Anesthesiology Research and Practice The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2016 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. The Relationship of the Subclavius Muscle with Relevance to Venous Cannulation below the Clavicle Sun, 07 Feb 2016 14:21:46 +0000 Introduction. The catheter “pinch-off syndrome” has been described to be secondary to crimping of the catheter between the clavicle and the first rib, as well as entrapment of the catheter at the site of penetration of the subclavius muscle. The lateral insertion technique has been recommended to prevent catheter pinch-off, but it is unknown if this technique can prevent entrapment by the subclavius muscle. We undertook this study to evaluate the anatomical relationship of the subclavius muscle and the subclavian vein. Methods. Twenty-eight adult cadavers were studied on both right and left sides. The adherence between the subclavian vein and subclavius muscle was subjectively assessed and the distance between the two structures was measured in mm. Results. The subclavius muscle and subclavian vein were tightly adherent in 72% of specimens, partly adherent in 14% with a mean distance of 4.5 mm and loosely connected in 14% with a mean distance of 6.1 mm. Conclusions. The anatomical relationship between the subclavius muscle and vein was very close in the majority of specimens, suggesting that the lateral insertion technique may not prevent penetration of the muscle, which may contribute to catheter pinch-off. The real-time ultrasound-guided technique may prevent penetration of the subclavius muscle. Kyutaro Kawagishi, Joho Tokumine, and Alan Kawarai Lefor Copyright © 2016 Kyutaro Kawagishi et al. All rights reserved. Efficacy of Continuous S(+)-Ketamine Infusion for Postoperative Pain Control: A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial Tue, 02 Feb 2016 06:42:58 +0000 Aim. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial was designed to evaluate the efficacy of continuous intraoperative infusion of S(+)-ketamine under intravenous anesthesia with target-controlled infusion of remifentanil and propofol for postoperative pain control. Methods. Forty-eight patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy were assigned to receive continuous S(+)-ketamine infusion at a rate of 0.3 mg·kg−1·h−1 (, intervention group) or an equivalent volume of saline at the same rate (, placebo group). The same target-controlled intravenous anesthesia was induced in both groups. Pain was assessed using a 0 to 10 verbal numeric rating scale during the first 12 postoperative hours. Pain scores and morphine consumption were recorded in the postanesthesia care unit (PACU) and at 4 and 12 hours after surgery. Results. Pain scores were lower in the intervention group at all time points. Morphine consumption did not differ significantly between groups during PACU stay, but it was significantly lower in the intervention group at each time point after PACU discharge (). At 12 hours after surgery, cumulative morphine consumption was also lower in the intervention group () than in the placebo group (). Conclusions. Continuous S(+)-ketamine infusion during laparoscopic cholecystectomy under target-controlled intravenous anesthesia provided better postoperative pain control than placebo, reducing morphine requirement. Trial Registration. This trial is registered with NCT02421913. Luiz Eduardo de Paula Gomes Miziara, Ricardo Francisco Simoni, Luís Otávio Esteves, Luis Henrique Cangiani, Gil Fernando Ribeiro Grillo-Filho, and Anderson Garcia Lima e Paula Copyright © 2016 Luiz Eduardo de Paula Gomes Miziara et al. All rights reserved. Improving Patient Safety through Simulation Training in Anesthesiology: Where Are We? Mon, 01 Feb 2016 13:03:53 +0000 There have been colossal technological advances in the use of simulation in anesthesiology in the past 2 decades. Over the years, the use of simulation has gone from low fidelity to high fidelity models that mimic human responses in a startlingly realistic manner, extremely life-like mannequin that breathes, generates E.K.G, and has pulses, heart sounds, and an airway that can be programmed for different degrees of obstruction. Simulation in anesthesiology is no longer a research fascination but an integral part of resident education and one of ACGME requirements for resident graduation. Simulation training has been objectively shown to increase the skill-set of anesthesiologists. Anesthesiology is leading the movement in patient safety. It is rational to assume a relationship between simulation training and patient safety. Nevertheless there has not been a demonstrable improvement in patient outcomes with simulation training. Larger prospective studies that evaluate the improvement in patient outcomes are needed to justify the integration of simulation training in resident education but ample number of studies in the past 5 years do show a definite benefit of using simulation in anesthesiology training. This paper gives a brief overview of the history and evolution of use of simulation in anesthesiology and highlights some of the more recent studies that have advanced simulation-based training. Michael Green, Rayhan Tariq, and Parmis Green Copyright © 2016 Michael Green et al. All rights reserved. A Posterior TAP Block Provides More Effective Analgesia Than a Lateral TAP Block in Patients Undergoing Laparoscopic Gynecologic Surgery: A Retrospective Study Thu, 28 Jan 2016 14:07:45 +0000 Background. There are a few papers that compared the lateral transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block with the posterior TAP block. Our study aimed to compare retrospectively the quality of analgesia after laparoscopic gynecologic surgery using