospective study of 15 patients with sternal foramina, the topographical anatomy in respect to vital chest organs was examined. In most patients, the directly adjacent structure was the lung (53.3%) or mediastinal fat (33.3%). Only in three patients, the heart was located directly adjacent to a sternal foramen (20%). Theoretically, if the needle is inserted deep enough it will at some point perforate the pericardium in all examined patients. There was no correlation between the patient habitus (i.e., thickness of the subcutaneous fat) and the distance to a vital organ. In this sample, pericardial punction would have not occured if the needle is not inserted deeper than 2.5 cm. Given the preliminary nature of the data, general conclusions of a safe threshold for needle depth should be made with caution. To minimize the risk of hazardous complications, especially with sternal biopsy, preprocedural screening or image guidance is advocated. J. Gossner Copyright © 2013 J. Gossner. All rights reserved. Scanning Electron Microscopic Studies of the Pecten Oculi in the Quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) Wed, 02 Oct 2013 13:11:08 +0000 The main purpose of this study is to extend the microscopic investigations of the pecten oculi in the quail in order to add some information on the unresolved functional anatomy of this unique avian organ. The pecten oculi of the quail was studied by scanning electron microscopy. Eighteen- to-twenty two highly vascularised accordion-like folds were joined apically by a heavily pigmented bridge of tissue, which holds the pecten in a fanlike shape, widest at the base. The structure of the double layered limiting membrane was recorded. The presence of hyalocytes with macrophage-like appearance was illustrated. It is assumed that the pecten oculi of the quail resembles that of the chicken. Illustrated morphological features of this species may add information on the active physiological role of the pecten. But still, the functional significance of this organ is a matter of controversies. Aris F. Pourlis Copyright © 2013 Aris F. Pourlis. All rights reserved. Locomotor Anatomy and Behavior of Patas Monkeys (Erythrocebus patas) with Comparison to Vervet Monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops) Thu, 26 Sep 2013 15:08:09 +0000 Patas monkeys (Erythrocebus patas) living in African savanna woodlands and grassland habitats have a locomotor system that allows them to run fast, presumably to avoid predators. Long fore- and hindlimbs, long foot bones, short toes, and a digitigrade foot posture were proposed as anatomical correlates with speed. In addition to skeletal proportions, soft tissue and whole body proportions are important components of the locomotor system. To further distinguish patas anatomy from other Old World monkeys, a comparative study based on dissection of skin, muscle, and bone from complete individuals of patas and vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops) was undertaken. Analysis reveals that small adjustments in patas skeletal proportions, relative mass of limbs and tail, and specific muscle groups promote efficient sagittal limb motion. The ability to run fast is based on a locomotor system adapted for long distance walking. The patas’ larger home range and longer daily range than those of vervets give them access to highly dispersed, nutritious foods, water, and sleeping trees. Furthermore, patas monkeys have physiological adaptations that enable them to tolerate and dissipate heat. These features all contribute to the distinct adaptation that is the patas monkeys’ basis for survival in grassland and savanna woodland areas. Adrienne L. Zihlman and Carol E. Underwood Copyright © 2013 Adrienne L. Zihlman and Carol E. Underwood. All rights reserved. Erratum to “Adequacy of Semitendinosus Tendon Alone for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Graft and Prediction of Hamstring Graft Size by Evaluating Simple Anthropometric Parameters” Wed, 10 Apr 2013 14:42:10 +0000 S. G. Papastergiou, G. A. Konstantinidis, K. Natsis, E. Papathanasiou, N. Koukoulias, and A. G. Papadopoulos Copyright © 2013 S. G. Papastergiou et al. All rights reserved. The Human Knee: Gross, Microscopic, Surgical, and Radiological Anatomy Mon, 10 Dec 2012 09:14:46 +0000 Konstantinos Natsis, Nikolaos