- About this Journal
- Abstracting and Indexing
- Aims and Scope
- Article Processing Charges
- Articles in Press
- Author Guidelines
- Bibliographic Information
- Citations to this Journal
- Contact Information
- Editorial Board
- Editorial Workflow
- Free eTOC Alerts
- Publication Ethics
- Reviewers Acknowledgment
- Submit a Manuscript
- Subscription Information
- Table of Contents
AIDS Research and Treatment
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 317695, 8 pages
Evaluation of Hepatic Mitochondria and Hematological Parameters in Zidovudine-Treated Mice
1Division of Systems Biology, Center for Functional Genomics, U.S. FDA/National Center for Toxicological Research, 3900 NCTR Road, Jefferson, AR 72079, USA
2Department of Information and Mathematics, Korea University, Jochiwon, Chungnam 339-700, Republic of Korea
3Division of Genetic and Molecular Toxicology, U.S. FDA/National Center for Toxicological Research, 3900 NCTR Road, Jefferson, AR 72079, USA
4Office of Scientific Coordination, U.S. FDA/National Center for Toxicological Research, 3900 NCTR Road, Jefferson, AR 72079, USA
Received 28 November 2011; Accepted 12 January 2012
Academic Editor: Robert R. Redfield
Copyright © 2012 Varsha G. Desai et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
- D. T. Dieterich, “Long-term complications of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor therapy,” AIDS Reader, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 176–187, 2003.
- J. S. Currier, C. Spino, J. Grimes et al., “Differences between women and men in adverse events and CD4+ responses to nucleoside analogue therapy for HIV infection,” Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 316–324, 2000.
- I. Ofotokun and C. Pomeroy, “Sex differences in adverse reactions to antiretroviral drugs,” Top HIV Med, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 55–59, 2003.
- M. Gandhi, F. Aweeka, R. M. Greenblatt, and T. F. Blaschke, “Sex differences in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics,” Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology, vol. 44, pp. 499–523, 2004.
- I. Ofotokun, “Sex differences in the pharmacologic effects of antiretroviral drugs: potential roles of drug transporters and phase 1 and 2 metabolizing enzymes,” Topics in HIV Medicine, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 79–83, 2005.
- H. Lee, J. Hanes, and K. A. Johnson, “Toxicity of nucleoside analogues used to treat AIDS and the selectivity of the mitochondrial DNA polymerase,” Biochemistry, vol. 42, no. 50, pp. 14711–14719, 2003.
- J. J. Kohler and W. Lewis, “A brief overview of mechanisms of mitochondrial toxicity from NRTIs,” Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis, vol. 48, no. 3-4, pp. 166–172, 2007.
- C. L. Cherry, D. Nolan, I. R. James et al., “Tissue-specific associations between mitochondrial DNA levels and current treatment status in HIV-infected individuals,” Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, vol. 42, no. 4, pp. 435–440, 2006.
- R. L. Divi, T. L. Einem, S. L. L. Fletcher et al., “Progressive mitochondrial compromise in brains and livers of primates exposed in utero to nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs),” Toxicological Sciences, vol. 118, no. 1, pp. 191–201, 2010.
- M. Gerschenson, S. W. Erhart, C. Y. Paik et al., “Fetal mitochondrial heart and skeletal muscle damage in Erythrocebus patas monkeys exposed in utero to 3′-azido-3′-deoxythymidine,” AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses, vol. 16, no. 7, pp. 635–644, 2000.
- S. M. Torres, R. L. Divi, D. M. Walker et al., “In utero exposure of female CD-1 mice to AZT and/or 3TC: II. Persistence of functional alterations in cardiac tissue,” Cardiovascular Toxicology, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 87–99, 2010.
- K. C. Lund and K. B. Wallace, “Direct, DNA pol-γ-independent effects of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors on mitochondrial bioenergetics,” Cardiovascular Toxicology, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 217–228, 2004.
- V. G. Desai, T. Lee, R. R. Delongchamp et al., “Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs)-induced expression profile of mitochondria-related genes in the mouse liver,” Mitochondrion, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 181–195, 2008.
- R. Geddes, S. Knight, M. Y. S. Moosa, A. Reddi, K. Uebel, and H. Sunpath, “A high incidence of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI)-induced lactic acidosis in HIV-infected patients in a South African context,” South African Medical Journal, vol. 96, no. 8, pp. 722–724, 2006.
- C. W. Wester, O. A. Okezie, A. M. Thomas et al., “Higher-than-expected rates of lactic acidosis among highly active antiretroviral therapy-treated women in Botswana: preliminary results from a large randomized clinical trial,” Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, vol. 46, no. 3, pp. 318–322, 2007.
- R. Justo, J. Boada, M. Frontera, J. Oliver, J. Bermúdez, and M. Gianotti, “Gender dimorphism in rat liver mitochondrial oxidative metabolism and biogenesis,” American Journal of Physiology, vol. 289, no. 2, pp. C372–C378, 2005.