the lateral TAP block with general anesthesia versus the posterior TAP block with general anesthesia. Method. Sixty-seven adult female patients were included in this retrospective study. Of these patients, thirty-four patients received the lateral TAP block with general anesthesia (lat. TAP group), and the rest of thirty-three patients received the posterior TAP block with general anesthesia (pos. TAP group). Pain scores both at rest and at movement and the use of additional analgesic drugs were recorded in the postoperative care unit within twenty-four hours after the operation. Postoperative complications were noted. Results. Patients who received pos. TAP reported lower visual analog scale (VAS) pain scores in all points, within twenty-four hours after the operation, than patients who received lat. TAP. Moreover, with the use of additional analgesic drugs, the incidence of nausea and vomiting during the first twenty-four hours after surgery was lower in the pos. TAP group than in the lat. TAP group. Conclusion. The posterior TAP block provided more effective analgesia than the lateral TAP block in patients undergoing laparoscopic gynecologic surgery. Sakatoshi Yoshiyama, Hironobu Ueshima, Ryomi Sakai, and Hiroshi Otake Copyright © 2016 Sakatoshi Yoshiyama et al. All rights reserved. Granisetron versus Granisetron-Dexamethasone for Prevention of Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting in Pediatric Strabismus Surgery: A Randomized Double-Blind Trial Tue, 26 Jan 2016 13:07:50 +0000 Aim. Efficacy of granisetron and combination of granisetron and dexamethasone was evaluated for prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) in children undergoing elective strabismus surgery. Methods. A total of 136 children (1–15 years) were included. Children received either granisetron (40 mcg/kg) [group G] or combination of granisetron (40 mcg/kg) and dexamethasone (150 mcg/kg) [group GD]. Intraoperative fentanyl requirement and incidence and severity of oculocardiac reflex were assessed. PONV severity was assessed for first 24 hours and if score was >2, it was treated with metoclopramide. Postoperative analgesia was administered with intravenous fentanyl and ibuprofen. Results. The demographic profile, muscles operated, and fentanyl requirement were comparable. Complete response to PONV in first 24 hours was observed in 75% (51/68) of children in group G and 76.9% (50/65) of children in group GD, which was comparable statistically (, Fisher exact test; OR 1.11, 95% CI 0.50, 2.46). Incidence of PONV between 0 and 24 hours was comparable. One child in group G required rescue antiemetic in first 24 hours and none of the children had severe PONV in group GD. There was no significant difference in incidence or severity of oculocardiac reflex. Conclusion. Dexamethasone did not increase efficacy of granisetron for prevention of PONV in elective pediatric strabismus surgery. Registration number of clinical trial was CTRI/2009/091/001000. Renu Sinha, Dilip Shende, Souvik Maitra, Neeraj Kumar, Bikash Ranjan Ray, and Virender Kumar Mohan Copyright © 2016 Renu Sinha et al. All rights reserved. The Influence of Differences in Solvents and Concentration on the Efficacy of Propofol at Induction of Anesthesia Thu, 21 Jan 2016 12:19:10 +0000 Background. Propofol is a popular intravenous anesthetic and varieties of formulations were produced from different laboratories. The present study compared efficacy of propofol of different laboratories and different concentrations (1 and 2%) during induction of anesthesia. Methods. Seventy-five scheduled surgical patients were randomly allocated into three groups. The patients of group D1 received AstraZeneca Diprivan 1% (Osaka, Japan) at a rate of 40 mg kg−1 h−1. Group M1 was given 1% Maruishi (Maruishi Pharmaceutical, Osaka, Japan) and group M2 was given 2% formulation at the same rate of propofol. Achieving hypnosis was defined as failure to open their eyes in response to a verbal command and the venous blood sample was withdrawn. Results. The hypnotic doses of M2 were significantly larger (D1: , M1: , and M2:  mg, resp. (mean ± SD). ). Age and gender were selected as statistically significant covariates using general linear model-ANOVA. The blood concentration showed no significant difference among the groups (, , and  μg mL−1, resp.). Conclusion. The required dose of propofol was different among the formulations; however, the serum concentration showed no significant difference. This trial is registered with UMIN Clinical Trial Registry: UMIN000019925. Yukako Obata, Yushi U. Adachi, Katsumi Suzuki, Taiga Itagaki, Hiromi Kato, Maiko Satomoto, and Yoshiki Nakajima Copyright © 2016 Yukako Obata et al. All rights reserved. Designing and Implementing a Competency-Based Training Program for Anesthesiology Residents at the University of Ottawa Mon, 21 Dec 2015 08:31:08 +0000 Competency-based medical education is gaining traction as a solution to address the challenges associated with the current time-based models of physician training. Competency-based medical education is an outcomes-based approach that involves identifying the abilities required of physicians and then designing the curriculum to support the achievement and assessment of these competencies. This paradigm defies the assumption that competence is achieved based on time spent on rotations and instead requires residents to demonstrate competence. The Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada (RCPSC) has launched Competence by Design (CBD), a competency-based approach for residency training and specialty practice. The first residents to be trained within this model will be those in medical oncology and otolaryngology-head and neck surgery in July, 2016. However, with approval from the RCPSC, the Department of Anesthesiology, University of Ottawa, launched an innovative competency-based residency training program July 1, 2015. