Table 1: Advantages and disadvantages of osteoarthritis animal models.

AdvantagesDisadvantagesModels used

MouseLow cost
Easy of use
Genome sequenced
Can view hole knee can on slides
Thin cartilage
Postoperative management difficult
Genetic [37]
Meniscal destabilization [7]
Chemical [7]

RatLow cost
Ease to use
Thicker cartilage than mouse
Can view hole knee can on slides
Small joints
Postoperative management difficult
Medial meniscus tear [810]
Partial medial meniscectomy [11]
ACL transection [1214]
ACL transection with partial medial meniscectomy [13, 15]
Chemical [16, 17]

RabbitEasy to useKnee biomechanics
Cartilage capable of regeneration
Different histology from human
Postoperative management difficult
ACL transection [18, 19]
Meniscectomy [20]
Chemical [21, 22]

Guinea pigSimilar histopathology to human
Prone to spontaneous OA
Sedentary lifestyle
Arthroscopy not possible
Spontaneous [2342]
Meniscectomy [43]
Chemical [44, 45]

DogProne to spontaneous OA
Arthroscopy feasible
MRI feasible
GI physiology
Genome sequenced
Validated outcome measures
Cost
Public perception
Spontaneous [46]
ACL transection [4656]
Meniscal release [48, 57]
Focal cartilage defect [48, 5860]

Sheep/goatLarge joint
Easy to use
Arthroscopy feasible
MRI feasible
Cost
GI physiology
Partial/total meniscectomy [6166]

HorseSpontaneous OA
Can induce OA without instability
Arthroscopy feasible
MRI feasible
Cost
Anatomy
Spontaneous [67]
Osteochondral-fragment exercise model [6873]