Table 2: Clinical findings supporting a role for exercise therapy in maintaining cartilage health.

InterventionDurationSubjectsOutcomeReference

Aerobic walking and quadriceps strengthening exercise18 months35 subjects without knee OABoth exercise regimen showed normal distribution of proteoglycans and reduced pain and disability from knee OA[38]
Supervised exercise3 times weekly for 4 months45 subjects who underwent partial medial meniscus resection 3–5 years previouslyImproved GAG content and reduced pain and joint symptoms[4]
Cumulative physical exerciseLow (<6862) or high (>8654) exercise hours805 subjectsReduced risk in knee OA[41]
Recreational walking or joggingLow versus high levels of activity1279 subjects, with or without knee OA; middle aged or elderly, BMI below or above medianSubjects with a high BMI had no increase in risk of OA. Overweight, middle aged, and elderly persons neither protects against nor increases risk of OA[42]
ExerciseVarious11 randomised control trialsBeneficial effect on pain and disability[47]