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the program and offer a blueprint for other programs planning similar curricular reform. The program is structured according to the RCPSC CBD stages and addresses all CanMEDS roles. While our program retains some aspects of the traditional design, we have made many transformational changes. Emma J. Stodel, Anna Wyand, Simone Crooks, Stéphane Moffett, Michelle Chiu, and Christopher C. C. Hudson Copyright © 2015 Emma J. Stodel et al. All rights reserved. Web-Based Learning for Emergency Airway Management in Anesthesia Residency Training Wed, 16 Dec 2015 08:02:32 +0000 Introduction. Web-based learning (WBL) is increasingly used in medical education; however, residency training programs often lack guidance on its implementation. We describe how the use of feasibility studies can guide the use of WBL in anesthesia residency training. Methods. Two case-based WBL emergency airway management modules were developed for self-directed use by anesthesia residents. The feasibility of using this educational modality was assessed using a single cohort pretest/posttest design. Outcome measures included user recruitment and retention rate, perceptions of educational value, and knowledge improvement. The differences between pre- and postmodule test scores and survey Likert scores were analysed using the paired test. Results. Recruitment and retention rates were 90% and 65%, respectively. User-friendliness of the modules was rated highly. There was a significant improvement in perceptions of the value of WBL in the postsurvey. There was a significant knowledge improvement of 29% in the postmodule test. Conclusions. Feasibility studies can help guide appropriate use of WBL in curricula. While our study supported the potential feasibility of emergency airway management modules for training, collaboration with other anesthesia residency programs may enable more efficient development, implementation, and evaluation of this resource-intensive modality in anesthesia education and practice. Ada Hindle, Ji Cheng, Lehana Thabane, and Anne Wong Copyright © 2015 Ada Hindle et al. All rights reserved. Comparison of the Disposable Streamlined Liner of the Pharynx Airway and the Disposable I-gel in Anaesthetized, Paralyzed Adults: A Randomized Prospective Study Tue, 01 Dec 2015 07:01:25 +0000 Introduction. This study compared streamlined liner of the pharynx airway (SLIPA) and I-gel noninflatable, single-use, supraglottic airway device (SAD) performance in anesthetized, paralyzed adults. Methods. Eighty adults (ASA physical statuses I–III) who were undergoing elective procedures under general anesthesia with an SAD were enrolled in this prospective, randomized, single-blind study. Subjects were randomly and evenly assigned to the SLIPA or I-gel group for intraoperative airway management. Ease and number of insertions, insertion time, oropharyngeal sealing pressure, hemodynamic response, oxygen saturation (SpO2), end-tidal CO2 (EtCO2), and peri- and postoperative complications were examined. Results. The SLIPA and I-gel devices were successfully inserted in 100% and 95% of subjects, respectively. In two I-gel subjects (5%), ventilation was not possible after two attempts, but a size 55 SLIPA was successfully inserted in both cases. Forty-two and 38 patients were ultimately included in the SLIPA and I-gel groups, respectively. Insertion time was significantly shorter with the SLIPA ( s) than with the I-gel ( s, ). Oropharyngeal sealing pressure was significantly higher in SLIPA ( cmH2O) than in I-gel ( cmH2O) subjects (). Blood staining occurred more frequently in SLIPA (, 19.0%) than in I-gel (, 13.2%) patients (). Heart rate, mean arterial blood pressure, SpO2, and EtCO2 were not significantly different between groups. Conclusion. Although blood staining incidence was higher, SLIPA insertion was easier and faster than I-gel insertion. The SLIPA provided better airway sealing pressure. Both devices had similar mechanical ventilation and oxygenation characteristics and comparable hemodynamic stability. Both noninflatable SADs are useful, but SLIPA rapid insertion and good airway sealing make it an effective alternative to the I-gel. Khaled EL-Radaideh, Ala"a Alhowary, and Diab Bani Hani Copyright © 2015 Khaled EL-Radaideh et al. All rights reserved. Evaluation of Waste Anesthetic Gas in the Postanesthesia Care Unit within the Patient Breathing Zone Thu, 26 Nov 2015 13:28:36 +0000 Potential health hazards from waste anesthetic gases (WAGs) have been a concern since the introduction of inhalational anesthetics into clinical practice. The potential to exceed recommended exposure levels (RELs) in the postanesthesia care unit (PACU) exists. The aim of this pilot study was to assess sevoflurane WAG levels while accounting for factors that affect inhalational anesthetic elimination. In this pilot study, 20 adult day surgery patients were enrolled with anesthesia maintained with sevoflurane. Following extubation, exhaled WAG from the patient breathing zone was measured 8 inches from the patient’s mouth in the PACU. Maximum sevoflurane WAG levels in the patient breathing zone exceeded National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) RELs for every 5-minute time interval measured during PACU Phase I. Observed WAGs in our study were explained by inhalational anesthetic pharmacokinetics. Further analysis suggests that the rate of washout of sevoflurane was dependent on the duration of anesthetic exposure. This study demonstrated that clinically relevant inhalational