Table 1: Changes of hemodynamics, bupivacaine concentration and QRS duration in the control and insulin groups.

GroupBaselineCVC5 min10 min15 min20 min25 min30 min

HR (/min)Control
Insulin

MAP (mmHg)Control
Insulin 36±758±15

CPP (mmHg)Control
Insulin

Bupivacaine (ug/dL)Control
Insulin

QRS (msec)Control
Insulin †,*

Values are mean ± SD.
CVC: cardiovascular collapse; HR: heart rate; MAP: mean arterial pressure; CPP: coronary perfusion pressure.
* versus control; versus baseline.