Table 1: General characteristics of included studies.

ReferenceNAge (Years)Gender (F/M)FM symptoms (Years)Exercise interventionTender point assessment

Gowans et al. [34]Ex: 27
Con: 23
Ex: 44.6 ± 8.7
Con: 49.8 ± 7.3
F (88%)/M
F (87%)/M
Ex: 9.6 ± 8.6
Con: 8.4 ± 7.6
23 weeks supervised, facility-based aerobic exercise, 3x/wk, 20 min/day, 60%–75% MHR; compliance, 67%.Sum of up to 18 TP; assessor blinded to group assignment

Gusi et al. [5]Ex: 17
Con: 17
Ex: 51 ± 10
Con: 51 ± 9
F
F
Ex: 24 ± 9
Con: 19 ± 8
12 weeks supervised pool-based exercise, 3x/wk; aerobic (20 min/day, 65%–75% MHR, strengthening (20 min/day, 4 sets, 10 reps); compliance >94%Sum of up to 18 TP

Hakkinen et al. [35]Ex: 11
Con: 10
Ex: 39 ± 6
Con: 37 ± 5
F
F
Ex: 12 ± 4
Con: 12 ± 10
17 weeks supervised strength training, 6–8 ex, 2x/wk, 5–20 reps, 40%–80% 1RMSum of up to 18 TP

King et al. [36]Ex: 46
Con: 39
Ex: 45.2 ± 9.4
Con: 47.3 ± 7.3
F
F
Ex: 7.8 ± 6.1
Con: 9.6 ± 7.9
12 weeks supervised, facility-based aerobic ex, 3x/wk, 10–40 min/day, 75% MHR Sum of up to 18 TP; both assessors blinded to group assignment

Kingsley et al. [6]Ex: 15
Con: 14
Ex: 45 ± 9
Con: 47 ± 4
F
F
Ex: 9 ± 10
Con: 7 ± 5
12 weeks strength training, 11 ex, 2x/wk, 1 set, 8–12 reps, 40%–80% 1RMTotal number of TP and total myalgic score; assessor blinded to group assignment

Munguía-Izquierdo and Legaz-Arrese [7]Ex: 29
Con: 24
Ex: 50 ± 7
Con: 46 ± 8
F
F
Ex: 14 ± 10
Con: 14 ± 9
16 weeks supervised, facility-based ex, 3x/wk; strengthening (1–3 sets, 8–15 reps, 8–10 ex); aerobic (20–30 min, 50%–80% MHR); compliance ≥75%Sum of up to 18 TP

Schachter et al. [37]Ex (sb): 56
Ex: (lb): 51
Con: 36
Ex (sb): 41.9 ± 8.6
Ex: (lb): 41.3 ± 8.7
Con: 42.5 ± 6.7
F
F
F
Ex (sb): 8.6 ± 6.0
Ex (lb): 8.8 ± 6.2
Con: 8.8 ± 5.0
16 weeks home-based, low-impact aerobic ex; short bout, 2x/day, 3x/wk, 5–15 min/session, 40%–75% HRR; long bout, 1x/day, 3x/wk, 10–30 min/session, 40%–75% HRRMean number of TP and mean myalgic score using a dolorimeter; assessor blinded to group assignment

Valkeinen et al. [8]Ex: 13
Con: 13
Ex: 60 ± 2
Con: 59 ± 4
F
F
NR21 weeks supervised strength training, 6–7 ex, 2x/wk, 5–20 reps, 40%–80% 1RM, 97% complianceSum of up to 18 TP

Wigers et al. [38]Ex: 20
Con: 20
Ex: 43 ± 9
Con: 46 ± 9
F (90%)/M
F (95%)/M
Ex: 9.0 ± 5
Con: 11 ± 9
14 weeks supervised aerobic exercise, 3x/wk, 18–20 min/day, 60%–70% MHRMean number of TP using dolorimetry

Notes: Description of groups and subjects from each study limited to those that met the inclusion criteria; N, Initial number of subjects as reported by authors; age reported as mean ( 𝑋 ) ± standard deviation (SD); F, females; M, males; Ex, Exercise; Con, Control; FM, fibromyalgia; MHR, maximum heart rate; 1RM, one-repetition maximum; HRR, heart rate reserve; lb, long bout; sb, short bout; min, minutes; wk, week; reps, repetitions; TP, tender points; NR, not reported.