Advances in Tribology The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2014 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Prediction and Analysis of Engine Friction Power of a Diesel Engine Influenced by Engine Speed, Load, and Lubricant Viscosity Tue, 09 Dec 2014 09:46:50 +0000 Automotive industries made a paradigm shift in selection of viscometrics of engine lubricant, from higher to lower viscosity grade, for improving fuel economy of vehicles. Engine fuel consumption is influenced by friction between the various engine components. Engine friction power (FP) of a direct injection diesel engine is calculated from the measured value of in-cylinder pressure signals at various operating conditions. For predicting FP, as a function of speed, load, and lubricant viscosity, a full factorial design of experiments (DOE) was formulated and an empirical correlation was developed. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used for analyzing the dominant parameters and their interactions, which influence engine friction power significantly. Predicted results of engine FP are in good agreement with measured values at all operating points. ANOVA and RSM analysis revealed that the significant parameters influencing engine FP are speed, load, viscosity, speed-load, and speed-viscosity. The effect of engine lubricant viscosity on friction power of a diesel engine was insignificant at low speed, whereas, at high speed, it played a vital role. The empirical relation developed for predicting FP is very useful in estimating engine friction power for various combinations of engine speeds, loads, and lubricant viscosity without running the engine. Devendra Singh, Fengshou Gu, John D. Fieldhouse, Nishan Singh, and S. K. Singal Copyright © 2014 Devendra Singh et al. All rights reserved. Dynamic Mechanical Analysis and Three-Body Abrasive Wear Behaviour of Thermoplastic Copolyester Elastomer Composites Wed, 19 Nov 2014 13:48:10 +0000 Various amounts of short fibers (glass and carbon) and particulate fillers like polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), silicon carbide (SiC), and alumina (Al2O3) were systematically introduced into the thermoplastic copolyester elastomer (TCE) matrix for reinforcement purpose. The mechanical properties such as storage modulus, loss modulus, and Tan δ by dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) and three-body abrasive wear performance on a dry sand rubber wheel abrasion tester have been investigated. For abrasive wear study, the experiments were planned according to orthogonal array by considering three factors and three levels. The complex moduli for TCE hybrid composites were pushed to a higher level relative to the TCE filled PTFE composite. At lower temperatures (in the glassy region), the storage modulus increases with increase in wt.% of reinforcement (fiber + fillers) and the value is maximum for the composite with 40 wt.% reinforcement. The loss modulus and damping peaks were also found to be higher by the incorporation of SiC and Al2O3 microfillers. The routine abrasive wear test results indicated that TCE filled PTFE composite exhibited better abrasion resistance. Improvements in the abrasion resistance, however, have not been achieved by short-fiber and particlaute filler reinforcements. From the Taguchi’s experimental findings, optimal combination of control factors were obtained for minimum wear volume and also predictive correlations were proposed. Further, the worn surface morphology of the samples was discussed. Hemanth Rajashekaraiah, Sekar Mohan, Pramoda Kumari Pallathadka, and Suresha Bhimappa Copyright © 2014 Hemanth Rajashekaraiah et al. All rights reserved. Jet-Impingement Effects of Alumina-Nanofluid on Aluminum and Copper Thu, 21 Aug 2014 09:40:32 +0000 Nanofluids are nanosize-powder suspensions that are of interest for their enhanced thermal transport properties. They are studied as promising alternatives to ordinary cooling fluids, but the tribiological effects of nanofluids on cooling-system materials are largely unknown. The authors have developed methodology that uses jet impingement on typical cooling-system materials to test such effects. The work is presented of the authors’ research on the interactions of a typical nanofluid (2% volume of alumina nanopowders in a solution of ethylene glycol in water) which is impinged on aluminum and copper specimens for tests as long as 112 hours. The surface