anesthetic concentrations result in sevoflurane WAG levels that exceed current RELs. Evaluating peak and cumulative sevoflurane WAG levels in the breathing zone of PACU Phase I and Phase II providers is warranted to quantify the extent and duration of exposure. Kenneth N. Hiller, Alfonso V. Altamirano, Chunyan Cai, Stephanie F. Tran, and George W. Williams Copyright © 2015 Kenneth N. Hiller et al. All rights reserved. Comment on “Depth of Anesthesia as a Risk Factor for Perioperative Morbidity” Wed, 11 Nov 2015 11:04:48 +0000 Marco Cascella Copyright © 2015 Marco Cascella. All rights reserved. Depth of Anesthesia as a Risk Factor for Perioperative Morbidity Tue, 02 Jun 2015 11:37:15 +0000 Introduction. The prognostic value of age, physical status, and duration of surgery on perioperative course has been extensively studied. However, the impact of deep hypnotic time (time when Bispectral Index values are less than 40) has not been well evaluated. Methods. We designed an observational study to clarify the relative influence of deep hypnotic time (DHT) on outcome. Eligible participants were mentally stable patients over 18 years old scheduled for elective major abdominal surgery. In total, 248 patients enrolled. Data were analyzed using Fisher’s exact test and multiple logistic regression. Results. Five variables (DHT, hypotension, age, comorbidity, and duration of surgery) showed statistically significant association with complications, when examined independently. However, when all variables were examined together in a multiple logistic regression model, age and comorbidity were no longer associated with outcome. DHT, hypotension, and duration of surgery were significant predictors of “complications,” and “hypotension” was a significant predictor of prolonged hospital stay .  Conclusion. Deep hypnotic time emerged as a new factor associated with outcome, and its impact compared to other factors such as age, surgery duration, hypotension, and comorbidity is redefined. Monitoring and managing depth of anesthesia during surgery are important and should be part of careful operation planning. Argyro Petsiti, Vassilios Tassoudis, George Vretzakis, Dimitrios Zacharoulis, Konstantinos Tepetes, Georgia Ganeli, and Menelaos Karanikolas Copyright © 2015 Argyro Petsiti et al. All rights reserved. Postoperative Residual Neuromuscular Paralysis at an Australian Tertiary Children’s Hospital Sun, 10 May 2015 07:03:00 +0000 Purpose. Residual neuromuscular blockade (RNMB) is known to be a significant but frequently overlooked complication after the use of neuromuscular blocking agents (NMBA). Aim of this prospective audit was to investigate the incidence and severity of RNMB at our Australian tertiary pediatric center. Methods. All children receiving NMBA during anesthesia were included over a 5-week period at the end of 2011 (Mondays to Fridays; 8 a.m.–6 p.m.). At the end of surgery, directly prior to tracheal extubation, the train-of-four (TOF) ratio was assessed quantitatively. Data related to patient postoperative outcome was collected in the postoperative acute care unit. Results. Data of 64 patients were analyzed. Neostigmine was given in 34 cases and sugammadex in 1 patient. The incidence of RNMB was 28.1% overall (without reversal: 19.4%; after neostigmine: 37.5%; n.s.). Severe RNMB (TOF ratio < 0.7) was found in 6.5% after both no reversal and neostigmine, respectively. Complications in the postoperative acute care unit were infrequent, with no differences between reversal and no reversal groups. Conclusions. In this audit, RNMB was frequently observed, particularly in cases where patients were reversed with neostigmine. These findings underline the well-known problems associated with the use of NMBA that are not fully reversed. Thomas Ledowski, Brendan O’Dea, Luke Meyerkort, Mary Hegarty, and Britta S. von Ungern-Sternberg Copyright © 2015 Thomas Ledowski et al. All rights reserved. Survey of Accepted Practice following Failed Intubation for Emergency Caesarean Delivery Tue, 03 Mar 2015 06:38:02 +0000 Background. There is no consensus on the optimum management of failed tracheal intubation in emergency cesarean delivery performed for fetal compromise. The decision making process on whether to wake the patient or continue anesthesia with a supraglottic airway device is an underexplored area. This survey explores perceptions and experiences of obstetric anesthetists managing failed intubation. Methods. Anesthetists attending the Group of Obstetric Anaesthetists London (GOAL) Meeting in April 2014 were surveyed. Results. Ninety-three percent of anesthetists surveyed would not always wake the patient in the event of failed intubation for emergency cesarean delivery performed for fetal compromise. The median (interquartile range) of perceived acceptability of continuing anesthesia with a well-fitting supraglottic airway device, assessed using a visual analogue scale (0–100; 0 completely unacceptable; 100 completely acceptable), was 90 [22.5]. Preoperative patient consent regarding the use of a supraglottic airway device for surgery in the event of failed intubation would affect the decision making of 40% of anaesthetists surveyed. Conclusion. These results demonstrate that a significant body of anesthetists with a subspecialty interest in obstetric anesthesia in the UK would not always wake up the patient and would continue with anesthesia and surgery with a supraglottic airway device in this setting. Daniel Soltanifar, David Bogod, Sally Harrison, Brendan Carvalho, and Pervez Sultan Copyright © 2015 Daniel Soltanifar et al. All rights reserved. Effect of Low-Dose (Single-Dose) Magnesium Sulfate on Postoperative Analgesia in Hysterectomy Patients Receiving Balanced