Anastasopoulos, Eleftherios Kellis, Juergen Koebke, Antonia Sioga, and Ioannis Tsitouridis Copyright © 2012 Konstantinos Natsis et al. All rights reserved. Origin and Regenerative Potential of Vertebrate Mechanoreceptor-Associated Stem Cells Tue, 02 Oct 2012 13:29:58 +0000 Meissner corpuscles and Merkel cell neurite complexes are highly specialized mechanoreceptors present in the hairy and glabrous skin, as well as in different types of mucosa. Several reports suggest that after injury, such as after nerve crush, freeze injury, or dissection of the nerve, they are able to regenerate, particularly including reinnervation and repopulation of the mechanoreceptors by Schwann cells. However, little is known about mammalian cells responsible for these regenerative processes. Here we review cellular origin of this plasticity in the light of newly described adult neural crest-derived stem cell populations. We also discuss further potential multipotent stem cell populations with the ability to regenerate disrupted innervation and to functionally recover the mechanoreceptors. These capabilities are discussed as in context to cellularly reprogrammed Schwann cells and tissue resident adult mesenchymal stem cells. Darius Widera, Stefan Hauser, Christian Kaltschmidt, and Barbara Kaltschmidt Copyright © 2012 Darius Widera et al. All rights reserved. Anatomic Variations of the Right Hepatic Duct: Results and Surgical Implications from a Cadaveric Study Sat, 29 Sep 2012 16:12:47 +0000 Purpose. Thorough understanding of biliary anatomy is required when performing surgical interventions in the hepatobiliary system. This study describes the anatomical variations of right bile ducts in terms of branching and drainage patterns, and determines their frequency. Methods. We studied 73 samples of cadaveric material, focusing on the relationship of the right anterior and posterior segmental branches, the way they form the right hepatic duct, and the main variations of their drainage pattern. Results. The anatomy of the right hepatic duct was typical in 65.75% of samples. Ectopic drainage of the right anterior duct into the common hepatic duct was found in 15.07% and triple confluence in 9.59%. Ectopic drainage of the right posterior duct into the common hepatic duct was discovered in 2.74% and ectopic drainage of the right posterior duct into the left hepatic duct in 4.11%. Ectopic drainage of the right anterior duct into the left hepatic ductal system and ectopic drainage of the right posterior duct into the cystic duct was found in 1.37%. Conclusion. The branching pattern of the right hepatic duct was atypical in 34.25% of cases. Thus, knowledge of the anatomical variations of the extrahepatic bile ducts is important in many surgical cases. Theodoros Mariolis-Sapsakos, Vasileios Kalles, Konstantinos Papatheodorou, Nikolaos Goutas, Ioannis Papapanagiotou, Ioannis Flessas, Ioannis Kaklamanos, Demetrios L. Arvanitis, Evangelos Konstantinou, and Markos N. Sgantzos Copyright © 2012 Theodoros Mariolis-Sapsakos et al. All rights reserved. Anterior and Posterior Meniscofemoral Ligaments: MRI Evaluation Mon, 17 Sep 2012 10:33:47 +0000 Although meniscofemoral ligaments are distinct anatomic units, their anatomy and function are controversial from an anatomic and radiologic point of view. Five hundred knee MR examinations were retrospectively studied in an effort to demonstrate the incidence and variations regarding sex and age distribution, as well as the anatomy of the meniscofemoral ligament at magnetic resonance imaging. Patients were mostly men, three hundred and twelve, in contrast with women who were fewer, one hundred eighty-eight patients. The mean age of the patients who were included in this study was 46 years. More than half of them were between 20 and 40 years old; one hundred thirty-three patients among 20 to 30 years old and one hundred and one patients among 31 and 40 years old, in total two hundred thirty-four patients. A. Bintoudi, K. Natsis, and I. Tsitouridis Copyright © 2012 A. Bintoudi et al. All rights reserved. Gender and Side-to-Side Differences of Femoral Condyles Morphology: Osteometric Data from 360 Caucasian Dried Femori Thu, 30 Aug 2012 15:47:54 +0000 The purpose of the present study was to conduct direct measurements in a large sample of dried femori in order to record