changes were assessed by roughness measurements and optical-microscope studies. Comparative roughness indicate that both the reference cooling fluid of ethylene glycol and water and its nanofluid with 2% alumina produce roughness changes in aluminum (even for the shortest 3-hour test), but no significant roughness differences were observed between them. No significant roughness changes were observed for copper. Microscopy observations, however, show different surface modifications in both aluminum and copper by both the nanofluid and its base fluid. The possible mechanisms of early erosion are discussed. These investigations demonstrate suitable methods for the testing of nanofluid effects on cooling system-materials. Gustavo J. Molina, Fnu Aktaruzzaman, Whitney Stregles, Valentin Soloiu, and Mosfequr Rahman Copyright © 2014 Gustavo J. Molina et al. All rights reserved. Tribological behavior of Ti-6Al-4V and Ti-6Al-7Nb Alloys for Total Hip Prosthesis Mon, 21 Jul 2014 00:00:00 +0000 The aim of the study is to evaluate the friction and wear behavior of high-strength alloys Ti-6Al-7Nb used in femoral stem and compare it with a Ti-6Al-4V alloy cylindrical bar corresponding to ISO 5832-3 part 3/01-07-199 standard. The tribological behavior was investigated by wear tests, using ball-on-disc and pin-on-disc tribometers. These tests consisted of measuring the weight loss and the friction coefficient of samples. The oscillating friction and wear tests have been carried out in ambient with oscillating tribotester in accordance with standards ISO 7148, ASTM G99-95a, and ASTM G133-95 under different conditions of normal loads (3, 6, and 10 N) and sliding speeds (1, 15, and 25 mm·s−1). As counter pairs, a 100Cr6 steel ball with 10 mm in diameter was used. Results show that the two alloys had similar friction and wear performance, although their grain structures and compositions are different. Occurrence of large frictional occurred, is probably caused by formation and periodic, localized fracture of a transfer layer. Higher friction with larger fluctuation and higher wear rate was observed at the higher siding speed. The Ti-6Al-4V wear mechanism transforms from ploughing and peeling off wear at low sliding speed to plastic deformation and adhesive wear. Mamoun Fellah, Mohamed Labaïz, Omar Assala, Leila Dekhil, Ahlem Taleb, Hadda Rezag, and Alain Iost Copyright © 2014 Mamoun Fellah et al. All rights reserved. Effect of Surface Roughness and Viscosity-Pressure Dependency on the Couple Stress Squeeze Film Characteristics of Parallel Circular Plates Sun, 25 May 2014 11:08:44 +0000 Combined effects of surface roughness and viscosity-pressure dependency on the couple stress squeeze film characteristics of parallel circular plates are presented. On the basis of Christensen’s stochastic theory, two types of one-dimensional roughness structures, namely, the radial roughness and azimuthal roughness patterns, are considered and the stochastic modified Reynolds equation for these two types of roughness patterns is derived for Stokes couple stress fluid by taking into account variation of viscosity with pressure. The standard perturbation technique is employed to solve the averaged Reynolds equation and closed form expressions for the mean fluid film pressure, load carrying capacity, and squeeze film time are obtained. It is found that the effects of couple stresses and viscosity-pressure dependency are to increase the load carrying capacity, and squeeze film time for both types of roughness patterns. The effect of azimuthal (radial) roughness pattern is to increase (decrease) these squeeze film characteristics as compared to the corresponding smooth case. Neminath Bhujappa Naduvinamani, Siddangouda Apparao, and Ayyappa G. Hiremath Copyright © 2014 Neminath Bhujappa Naduvinamani et al. All rights reserved. Studies on Erosion Behavior of Plasma Sprayed Coatings of Glass Microspheres Premixed with Al2O3 Particles Mon, 31 Mar 2014 08:32:38 +0000 Solid particle erosion (SPE) tests are carried out to evaluate the performance of plasma sprayed coatings of borosilicate glass microspheres (BGM) premixed with Al2O3 particles on metallic substrates. For this purpose, an Air Jet Erosion test rig confirming to ASTM G 76 test standards is used. Relative influence of different operating parameters on erosion rate is assessed by statistical analysis of the experimental findings that are based on Taguchi’s L16 orthogonal array. This