General Anesthesia Sun, 01 Feb 2015 14:29:26 +0000 Background and Aim. Aparallel, randomized, double blinded, placebo-controlled trial study was designed to assess the efficacy of single low dose of intravenous magnesium sulfate on post-total abdominal hysterectomy (TAH) pain relief under balanced general anesthesia. Subject and Methods. Forty women undergoing TAH surgery were assigned to two magnesium sulfate () and normal saline () groups randomly. The magnesium group received magnesium sulfate 50 mgkg−1 in 100 mL of normal saline solution i.v as single-dose, just 15 minutes before induction of anesthesia whereas patients in control group received 100 mL of 0.9% sodium chloride solution at the same time. The same balanced general anesthesia was induced for two groups. Pethidine consumption was recorded over 24 hours precisely as postoperative analgesic. Pain score was evaluated with Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) at 0, 6, 12, and 24 hours after the surgeries. Results. Postoperative pain score was lower in magnesium group at 6, 12, and 24 hours after the operations significantly (). Pethidine requirement was significantly lower in magnesium group throughout 24 hours after the surgeries (). Conclusion. Single dose of magnesium sulfate during balanced general anesthesia could be considered as effective and safe method to reduce postoperative pain and opioid consumption after TAH. Arman Taheri, Katayoun Haryalchi, Mandana Mansour Ghanaie, and Neda Habibi Arejan Copyright © 2015 Arman Taheri et al. All rights reserved. Potential Risk Factors for the Onset of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Type 1: A Systematic Literature Review Mon, 26 Jan 2015 07:21:15 +0000 Anaesthetists in the acute and chronic pain teams are often involved in treating Complex Regional Pain Syndromes. Current literature about the risk factors for the onset of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Type 1 (CRPS 1) remains sparse. This syndrome has a low prevalence, a highly variable presentation, and no gold standard for diagnosis. In the research setting, the pathogenesis of the syndrome continues to be elusive. There is a growing body of literature that addresses efficacy of a wide range of interventions as well as the likely mechanisms that contribute to the onset of CRPS 1. The objective for this systematic search of the literature focuses on determining the potential risk factors for the onset of CRPS 1. Eligible articles were analysed, dated 1996 to April 2014, and potential risk factors for the onset of CRPS 1 were identified from 10 prospective and 6 retrospective studies. Potential risk factors for the onset of CRPS 1 were found to include being female, particularly postmenopausal female, ankle dislocation or intra-articular fracture, immobilisation, and a report of higher than usual levels of pain in the early phases of trauma. It is not possible to draw definite conclusions as this evidence is heterogeneous and of mixed quality, relevance, and weighting strength against bias and has not been confirmed across multiple trials or in homogenous studies. Tracey Pons, Edward A. Shipton, Jonathan Williman, and Roger T. Mulder Copyright © 2015 Tracey Pons et al. All rights reserved. Neuromuscular Monitoring, Muscle Relaxant Use, and Reversal at a Tertiary Teaching Hospital 2.5 Years after Introduction of Sugammadex: Changes in Opinions and Clinical Practice Thu, 15 Jan 2015 08:30:41 +0000 Sugammadex was introduced to Royal Perth Hospital in early 2011 without access restriction. Two departmental audits (26-page online survey and 1-week in-theatre snapshot audit) were undertaken to investigate the change of beliefs and clinical practice related to the use of neuromuscular blocking agents at the Royal Perth Hospital since this introduction. Results were compared with data from 2011. We found that, in the 2.5 years since introduction of Sugammadex, more anesthetists (69.5 versus 38%) utilized neuromuscular monitoring, and aminosteroidal neuromuscular blocking agents were used in 94.3% of cases (versus 77% in 2011). Furthermore, 53% of anesthetists identified with a practice of “deeper and longer” intraoperative paralysis of patients. All 71 patients observed during the 5-day in-theatre audit were reversed with Sugammadex. Since the introduction of Sugammadex, 69% of respondents felt it provided “faster turnover,” less postoperative residual neuromuscular blockade ; 79%), and higher anesthetist satisfaction ; 59%). 45% of colleagues reported that they would feel professionally impaired without the unrestricted availability of Sugammadex, and 1 colleague would refuse to work in a hospital without this drug being freely available. In clinical practice Sugammadex was frequently (57%) mildly overdosed, with 200 mg being the most commonly administered dose. Thomas Ledowski, Jing Shen Ong, and Tom Flett Copyright © 2015 Thomas Ledowski et al. All rights reserved. The Impact of a Dedicated Research Education Month for Anesthesiology Residents Tue, 13 Jan 2015 06:49:32 +0000 An educational intervention was implemented at the University of Michigan starting in 2008, in which anesthesiology interns complete a dedicated month-long didactic rotation in evidence-based medicine (EBM) and research methodology. We sought to assess its utility. Scores on a validated EBM test before and after the rotation were compared and assessed for significance of improvement. A survey was also given to gauge satisfaction with the quality of the rotation and self-reported improvement in understanding of EBM topics. Fourteen consecutive interns completed the research rotation during the study period. One hundred percent completed both the pre- and postrotation test. The mean