Table 1: List of published clinical studies on the use of TAP blocks. Single patient case reports have been excluded. (*) 20 patients were randomized to receive TAP block and spinal block with plain bupivacaine, while 20 patients were randomized to receive TAP block, bupivacaine spinal block, and intrathecal morphine. (**) Volume includes some local anesthetic used to perform ilioinguinal block in conjunction with TAP block. US-guided: ultrasound-guided. L-bupivacaine: Levobupivacaine.

ReferenceStudy sampleLocal anestheticBlock operatorSurgical procedureOutcome

Sforza et al., 2011 [21]14 cases
14 controls
10 mL/side of 0.5% bupivacaine with 10 mL/side lidocaine + 1 : 200,000 epinephrineSurgical teamAbdominoplastySuperior analgesia compared to IV/PO medications
Kadam and Moran 2011 [22]15 cases
15 controls
8 mL/hr/side (continuous bilateral catheters) of 0.2% ropivacaineAnesthesia teamVariety of upper and/or lower abdominal surgeryNoninferior outcome compared to epidural analgesia
Hivelin et al., 2011 [23]15 cases
15 controls
1.5 mg/kg/side of 0.475% ropivacaineSurgical teamBreast reconstruction with deep inferior epigastric perforator flapSuperior analgesia compared to IV/PO medications
McMorrow et al.,
2011 [24]
40 cases
40 controls*
1 mg/kg/side of 0.375% bupivacaineAnesthesia teamC-sectionInferior analgesia compared to intrathecal morphine
Mei et al.,
2011 [25]
4 cases20 mL/side** of 0.5% ropivacaineAnesthesia team (US-guided)C-sectionSuperior analgesia compared to local infiltration
Bharti et al., 2011 [17]20 cases
20 controls
20 mL/side of 0.25% bupivacaineSurgical teamColorectal surgerySuperior analgesia compared to IV/PO medications
Børglum et al. 2011 [15]25 cases30 mL/side of 0.25% bupivacaineAnesthesia team (US-guided)Various upper and/or lower abdominal surgerySignificant reduction in pain and anticipated need for IV/PO analgesics
Niraj et al.,
2011 [26]
29 cases
33 controls
1 mg/kg/side/8 hr (intermittent dosing through bilateral catheters) of 0.375% bupivacaineAnesthesia team (US-guided)Open hepatobiliary or renal surgeryNoninferior outcome compared to epidural analgesia
Aveline et al., 2011 [27]134 cases
139 controls
1.5 mg/kg (unilateral block) of 0.5% L-bupivacaineAnesthesia team (US-guided)Open inguinal hernia repairSuperior analgesia compared to landmark-based ilioinguinal/iliohypogastric nerve block
Owen et al.,
2011 [18]
16 cases
18 controls
20 mL/side of 0.25% bupivacaineSurgical teamC-sectionSuperior analgesia compared to IV/PO medications
Gravante et al., 2011 [28]51 cases1 mg/kg/side of 0.5% bupivacaineSurgical teamAbdominoplastySuperior analgesia compared to IV/PO medications
Allcock et al., 2010 [29]2 cases20 mL/side bolus with 0.5% bupivacaine + 1 : 400,000 epinephrine followed by 8 mL/hr bilateral continuous infusion of 0.125% bupivacaineAnesthesia team (US-guided)Major thorax/abdominal traumaSuperior outcomes compared to expected results with IV/PO medications
Baaj et al.,
2010 [30]
20 cases
20 controls
20 mL/side of 0.25% bupivacaineAnesthesia team (US-guided)C-sectionSuperior analgesia compared to IV/PO medications
Heil et al.,
2010 [31]
3 cases30 mL unilateral bolus of 1.5% mepivacaine followed by 8 mL/hr continuous unilateral infusion of 0.2% ropivacaineAnesthesia team (US-guided)Open inguinal hernia repairSuperior outcome compared to anticipated results with IV/PO medications
Chiono et al., 2010 [32]33 cases15 mL (unilateral block) of 0.33% ropivacaineAnesthesia team (US-guided)Iliac crest bone graftSuperior outcome compared to anticipated results with IV/PO medications
Araco et al.,
2010 [19]
34 cases
41 controls