analysis helps to identify the most significant factor affecting the erosion wear rate of the coating. The study reveals that the impact velocity, impingement angle, erodent size, and Al2O3 content in the feed stock, in the declining sequence, are the significant factors influencing the wear rate of these coatings. An Artificial Neural Network (ANN) approach is then implemented taking into account training and test procedure to predict the triboperformance of these coatings under wear conditions beyond the experimental range. Further, the microstructural features of the eroded samples are studied from SEM images to identify possible wear mechanisms. Gaurav Gupta and Alok Satapathy Copyright © 2014 Gaurav Gupta and Alok Satapathy. All rights reserved. Characterization and Empirical Modelling of Sliding Wear on Sintered Aluminium-Graphite Composites Sun, 30 Mar 2014 08:33:59 +0000 Aluminium-graphite composites were synthesized using powder metallurgy route. Graphite was added as reinforcement in the range of 0, 3, and 6 weight % and composites were prepared by P/M. Microstructural analysis of the newly synthesized composites was carried out using SEM. The hardness of the composites was studied using Vickers microhardness tester, by applying a load of 1 kg for 5 sec. Also the amount of porosity was determined. Further the wear test was conducted on the sintered specimens using pin-on-disc wear apparatus according to ASTM-G99 standards. A regression model was developed to predict the wear rate of the specimen. Then the worn images were studied using SEM based on response surface methodology in order to understand the various wear mechanisms involved. The study revealed that mild wear, oxidational wear, plowing, cutting, and plastic deformation are the main mechanisms responsible for causing the wear. Amrishraj Doraisamy and Senthilvelan Thiagarajan Copyright © 2014 Amrishraj Doraisamy and Senthilvelan Thiagarajan. All rights reserved. Analysis of Tribological Behavior of Carbon Nanotube Based Industrial Mineral Gear Oil 250 cSt Viscosity Thu, 13 Mar 2014 00:00:00 +0000 The paper investigates the exceptional antiwear and extreme pressure properties of multiwalled carbon nanotube based mineral oil. Different samples of oil containing varying proportions of MWNT (MWNT) and graphite were prepared. The samples were tested for their antiwear and load bearing capacity according to ASTM G99 and ASTM D-2783 standards. After pass load test in four ball tester the rubbed surfaces were investigated with Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) images. The wear test results show a decrease wear by 70–75% in case of multiwalled nanotube based mineral oil as compared with pure mineral oil. Furthermore, it has been observed that the load bearing capacity in case of multiwalled carbon nanotube based mineral oil increases by 20% as compared to pure mineral oil. A comparison in the antiwear and load bearing capacity properties of graphite and nanotube based mineral oil was studied which showed the inefficiency of graphite based lubricant over MWNT based oil. Thus, the finding would be helpful in developing new nanoparticle based lubricants. Shubrajit Bhaumik, S. Prabhu, and Kingsly Jeba Singh Copyright © 2014 Shubrajit Bhaumik et al. All rights reserved. Solid Particle Erosion of Date Palm Leaf Fiber Reinforced Polyvinyl Alcohol Composites Wed, 22 Jan 2014 15:03:56 +0000 Solid particle erosion behavior of short date palm leaf (DPL) fiber reinforced polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) composite has been studied using silica sand particles (200 ± 50 μm) as an erodent at different impingement angles (15–90°) and impact velocities (48–109 m/s). The influence of fiber content (wt% of DPL fiber) on erosion rate of PVA/DPL composite has also been investigated. The neat PVA shows maximum erosion rate at 30° impingement angle whereas PVA/DPL composites exhibit maximum erosion rate at 45° impingement angle irrespective of fiber loading showing semiductile behavior. The erosion efficiency of PVA and its composites varies from 0.735 to 16.289% for different impact velocities studied. The eroded surfaces were observed under scanning electron microscope (SEM) to understand the erosion mechanism. Jyoti R. Mohanty, Sankar N. Das, Harish C. Das, Tapan K. Mahanta, and Sataya B. Ghadei Copyright © 2014 Jyoti R. Mohanty et al. All rights reserved. Effect of Nanoadditives with Surfactant on the Surface