Table 2: Selective drugs causing AKI in HIV-infected patients.

DrugsAcute tubular injury (ATI) or AKIAcute interstitial nephritisOther associated abnormalities

TMP-SMX (Bactrim) + + + Hyperkalemia, crystalluria
β-lactams + +
Sulfadiazine + + Crystalluria, nephrolithiasis
Fluoroquinolones +
Rifampin + + Hypokalemia, hypouricemia, hypernatremia, vasculitis
INH + Overdose leads to high anion gap metabolic acidosis
NSAIDs + / + Proteinuria, secondary minimal change disease, papillary necrosis
Dapsone + / Papillary necrosis
Amphotericin B + + + Hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia, hypernatremia, NDI
Pentamidine + + + Crystalluria, hyperkalemia
Foscarnet + + + Hypercalcemia/hypernatremia, Glomerular crystals
Ganciclovir +
Acyclovir + + / Crystalluria
Indinavir, atazanavir + Crystalluria, nephrolithiasis
Abacavir + /
Tenofovir + + Fanconi, NDI

Key: + mild, + + moderate, + + + severe injury. NDI: nephrogenic diabetes insipidus.