Table 1: SIQinU phases, activities, and artifacts.

Phases (Ph.)Phase description and activities involvedArtifacts (work products)

Ph. I
Specify requirements and evaluation criteria for QinU
Taking into account the recorded data of the WebApp’s usage, we reengineer QinU requirements. This embraces designing tasks, defining user type, specifying usage context and characteristics. Activities include (see Figure 8) (i) establish information need; (ii) specify project context; (iii) design tasks; (iv) select QinU concept model; (v) design QinU measurement and evaluation; (vi) design Preliminary Analysis(1) Information Need  specification
(2) Context specification
(3) Task/subtasks specification
(4) QinU NFR tree
(5) QinU metrics and indicators  specification
(6) Analysis design

Ph. II
Perform QinU evaluation and conduct preliminary analysis
As per Ph. I, data is collected purposely targeting QinU attributes for improvement. Depending on the WebApp’s data collection capabilities, we collect data such as the date/time, the data is gathered, errors, task, and subtask completion and accuracy, and so forth. It includes (see Figure 12) (i) collect and parse data pertaining to tasks with their subtasks; (ii) quantify QinU attributes; (iii) calculate QinU indicators; (iv) conduct preliminary analysis(1) Parsed data file
(2) Measure and indicator values  for QinU
(3) QinU preliminary analysis  report

Ph. III
Derive/Specify Requirements and Evaluation Criteria for EQ
Based on Ph. I and II, we derive EQ requirements, that is, characteristics and attributes, with their metrics and indicators in order to understand the current WebApp’s quality. Activities include (see Figure 13) (i) select EQ concept model; (ii) design EQ measurement; (iii) design EQ evaluation(1) EQ NFR tree
(2) EQ metrics and indicators  specification

Ph. IV
Perform EQ evaluation and analysis
Activities include (see Figure 15) (i) quantify EQ attributes; (ii) calculate EQ indicators; (iii) conduct an EQ analysis and identify parts of the WebApp that need improvement(1) Measure and indicator values  for EQ
(2) EQ analysis report (and new  report after reevaluation)

Ph. V
Recommend, perform improvement actions, and reevaluate EQ
Using the EQ attributes that require improvement, we make improvement recommendations for modifying the WebApp, that is, version 1 to 1.1. Activities include (see Table 9) (i) recommend improvement actions; (ii) design improvement actions; (iii) perform improvement actions; (iv) evaluate improvement gain to note improvement from benchmark in Ph. IV. Note that once changes were made on the WebApp (Phase V), evaluators could detect that other EQ attributes (from problems identified in QinU) should be derived—under the premise that if further EQ improvement in these new attributes will result in greater impact on the improvement gain in QinU. This concern is taken into account in the process as shown in Figure 2(1) EQ recommendations report
(2) Improvement plan
(3) New application version

Ph. VI
Reevaluate QinU and analyze improvement actions
Once the new version has been used by real users, we evaluate QinU again to determine the influence of what was improved for the WebApp’s EQ on QinU. This provides insight to further develop the depends-on and influences relationships [8]. Activities include (i) evaluate QinU again to determine level of improvement from Ph. II; (ii) conduct improvement action analysis, which includes developing depends-on and influences relationships between EQ improvements and QinU(1) New measure and indicator  values for QinU
(2) QinU improvement analysis  report
(3) EQ/QinU attribute  relationship table (see  Table 11)