pretest score was 7.78 ± 2.46 (median = 7.5, 0–15 scale, and interquartile range 7.0–10.0) and the mean posttest score was 10.00 ± 2.35 (median = 9.5, interquartile range 8.0–12.3), which represented a statistically significant increase (, Wilcoxon signed-rank test). All fourteen of the residents “agreed” or “strongly agreed” that they would recommend the course to future interns and that the course increased their ability to critically review the literature. Our findings demonstrate that this can be an effective means of improving understanding of EBM topics and anesthesiology research. Robert E. Freundlich, Jessica W. Newman, Kevin K. Tremper, Jill M. Mhyre, Sachin Kheterpal, Theodore J. Sanford Jr., and Alan R. Tait Copyright © 2015 Robert E. Freundlich et al. All rights reserved. Influence of Head and Neck Position on Oropharyngeal Leak Pressure and Cuff Position with the ProSeal Laryngeal Mask Airway and the I-Gel: A Randomized Clinical Trial Sun, 11 Jan 2015 13:04:51 +0000 Background. This study was designed to assess and compare the effect of head and neck position on the oropharyngeal leak pressures and cuff position (employing fibreoptic view of the glottis) and ventilation scores between ProSeal LMA and the I-gel. Material and Methods. After induction of anesthesia, the supraglottic device was inserted and ventilation confirmed. The position of the head was randomly changed from neutral to flexion, extension, and lateral rotation (left). The oropharyngeal leak pressures, fibreoptic view of glottis, ventilation scores, and delivered tidal volumes and end tidal CO2 were noted in all positions. Results. In both groups compared with neutral position, oropharyngeal leak pressures were significantly higher with flexion and lower with extension but similar with rotation of head and neck. However the oropharyngeal leak pressure was significantly higher for ProSeal LMA compared with the I-gel in all positions. Peak airway pressures were significantly higher with flexion in both groups (however this did not affect ventilation), lower with extension in ProSeal group, and comparable in I-gel group but did not change significantly with rotation of head and neck in both groups. Conclusion. Effective ventilation can be done with both ProSeal LMA and I-gel with head in all the above positions. ProSeal LMA has a better margin of safety than I-gel due to better sealing pressures except in flexion where the increase in airway pressure is more with the former. Extreme precaution should be taken in flexion position in ProSeal LMA. Sandeep Kumar Mishra, Mohammad Nawaz, M. V. S. Satyapraksh, Satyen Parida, Prasanna Udupi Bidkar, Balachander Hemavathy, and Pankaj Kundra Copyright © 2015 Sandeep Kumar Mishra et al. All rights reserved. Arterial Blood Gas Analysis and the Outcome of Treatment in Tricyclic Antidepressants Poisoned Patients with Benzodiazepine Coingestion Thu, 08 Jan 2015 14:29:48 +0000 Background. Poisoning with tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) is still a major concern for emergency physicians and intensivists. Concomitant ingestion of other psychoactive drugs especially benzodiazepines with TCAs may make this clinical situation more complex. This study aimed to compare the arterial blood gas (ABG) values and the outcome of treatment in patients with coingestion of TCA and benzodiazepine (TCA + BZD) poisoning and TCA poisoning alone. Methods. In this cross-sectional study which was carried out in a tertiary care university hospital in Iran, clinical and paraclinical characteristics of one hundred forty TCA only or TCA + BZD poisoned patients (aged 18–40 years) were evaluated. ABG analysis was done on admission in both groups. Outcomes were considered as survival with or without complication (e.g., intubation) and the frequency of TCA poisoning complications. Results. Arterial pH was significantly lower in TCA + BZD poisoning group compared with TCA only poisoning group (7.34 ± 0.08 and 7.38 ± 0.08, resp.; ). However, other complications such as seizure, and the need for the endotracheal intubation were not significantly different. All patients in both groups survived. Conclusions. Concomitant TCA plus BZD poisoning may make the poisoned patients prone to a lower arterial pH level on hospital admission which may potentially increases the risk of cardiovascular complications in TCA poisoning. Ahmad Yaraghi, Nastaran Eizadi-Mood, Maryam Katani, Shadi Farsaei, Mahrang Hedaiaty, Seyyed Mohammad Mahdy Mirhosseini, Elham Beheshtian, and Ali Mohammad Sabzghabaee Copyright © 2015 Ahmad Yaraghi et al. All rights reserved. Effect of Ondansetron on the Occurrence of Hypotension and on Neonatal Parameters during Spinal Anesthesia for Elective Caesarean Section: A Prospective, Randomized, Controlled, Double-Blind Study Thu, 08 Jan 2015 10:09:43 +0000 To prevent hypotension during spinal anesthesia for caesarean section, we assessed IV ondansetron of invasive maternal hemodynamic and fetal gazometric parameters. Walid Trabelsi, Chihebeddine Romdhani, Haythem Elaskri, Walid Sammoud, Mohamed Bensalah, Iheb Labbene, and Mustapha Ferjani Copyright © 2015 Walid Trabelsi et al. All rights reserved. The Availability of Advanced Airway Equipment and Experience with Videolaryngoscopy in the UK: Two UK Surveys Mon, 05 Jan 2015 10:16:46 +0000 Fibreoptic intubation, high frequency jet ventilation, and videolaryngoscopy form part of the Royal College of Anaesthetists compulsory higher airway training module. Curriculum delivery requires equipment availability and competent trainers. We sought to establish (1) availability of advanced airway equipment in UK hospitals (Survey I) and (2) if those interested in airway management (Difficult Airway Society (DAS) members) had