1 mg/kg/side of 0.5% bupivacaineSurgical teamAbdominoplastySuperior analgesia compared to IV/PO medications
Griffiths et al., 2010 [33]32 cases
33 controls
15 mL/side of 0.5% ropivacaineAnesthesia team (US-guided)Gynecological malignancy surgeryNo benefit in analgesia compared to IV/PO medications
Lee et al.,
2010 [34]
50 cases20 mL of 1% ropivacaine for unilateral blocks and 20 mL/side of 0.5% ropivacaine for bilateral blocksAnesthesia team (US-guided)Dermatomal coverage of subcostal versus posterior approachMost cephalad dermatome of T8 by subcostal approach versus T10 by posterior approach
Kanazi et al., 2010 [35]29 cases
28 controls
20 mL/side of 0.375% bupivacaine + 1 : 200,000 epinephrineAnesthesia team (US-guided)C-sectionInferior analgesia compared to intrathecal morphine
Mukhtar and Khattak 2010 [36]10 cases
10 controls
20 mL (unilateral block) of 0.5% bupivacaineAnesthesia teamRenal transplantSuperior analgesia compared to IV/PO medications
Conaghan
et al., 2010
[37]
40 cases
34 controls
20 mL/side of 0.25% L-bupivacaineAnesthesia team (US-guided)Laparoscopic colorectal surgerySuperior analgesia compared to IV/PO medications
Araco et al.,
2010 [38]
24 cases1 mg/kg/side of 0.5% bupivacaineSurgical teamAbdominoplastySuperior outcome compared to anticipated results with IV/PO medications
Asensio-Samper et al., 2010 [39]2 cases20 mL (unilateral block) of 0.5% ropivacaineAnesthesia team (US-guided)Morphine pump implantationSuperior outcome compared to anticipated results with IV/PO medications
Costello et al., 2009 [40]47 cases
49 controls
20 mL/side of 0.375 RopivacaineAnesthesia teamC-sectionNoninferior outcome compared to intrathecal morphine
Jankovic et al., 2009 [41]7 cases
35 controls
20 mL unilateral bolus of 0.375% L-bupivacaine followed by 10 mL/hr continuous unilateral 0.15% Bupivacaine infusionSurgical teamRenal transplantSuperior outcome compared to IV/PO medications
Niraj et al.,
2009 [42]
3 cases20 mL/side/12 hr of 0.5% or 0.375% bupivacaine for bilateral catheters and 25 mL/12 hr of 0.5% bupivacaine for unilateral catheterAnesthesia team (US-guided)Upper and/or lower abdominal surgeriesSuperior outcome compared to anticipated results with IV/PO medications
Belavy et al., 2009 [43]23 cases
24 controls
20 mL/side of 0.5% ropivacaineAnesthesia team (US-guided)C-sectionSuperior outcome compared to IV/PO medications
Niraj et al.,
2009 [44]
3 cases1 mg/kg/side of 0.375% bupivacaineAnesthesia team (US-guided)Upper abdominal surgerySuperior outcome compared to anticipated results with IV/PO medications
Niraj et al.,
2009 [45]
26 cases
26 controls
20 mL (unilateral block) of 0.5% bupivacaineAnesthesia team (US-guided)Open appendectomySuperior outcome compared to IV/PO medications
El-Dawlatly et al.,
2009 [46]
21 cases
21 controls
15 mL/side of 0.5% bupivacaineAnesthesia team (US-guided)Laparoscopic cholecystectomySuperior outcome compared to IV/PO medications
Carney et al., 2008 [47]24 cases
26 controls
1.5 mg/kg (max 20 mL)/side of 0.75% ropivacaineAnesthesia teamTotal abdominal hysterectomySuperior outcome compared to IV/PO medications
McDonnell
et al., 2008 [48]
25 cases
25 controls
1.5 mg/kg (max 20 mL)/side of 0.75% ropivacaineAnesthesia teamC-sectionSuperior outcome compared to IV/PO medications
McDonnell
et al., 2007 [12]
16 cases
16 controls
20 mL/side of 0.375% L-bupivacaineAnesthesia teamBowel resectionSuperior outcome compared to IV/PO medications
O’Donnell
2006 [8]
12 cases20 mL/side of 0.375% bupivacaineAnesthesia teamOpen retropubic prostatectomySuperior outcome compared to anticipated results with IV/PO medications