certain morphometric parameters of the femoral condyles and determine whether there are gender and side differences. Three hundred sixty (Greek) Caucasian dried femori (180 left and 180 right), from 192 males and 168 females, were measured using a digital caliper. The mean age was 67.52 years. The mean bicondylar width of the femur was 8.86 cm ± 0.42 cm in men and 7.85 cm ± 0.30 cm in women (𝑃<0.01). The relative values for the medial condylar depth were 6.11 cm ± 0.34 cm and 5.59 cm ± 0.29 cm (𝑃<0.05); for the lateral condylar depth were 6.11 cm ± 0.33 cm and 5.54 cm ± 0.21 cm (𝑃<0.01); for the intercondylar width were 2.20 cm ± 0.18 cm and 1.87 cm ± 0.10 cm (𝑃<0.001); for the intercondylar depth were 2.78 cm ± 0.16 cm and 2.37 cm ± 0.12 cm (𝑃<0.001). No significant side-to-side difference was observed in any parameter. The femoral condyles differences in anatomy between genders might be useful to the design of total knee prostheses. The contralateral healthy side can be safely used for preoperative templating since there were no significant side differences. Ioannis Terzidis, Trifon Totlis, Efthymia Papathanasiou, Aristotelis Sideridis, Konstantinos Vlasis, and Konstantinos Natsis Copyright © 2012 Ioannis Terzidis et al. All rights reserved. Characterization and Quenching of Autofluorescence in Piglet Testis Tissue and Cells Thu, 30 Aug 2012 09:55:26 +0000 Significant intrinsic fluorescence in tissues and in disassociated cells can interfere with fluorescence identification of target cells. The objectives of the present study were (1) to examine an intrinsic fluorescence we observed in both the piglet testis tissue and cells and (2) to test an effective method to block the autofluorescence. We observed that a number of granules within the testis interstitial cells were inherently fluorescent, detectable using epifluorescence microscopy, confocal laser scanning microscopy, and flow cytometry. The emission wavelength of the autofluorescent substance ranged from 425 to 700 nm, a range sufficiently broad that could potentially interfere with fluorescence techniques. When we treated the samples with Sudan Black B for different incubation times, the intrinsic fluorescence was completely masked after treatment for 10–15 min of the testis tissue sections or for 8 min of the testis cells, without compromising specific fluorescence labeling of gonocytes with lectin Dolichos biflorus agglutinin (DBA). We speculate that the lipofuscin or lipofuscin-like pigments within Leydig cell granules were mainly responsible for the observed intrinsic fluorescence in piglet testes. The method described in the present study can facilitate the identification and characterization of piglet gonocytes using fluorescence microscopy. Yanfei Yang and Ali Honaramooz Copyright © 2012 Yanfei Yang and Ali Honaramooz. All rights reserved. Adequacy of Semitendinosus Tendon Alone for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Graft and Prediction of Hamstring Graft Size by Evaluating Simple Anthropometric Parameters Sun, 29 Jul 2012 13:58:06 +0000 Introduction. Preoperative identification of patients with inadequate hamstring grafts for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction is still a subject of interest. Purpose. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the semitendinosus tendon length is adequate for four-strand graft harvested by common technique (without bone plug) and whether there is correlation of gracilis and semitendinosus tendon grafts length and diameter of quadrupled graft with anthropometric parameters. Materials and Methods. In this retrospective study, 61 patients (45 males, 16 females) undergoing ACL reconstruction using four-strand hamstring autograft tendons were included. Results. The length of semitendinosus tendon, harvested by the common technique, was in 21% of our cases inadequate in order to be used alone as a four-strand graft especially in females (43%). There was moderate correlation between semitendinosus and gracilis graft diameter and patient’s height and weight and fair correlation to BMI. We found no statistically important predictor for graft diameter in female patients. Conclusions. The length of semitendinosus tendon, harvested by common technique, is usually inadequate to be used alone as a four-strand graft especially in