access to videolaryngoscopes, their basic skill levels and teaching competence with these devices and if they believed that videolaryngoscopy was replacing conventional or fibreoptic laryngoscopy (Survey II). Data was obtained from 212 hospitals (73.1%) and 554 DAS members (27.6%). Most hospitals (202, 99%) owned a fiberscope, 119 (57.5%) had a videolaryngoscope, yet only 62 (29.5%) had high frequency jet ventilators. DAS members had variable access to videolaryngoscopes with Airtraq 319 (59.6%) and Glidescope 176 (32.9%) being the most common. More DAS members were happy to teach or use videolaryngoscopes in a difficult airway than those who had used them more than ten times. The majority rated Macintosh laryngoscopy as the most important airway skill. Members rated fibreoptic intubation and videolaryngoscopy skills equally. Our surveys demonstrate widespread availability of fibreoptic scopes, limited availability of videolaryngoscopes, and limited numbers of experienced videolaryngoscope tutors. Rachel L. Gill, Audrey S. Y. Jeffrey, Alistair F. McNarry, and Geoffrey H. C. Liew Copyright © 2015 Rachel L. Gill et al. All rights reserved. Measurements of Epidural Space Depth Using Preexisting CT Scans Correlate with Loss of Resistance Depth during Thoracic Epidural Catheter Placement Thu, 01 Jan 2015 13:04:57 +0000 Background. Thoracic epidural catheters provide the best quality postoperative pain relief for major abdominal and thoracic surgical procedures, but placement is one of the most challenging procedures in the repertoire of an anesthesiologist. Most patients presenting for a procedure that would benefit from a thoracic epidural catheter have already had high resolution imaging that may be useful to assist placement of a catheter. Methods. This retrospective study used data from 168 patients to examine the association and predictive power of epidural-skin distance (ESD) on computed tomography (CT) to determine loss of resistance depth acquired during epidural placement. Additionally, the ability of anesthesiologists to measure this distance was compared to a radiologist, who specializes in spine imaging. Results. There was a strong association between CT measurement and loss of resistance depth (); the presence of morbid obesity () changed this relationship (). The ability of anesthesiologists to make CT measurements was similar to a gold standard radiologist (all individual ). Conclusions. Overall, this study supports the examination of a recent CT scan to aid in the placement of a thoracic epidural catheter. Making use of these scans may lead to faster epidural placements, fewer accidental dural punctures, and better epidural blockade. Nathaniel H. Greene, Benjamin G. Cobb, Ken F. Linnau, and Christopher D. Kent Copyright © 2015 Nathaniel H. Greene et al. All rights reserved. Comment on “Simulation-Based Mastery Learning with Deliberate Practice Improves Clinical Performance in Spinal Anesthesia” Mon, 15 Dec 2014 07:03:44 +0000 Kieran Walsh Copyright © 2014 Kieran Walsh. All rights reserved. Analgesic Techniques in Hip and Knee Arthroplasty: From the Daily Practice to Evidence-Based Medicine Mon, 17 Nov 2014 07:45:43 +0000 Total hip arthroplasty (THA) and total knee arthroplasty (TKA) are major orthopedic surgery models, addressing mainly ageing populations with multiple comorbidities and treatments, ASA II–IV, which may complicate the perioperative period. Therefore effective management of postoperative pain should allow rapid mobilization of the patient with shortening of hospitalization and social reintegration. In our review we propose an evaluation of the main analgesics models used today in the postoperative period. Their comparative analysis shows the benefits and side effects of each of these methods and guides us to how to use evidence-based medicine in our daily practice. Denisa Madalina Anastase, Simona Cionac Florescu, Ana Maria Munteanu, Traian Ursu, and Cristian Ioan Stoica Copyright © 2014 Denisa Madalina Anastase et al. All rights reserved. Cost Analysis of Three Techniques of Administering Sevoflurane Wed, 29 Oct 2014 12:18:56 +0000 Background. This study aimed to evaluate and compare total cost of sevoflurane and propofol for 1.0 MAC-hour of anaesthesia, employing three anaesthetic techniques. Methods. Adult patients scheduled for surgical procedures under general anaesthesia anticipated to last approximately an hour were randomized into three groups ( each), to receive anaesthesia using one of the following techniques: low flow technique involving induction with propofol, followed by sevoflurane delivered using initial fresh gas flows of 6 L/min till MAC reached 1.0 and then reduced to 0.5 L/min; alternate method of low flow entailing only a difference in fresh gas flow rates being maintained at 1 L/min throughout; the third technique involving use of sevoflurane for both induction and maintenance of anaesthesia. Results. Cost of sevoflurane to maintain 1 MAC-hour of anaesthesia was clinically least with low flow anaesthesia, though statistically similar amongst the three techniques. Once the cost of propofol used for induction in two of the three groups was added to that of sevoflurane, cost incurred was least with the technique using sevoflurane both for induction and maintenance of anaesthesia, as compared to low flow and alternative low flow techniques, a 26% and 32% cost saving, respectively (). Asha Tyagi, Vineeta Venkateswaran, Ajai Kumar Jain, and Uttam Chandra Verma Copyright © 2014 Asha Tyagi et al. All rights reserved. Breast Surgery Using Thoracic Paravertebral Blockade and Sedation Alone Thu, 21 Aug 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Introduction. Thoracic paravertebral block (TPVB) provides