Characteristics of Electroless Nickel Coating on Magnesium-Based Composites Reinforced with MWCNT Sun, 29 Dec 2013 17:24:53 +0000 An experimental investigation has been carried out on optimizing process parameters of electroless nickel-phosphorous coatings on magnesium composite reinforced with carbon nanotube. A comprehensive experimental study of electroless Ni–P coatings on magnesium composite reinforced with multiwalled carbon nanotube under specific coating conditions was performed. The electroless coating bath consists of nickel sulphate (26 g/L), sodium hypo-phosphite (30 g/L) as reducing agent, sodium acetate (16 g/L) as stabilizer, and ammonium hydrogen difluoride (8 g/L) as the complexing agent. The surfactant SLS was added in the solution for better wetting and spreading of coating on substrate. The stabilizer thiourea (1 ppm) was added in the bath to prevent decomposition of bath. Different nanoadditives such as ZnO, Al2O3, SiO with various concentrations were used in the bath and their influence on coating process characteristics were studied The nano additives such as ZnO, Al2O3, SiO were added at concentrations of 0.1%, 0.5%, 1%, and 2% in the EN bath. The output parameters such as surface roughness, microhardness, specific wear rate, and surface morphology were measured. Surface morphology was studied using scanning electron microscope. The results showed that the proposed method resulted in significant improvement on the quality of the coatings produced. Ranganathan Dhinakaran, Rasu Elansezhian, and Arunachalam Arumugam Lalitha Copyright © 2013 Ranganathan Dhinakaran et al. All rights reserved. Effect of Temperature and Electric Field on the Damping and Stiffness Characteristics of ER Fluid Short Squeeze Film Dampers Thu, 21 Nov 2013 16:16:43 +0000 Squeeze film dampers are novel rotor dynamic devices used to alleviate small amplitude, large force vibrations and are used in conjunction with antifriction bearings in aircraft jet engine bearings to provide external damping as these possess very little inherent damping. Electrorheological (ER) fluids are controllable fluids in which the rheological properties of the fluid, particularly viscosity, can be controlled in accordance with the requirements of the rotor dynamic system by controlling the intensity of the applied electric field and this property can be utilized in squeeze film dampers, to provide variable stiffness and damping at a particular excitation frequency. The paper investigates the effect of temperature and electric field on the apparent viscosity and dynamic (stiffness and damping characteristics) of ER fluid (suspension of diatomite in transformer oil) using the available literature. These characteristics increase with the field as the viscosity increases with the field. However, these characteristics decrease with increase in temperature and shear strain rate as the viscosity of the fluid decreases with temperature and shear strain rate. The temperature is an important parameter as the aircraft jet engine rotors are located in a zone of high temperature gradients and the damper fluid is susceptible to large variations in temperature. H. P. Jagadish and L. Ravikumar Copyright © 2013 H. P. Jagadish and L. Ravikumar. All rights reserved. MOORA-Based Tribological Studies on Red Mud Reinforced Aluminum Metal Matrix Composites Thu, 14 Nov 2013 10:16:45 +0000 This paper presents the findings of an experimental investigation on the effects of applied load, sliding velocity, wt.% of reinforcement and hardness of the counterface material in dry sliding wear studies performed on red mud-based aluminum metal matrix composites (MMC). The specific wear rate and the coefficient of friction are considered as the output quality characteristics. Taguchi-based L9 orthogonal array has been used to accomplish the objective of the experimental study. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) is employed to find the optimal setting and the effect of each parameter on the output performance characteristics. It has been observed that optimal factor setting for each output performance is different. In order to minimize the two responses simultaneously, multiobjective optimization based on ratio analysis (MOORA) is adopted. MOORA revealed that the optimal combination of the dry sliding wear parameters for the multiperformance characteristics of the red mud based aluminium is the set normal load at 20 N, sliding velocity 3 m/s, % of reinforcement 20%, and counterface hardness of the material 58 HRC. S. Rajesh, S. Rajakarunakaran, R. Suthakarapandian, and P. Pitchipoo Copyright © 2013 S. Rajesh et al. All rights reserved. Optimization of Tribological Properties of Nonasbestos Brake Pad Material by Using Steel Wool Wed, 23 Oct 2013 09:47:18 +0000 The gradual phasing out of typical brake pad material led to the spark of extensive research in development of alternatives. Henceforth we have performed a tribological study to improve the performance characteristics of the friction product (brake pad) by using steel wool, a metallic material which has an excellent structural reinforcement property and high thermal stability which are indeed required to improve the performance of the brake pad. Under the study, five frictional composites were developed and optimized using the same ingredients in an appropriate proportion except steel wool (0%, 4%, 8%, 12%, and 16%) which is compensated by synthetic barite, and the synthesized compositions are designated as Na01 to Na05. The developed pads are tested for tribological behaviour under conventional environment in a standard pin on disc tribometer. It is observed that increase in steel wool concentration resulted in high coefficient of friction and low wear rate of pad as resulted in Na05 composition. SEM analysis of the wear surface has proved to be useful in understanding the wear behaviour of the composites. R. Vijay, M. Jees Janesh, M. A. Saibalaji, and V. Thiyagarajan Copyright © 2013 R. Vijay et al. All rights reserved. Effect of Viscosity Variation on the Micropolar Fluid Squeeze Film Lubrication of a Short Journal Bearing Thu, 03 Oct 2013 15:22:55 +0000 A theoretical study of the effect of the viscosity variation on the squeeze film performance of a short journal bearing operating with micropolar fluid is presented. The modified Reynolds equation accounting for the viscosity variation in micropolar fluid is mathematically derived. To obtain a closed form solution, the short bearing approximation under constant load is considered. The modified Reynolds equation is solved for the fluid film pressure and then the bearing characteristics, such as obtaining the load carrying capacity and the squeeze film time. According to the results evaluated, the micropolar fluid as a lubricant improves the squeeze film characteristics and results in a longer bearing life, whereas the viscosity variation factor decreases the load carrying capacity and squeezes film time. The result is compared with the corresponding Newtonian case. N. B. Naduvinamani and Archana K. Kadadi Copyright © 2013 N. B. Naduvinamani and Archana K. Kadadi. All rights reserved. Role of Silicon Dioxide Filler on Mechanical and Dry Sliding Wear Behaviour of Glass-Epoxy Composites Wed, 25 Sep 2013 09:29:40 +0000 The mechanical properties and dry sliding wear behaviour of glass fabric reinforced epoxy (G-E) composite with varying weight percentage of silicon dioxide (SiO2) filler have been studied in the present work. The influence of sliding distance, velocity, and applied normal load on dry sliding wear behaviour has been considered using Taguchi's L9 orthogonal array. Addition of SiO2 increased the density, hardness, flexural, and impact strengths of G-E composite. Results of dry sliding wear tests showed increasing wear volume with increase in sliding distance, load, and sliding velocity for G-E and SiO2 filled G-E composites. Taguchi's results indicate that the sliding distance played a significant role followed by applied load, sliding velocity, and SiO2 loading. Scanning electron micrographs of the worn surfaces of composite samples at different test parameters show smooth surface, microploughing, and fine grooves under low load and velocity. However, severe damage of matrix with debonding and fiber breakage was seen at high load and velocity especially in unfilled G-E composite. Naveed Anjum, S. L. Ajit Prasad, and B. Suresha Copyright © 2013 Naveed Anjum et al. All rights reserved. Frictional Effects on Gear Tooth Contact Analysis Tue, 30 Jul 2013 08:13:56 +0000 The present paper concentrates on the investigations regarding the situations of frictional shear stress of gear teeth and the relevant frictional effects on bending stresses and transmission error in gear meshing. Sliding friction is one of the major reasons causing gear failure and vibration; the adequate consideration of frictional effects is essential