females. The most reliable predictor seems to be patient’s height in males. In female patients, there is no statistically important predictor. Papastergiou G. Stergios, Konstantinidis A. Georgios, Natsis Konstantinos, Papathanasiou Efthymia, Koukoulias Nikolaos, and Papadopoulos G. Alexandros Copyright © 2012 Papastergiou G. Stergios et al. All rights reserved. Application of Soft Tissue Artifact Compensation Using Displacement Dependency between Anatomical Landmarks and Skin Markers Thu, 19 Jul 2012 10:55:12 +0000 Soft tissue artifact is known to be one of the main sources of errors in motion analysis by means of stereophotogrammetry. Among many approaches to reduce such errors, one is to estimate the position of anatomical landmarks during a motion with joint angle or displacement of skin markers, which is the so-called compensation method of anatomical landmarks. The position of anatomical landmarks was modeled from the data of the so-called dynamic calibration, in which anatomical landmark positions are calibrated in an ad hoc motion. This study aimed to apply the compensation methods with joint angle and skin marker displacement to three lower extremity motions (walking, sit-to-stand/stand-to-sit, and step up/down) in ten healthy males and compare their reliability. To compare the methods, two sets of kinematic variables were calculated using two different marker clusters, and the difference was obtained. Results showed that the compensation method with skin marker displacement had less differences by 30–60% compared to without compensation. In addition, it had significantly less difference in some kinematic variables (7 of 18) by 25–40% compared to the compensation method with joint angle. Taebeum Ryu Copyright © 2012 Taebeum Ryu. All rights reserved. Analysis on the Incidence of the Fibularis Quartus Muscle Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging Mon, 09 Jul 2012 08:18:57 +0000 Objective. Quantify the presence of the fibularis quartus muscle and correlate it with the individual's sex and concomitant presence of the fibularis tertius muscle. Materials and Methods. We evaluated 211 magnetic resonance examinations (43.13% men and 56.87% women) on the ankle and hindfoot, produced between 2009 and 2011. Results. The fourth fibularis muscle was found to be present in 7.62% of the examinations and 75% of these also contained the fibularis tertius muscle. Conclusion. The incidence of the fourth fibularis muscle is variable; moreover, its incidence does not depend on the individual's gender or the presence of the fibularis tertius muscle. Sérgio Ricardo Rios Nascimento, Renata Watanabe Costa, Cristiane Regina Ruiz, and Nader Wafae Copyright © 2012 Sérgio Ricardo Rios Nascimento et al. All rights reserved. Meniscofibular Ligament: Morphology and Functional Significance of a Relatively Unknown Anatomical Structure Thu, 28 Jun 2012 14:17:27 +0000 Purpose. A relatively unknown ligamentous structure of the posterolateral corner of the knee joint, the so-called meniscofibular ligament (MFL), was investigated as regards its macroscopic morphology, its histological features, and its reaction to knee movements. Material and Methods. MFL was exposed on 21 fresh-frozen unpaired knee joints. Its microscopic morphology was examined utilizing for comparison the fibular collateral and the popliteofibular ligament. Results. MFL was encountered in 100% of the specimens as a thin striplike fibrous band extending between the lower border of the lateral meniscus and the head of the fibula. MFL was tense during knee extension and external rotation of the tibia, whereas its histological features were similar to those of fibular collateral and popliteofibular ligament. Discussion. Its precise histological nature is studied as well as its tension alterations during knee movements. The potential functional significance of the MFL with respect to its role in avoidance of lateral meniscus and lateral coronary ligament tears is discussed. Conclusions. MFL presumably provides an additional protection to the lateral meniscus during the last stages of knee extension, as well as to the lateral coronary ligament reducing the possibility of a potential rupture. K. Natsis, G. Paraskevas, N. Anastasopoulos, T. Papamitsou, and A. Sioga Copyright © 2012 K. Natsis et al. All rights reserved.