Advances in Regenerative Medicine http://www.hindawi.com The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2014 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Role of Erythropoietin and Other Growth Factors in Ex Vivo Erythropoiesis Thu, 02 Oct 2014 08:55:14 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/arm/2014/426520/ Erythropoiesis is a vital process governed through various factors. There is extreme unavailability of suitable donor due to rare phenotypic blood groups and other related complications like hemoglobinopathies, polytransfusion patients, and polyimmunization. Looking at the worldwide scarcity of blood, especially in low income countries and the battlefield, mimicking erythropoiesis using ex vivo methods can provide an efficient answer to various problems associated with present donor derived blood supply system. Fortunately, there are many ex vivo erythropoiesis methodologies being developed by various research groups using stem cells as the major source material for large scale blood production. Most of these ex vivo protocols use a cocktail of similar growth factors under overlapping growth conditions. Erythropoietin (EPO) is a key regulator in most ex vivo protocols along with other growth factors such as SCF, IL-3, IGF-1, and Flt-3. Now transfusable units of blood can be produced by using these protocols with their set of own limitations. The present paper focuses on the molecular mechanism and significance of various growth factors in these protocols that shall remain helpful for large scale production. Vimal Kishor Singh, Abhishek Saini, and Ramesh Chandra Copyright © 2014 Vimal Kishor Singh et al. All rights reserved. Application of Nanoscaffolds in Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Based Therapy Tue, 23 Sep 2014 09:19:21 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/arm/2014/369498/ Regenerative medicine is an alternative solution for organ transplantation. Stem cells and nanoscaffolds are two essential components in regenerative medicine. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are considered as primary adult stem cells with high proliferation capacity, wide differentiation potential, and immunosuppression properties which make them unique for regenerative medicine and cell therapy. Scaffolds are engineered nanofibers that provide suitable microenvironment for cell signalling which has a great influence on cell proliferation, differentiation, and biology. Recently, application of scaffolds and MSCs is being utilized in obtaining more homogenous population of MSCs with higher cell proliferation rate and greater differentiation potential, which are crucial factors in regenerative medicine. In this review, the definition, biology, source, characterization, and isolation of MSCs and current report of application of nanofibers in regenerative medicine in different lesions are discussed. Saman Ghoraishizadeh, Afsoon Ghorishizadeh, Peyman Ghoraishizadeh, Nasibeh Daneshvar, and Mohadese Hashem Boroojerdi Copyright © 2014 Saman Ghoraishizadeh et al. All rights reserved.