Table 2: Hemodynamic characteristics in patients with pulmonary hypertension (mod. [8]).

DefinitionCharacteristicsEtiology

PulmonaryPAPm ≥ 25 mmHgall
Hypertension (PH)CO normal or reduced
PAPm ≥ 25 mmHg
PCWP ≤ 15 mmHg
CO normal or reduced
Group 1: Pulmonary artery hypertension (IPAH)
Precapillary PHGroup 3: PH with pulmonary diseases and/or hypoxemia
Group 4: CTEPH
Group 5: PH with unclear or multifactorial mechanisms
PAPm ≥ 25 mmHg
Postcapillary PHPCWP > 15 mmHgGroup 2: PH with left-heart diseases
CO normal or reduced
(a) passiveTPG ≤ 12 mmHg
(b) reactiveTPG > 12 mmHg

PAPm: mean pulmonary arterial pressure; CO: cardiac output; PCWP: pulmonary capillary wedge pressure; TPG: transpulmonary gradient (= PAPm − PCWP).