- G. Moyle, “Anaemia in persons with HIV infection: prognostic marker and contributor to morbidity,” AIDS Reviews, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 13–20, 2002.
- A. Sharma, R. Vora, M. Modi, A. Sharma, and Y. Marfatia, “Adverse effects of antiretroviral treatment,” Indian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology, vol. 74, no. 3, pp. 234–237, 2008.
- Center for Disease Control (CDC) and Prevention, Public Health Services Task Force. Recommendations for use of antiretroviral drugs in pregnant HIV-infected women for maternal health and interventions to reduce perinatal HIV-1 transmission in the United States, 2008, http://www.aidsinfo.nih.gov/guidelines/.
- V. G. Desai, T. Lee, R. R. Delongchamp et al., “Development of mitochondria-specific mouse oligonucleotide microarray and validation of data by real-time PCR,” Mitochondrion, vol. 7, no. 5, pp. 322–329, 2007.
- R. Delongchamp, T. Lee, and C. Velasco, “A method for computing the overall statistical significance of a treatment effect among a group of genes,” BMC Bioinformatics, vol. 7, supplement 2, article S11, 2006.
- M. B. Myers, R. A. Mittelstaedt, and R. H. Heflich, “Using ΦX174 DNA as an exogenous reference for measuring mitochondrial DNA copy number,” BioTechniques, vol. 47, no. 4, pp. 867–869, 2009.
- K. J. Livak and T. D. Schmittgen, “Analysis of relative gene expression data using real-time quantitative PCR and the 2-ΔΔCT method,” Methods, vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 402–408, 2001.
- S. Matsushita, K. Yoshimura, T. Kimura et al., “Spontaneous recovery of hemoglobin and neutrophil levels in Japanese patients on a long-term Combivir® containing regimen,” Journal of Clinical Virology, vol. 33, no. 3, pp. 188–193, 2005.
- D. Mildvan, T. Creagh, and G. Leitz, “Prevalence of anemia and correlation with biomarkers and specific antiretroviral regimens in 9690 human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients: findings of the Anemia Prevalence Study,” Current Medical Research and Opinion, vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 343–355, 2007.
- M. I. Luster, G. J. Rosenthal, W. Cao et al., “Experimental studies of the hematologic and immune system toxicity of nucleoside derivatives used against HIV infection,” International Journal of Immunopharmacology, vol. 13, supplement 1, pp. 99–107, 1991.
- M. B. Thompson, J. K. Dunnick, M. E. Sutphin, H. D. Giles, R. D. Irwin, and J. D. Prejean, “Hematologic toxicity of AZT and ddC administered as single agents and in combination to rats and mice,” Fundamental and Applied Toxicology, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 159–176, 1991.
- National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, “NIEHS technical report on the 13-week toxicity study of -Azido--deoxythymidine (AZT) and Isoniazid combinations administered by gavage to B6C3F1 mice,” NIEHS AIDS Therapeutics Toxicity Report no. 8, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, National Institutes of Health Research, Triangle Park, NC, USA, 2002.
- M. Laguno, A. Milinkovic, E. De Lazzari, et al., “Incidence and risk factors for mitochondrial toxicity in treated HIV/HCV-coinfected patients,” Antiviral Therapy, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 423–429, 2005.
- J. A. Dykens, J. Jamieson, L. Marroquin, S. Nadanaciva, P. A. Billis, and Y. Will, “Biguanide-induced mitochondrial dysfunction yields increased lactate production and cytotoxicity of aerobically-poised HepG2 cells and human hepatocytes in vitro,” Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, vol. 233, no. 2, pp. 203–210, 2008.
- M. C. Wei, W. X. Zong, E. H. Y. Cheng et al., “Proapoptotic BAX and BAK: a requisite gateway to mitochondrial dysfunction and death,” Science, vol. 292, no. 5517, pp. 727–730, 2001.
- E. Y. Tan, L. Campo, C. Han et al., “BNIP3 as a progression marker in primary human breast cancer opposing functions in in situ versus invasive cancer,” Clinical Cancer Research, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 467–474, 2007.
- J. L. Fang and F. A. Beland, “Long-term exposure to zidovudine delays cell cycle progression, induces apoptosis, and decreases telomerase activity in human hepatocytes,” Toxicological Sciences, vol. 111, no. 1, pp. 120–130, 2009.
- D. J. Hooker and C. L. Cherry, “Apoptosis: a clinically useful measure of antiretroviral drug toxicity? Apoptosis: a clinically useful measure of antiretroviral drug toxicity? Hooker & Cherry,” Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism and Toxicology, vol. 5, no. 12, pp. 1543–1553, 2009.
- L. Day, C. Shikuma, and M. Gerschenson, “Mitochondrial injury in the pathogenesis of antiretroviral-induced hepatic steatosis and lactic acidemia,” Mitochondrion, vol. 4, no. 2-3, pp. 95–109, 2004.