Table 2: Summary of contributions to osteoarthritis knowledge.

MouseMutations in structural proteins can lead to OA [6]. Single-nucleotide polymorphism associated with increased risk in human populations leads to increased OA in a mouse model [7].

RatNovel therapies shown to reduce pain [26, 120, 121]. Feasibility of new cartilage restoration techniques demonstrated [117119].

RabbitHyaluronic acid (HA) more effective earlier in disease process [19]. HA reduces inflammatory cytokine and metalloproteinase expression in synovium but not cartilage [128]. High molecular weight hyaluronic acid superior to low MW [126]. Infliximab may be efficacious in OA [129].

Guinea pigStructural alterations occur in the meniscus and posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) prior to development of OA [3133]. Collagen and proteoglycan content increases prior to development of OA and then decreases once OA is evident [34]. Diet reduction reduces severity of OA lesions [96].

DogOA progression differs based on inciting event [48, 52, 59]. ACL transection leads to severe damage compared to meniscal release and groove creation [48]. Oral therapy reduces metalloproteinase expression in the joint and reduces cartilage lesions [5355]. Biomarkers in synovial fluid had high sensitivity and specificity in diagnosing OA [46].

Sheep/goatKnee joint remodels to reduce acute increase in joint pressure from meniscectomy [61]. Exercise exacerbates OA changes after meniscectomy [62, 63]. Meniscal allograft reduces cartilage damage [65].

HorseSingle traumatic event can lead to OA [69]. Short-term immobilization has minimal effects on joint health, but long-term immobilization reduces bone mineral density [154156]. Chondrocyte implantation feasible in single surgery [157].