Table 2: Primary outcomes.

OutcomeBaselineMean difference ± SE (95% CI) value2 yearsMean difference
± SE (95% CI)
valueTime by treatment interaction ( ; significance)

WOMAC pain
 Active5.0 ± 2.8−0.5 ± 1.0 1.9 ± 1.6−4.9 ± 0.6
 Control5.5 ± 3.3(−2.6, 1.6) 0.76.8 ± 2.0(−6.2, −3.7) <0.001* = 16.8;
WOMAC stiffness
 Active5.5 ± 3.1−0.1 ± 1.2 2.1 ± 1.7−5.6 ± 0.6
 Control5.6 ± 3.3(−2.4, 2.3) 0.97.7 ± 1.5(−6.8, −4.3) <0.001* = 21.7;
WOMAC function
 Active4.9 ± 2.6−0.9 ± 0.9 1.9 ± 1.3−4.7 ± 0.5
 Control5.9 ± 2.5(−2.8, 1.0) 0.36.6 ± 1.7(−5.7, −3.6) <0.001* = 18.1;
ALF score
 Active35.5 ± 10.3−5.8 ± 5.0 23.1 ± 6.4−10.8 ± 2.5
 Control41.9 ± 22.3(−2.8, 0.9) 0.333.9 ± 7.3(−15.8, −5.8) <0.001* = 0.67;

WOMAC: Western Ontario and McMaster Osteoarthritis Index; ALF: Aggregated Locomotor Function.
was considered statistically significant. Groups showed no significant differences at the baseline. Groups showed significant difference in all outcomes after two years. There was a significant difference in improvement over time between groups in all outcomes except for the ALF.