superior analgesia for breast surgery when used in conjunction with general anesthesia (GA). Although TPVB and GA are often combined, for some patients GA is either contraindicated or undesirable. We present a series of 28 patients who received a TPVB with sedation alone for breast cancer surgery. Methods. A target controlled infusion of propofol or remifentanil was used for conscious sedation. Ultrasound guided TPVB was performed at one, two, or three thoracic levels, using up to 30 mL of local anesthetic. If required, top-up local infiltration analgesia with prilocaine 0.5% was performed by the surgeon. Results. Most patients were elderly with significant comorbidities and had TPVB injections at just one level (54%). Patient choice and anxiety about GA were indications for TVPB in 9 patients (32%). Prilocaine top-up was required in four (14%) cases and rescue opiate analgesia in six (21%). Conclusions. Based on our technique and the outcome of the 28 patients studied, TPVB with sedation and ultrasound guidance appears to be an effective and reliable form of anesthesia for breast surgery. TPVB with sedation is a useful anesthetic technique for patients in which GA is undesirable or poses an unacceptable risk. James Simpson, Arun Ariyarathenam, Julie Dunn, and Pete Ford Copyright © 2014 James Simpson et al. All rights reserved. Anaesthetic Management of Renal Transplant Surgery in Patients of Dilated Cardiomyopathy with Ejection Fraction Less Than 40% Tue, 19 Aug 2014 07:02:49 +0000 Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is an important comorbidity of chronic kidney disease, and reducing cardiovascular events in this population is an important goal for the clinicians who care for chronic kidney disease patients. The high risk for CVD in transplant recipients is in part explained by the high prevalence of conventional CVD risk factors (e.g., diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidemia) in this patient population. Current transplant success allows recipients with previous contraindications to transplant to have access to this procedure with more frequency and safety. Herein we provide a series of eight patients with dilated cardiomyopathy with poor ejection fraction posted for live donor renal transplantation which was successfully performed under regional anesthesia with sedation. Divya Srivastava, Tanmay Tiwari, Sandeep Sahu, Abhilash Chandra, and Sanjay Dhiraaj Copyright © 2014 Divya Srivastava et al. All rights reserved. Calculation of the Respiratory Modulation of the Photoplethysmogram (DPOP) Incorporating a Correction for Low Perfusion Thu, 07 Aug 2014 11:19:40 +0000 DPOP quantifies respiratory modulations in the photoplethysmogram. It has been proposed as a noninvasive surrogate for pulse pressure variation (PPV) used in the prediction of the response to volume expansion in hypovolemic patients. The correlation between DPOP and PPV may degrade due to low perfusion effects. We implemented an automated DPOP algorithm with an optional correction for low perfusion. These two algorithm variants (DPOPa and DPOPb) were tested on data from 20 mechanically ventilated OR patients split into a benign “stable region” subset and a whole record “global set.” Strong correlation was found between DPOP and PPV for both algorithms when applied to the stable data set: for DPOPa/DPOPb. However, a marked improvement was found when applying the low perfusion correction to the global data set: for DPOPa/DPOPb. Sensitivities, Specificities, and AUCs were 0.86, 0.70, and 0.88 for DPOPa/stable region; 0.89, 0.82, and 0.92 for DPOPb/stable region; 0.81, 0.61, and 0.73 for DPOPa/global region; 0.83, 0.76, and 0.86 for DPOPb/global region. An improvement was found in all results across both data sets when using the DPOPb algorithm. Further, DPOPb showed marked improvements, both in terms of its values, and correlation with PPV, for signals exhibiting low percent modulations. Paul S. Addison, Rui Wang, Scott J. McGonigle, Alberto A. Uribe, and Sergio D. Bergese Copyright © 2014 Paul S. Addison et al. All rights reserved. Simulation-Based Mastery Learning with Deliberate Practice Improves Clinical Performance in Spinal Anesthesia Wed, 16 Jul 2014 11:08:32 +0000 Introduction. Properly performing a subarachnoid block (SAB) is a competency expected of anesthesiology residents. We aimed to determine if adding simulation-based deliberate practice to a base curriculum improved performance of a SAB. Methods. 21 anesthesia residents were enrolled. After baseline assessment of SAB on a task-trainer, all residents participated in a base curriculum. Residents were then randomized so that half received additional deliberate practice including repetition and expert-guided, real-time feedback. All residents were then retested for technique. SABs on all residents’ next three patients were evaluated in the operating room (OR). Results. Before completing the base curriculum, the control group completed 81% of a 16-item performance checklist on the task-trainer and this increased to 91% after finishing the base curriculum (). The intervention group also increased the percentage of checklist tasks properly completed from 73% to 98%, which was a greater increase than observed in the control group (). The OR time required to perform SAB was not different between groups. Conclusions. The base curriculum significantly improved resident SAB performance. Deliberate practice training added a significant, independent, incremental benefit. The clinical impact of the deliberate practice intervention in the OR on patient care is unclear. Ankeet D. Udani, Alex Macario, Kiruthiga Nandagopal, Maria A. Tanaka, and Pedro P. Tanaka Copyright © 2014 Ankeet D. Udani et al. All rights reserved.