for understanding gear contact behavior accurately. An analysis of tooth frictional effect on gear performance in spur gear is presented using finite element method. Nonlinear finite element model for gear tooth contact with rolling/sliding is then developed. The contact zones for multiple tooth pairs are identified and the associated integration situation is derived. The illustrated bending stress and transmission error results with static and dynamic boundary conditions indicate the significant effects due to the sliding friction between the surfaces of contacted gear teeth, and the friction effect can not be ignored. To understand the particular static and dynamic frictional effects on gear tooth contact analysis, some significant phenomena of gained results will also be discussed. The potentially significant contribution of tooth frictional shear stress is presented, particularly in the case of gear tooth contact analysis with both static and dynamic boundary conditions. Zheng Li and Ken Mao Copyright © 2013 Zheng Li and Ken Mao. All rights reserved. Contact Mechanics of Rough Spheres: Crossover from Fractal to Hertzian Behavior Thu, 18 Jul 2013 12:48:00 +0000 We investigate the normal contact stiffness in a contact of a rough sphere with an elastic half-space using 3D boundary element calculations. For small normal forces, it is found that the stiffness behaves according to the law of Pohrt/Popov for nominally flat self-affine surfaces, while for higher normal forces, there is a transition to Hertzian behavior. A new analytical model is derived describing the contact behavior at any force. Roman Pohrt and Valentin L. Popov Copyright © 2013 Roman Pohrt and Valentin L. Popov. All rights reserved. Optimum Groove Location of Hydrodynamic Journal Bearing Using Genetic Algorithm Mon, 24 Jun 2013 10:16:19 +0000 This paper presents the various arrangements of grooving location of two-groove oil journal bearing for optimum performance. An attempt has been made to find out the effect of different configurations of two groove oil journal bearing by changing groove locations. Various groove angles that have been considered are 10°, 20°, and 30°. The Reynolds equation is solved numerically in a finite difference grid satisfying the appropriate boundary conditions. Determination of optimum performance is based on maximization of nondimensional load, flow coefficient, and mass parameter and minimization of friction variable using genetic algorithm. The results using genetic algorithm are compared with sequential quadratic programming (SQP). The two grooved bearings in general have grooves placed at diametrically opposite directions. However, the optimum groove locations, arrived at in the present work, are not diametrically opposite. Lintu Roy and S. K. Kakoty Copyright © 2013 Lintu Roy and S. K. Kakoty. All rights reserved. Dry Sliding Wear Behaviour of Titanium (Grade 5) Alloy by Using Response Surface Methodology Wed, 05 Jun 2013 09:11:49 +0000 The dry sliding wear behaviour of titanium (Grade 5) alloy has been investigated in order to highlight the mechanisms responsible for the poor wear resistance under different applied normal load, sliding speed, and sliding distance conditions. Design of experimental technique, that is, response surface methodology (RSM), has been used to accomplish the objective of the experimental study. The experimental plan for three factors at three levels using face-centre central composite design (CCD) has been employed. The results indicated that the specific wear rate increases with an increase in the applied normal load and sliding speed. However, it decreases with an increase in the sliding distance and a decrease in the sliding speed. The worn surfaces of the titanium alloy specimens were analyzed with the help of scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. The predicted result also shows the close agreement with the experimental results and hence the developed models could be used for prediction of wear behaviour satisfactorily. S. R. Chauhan and Kali Dass Copyright © 2013 S. R. Chauhan and Kali Dass. All rights reserved. Tribology of the Head-Disk Interface Thu, 18 Apr 2013 09:42:09 +0000 Bruno Marchon, Norio Tagawa, Bo Liu, Tom Karis, and Jia-Yang Juang Copyright © 2013 Bruno Marchon et al. All rights reserved. A Description of Multiscale Modeling for the Head-Disk Interface Focusing on Bottom-Level Lubricant and Carbon Overcoat Models Wed, 10 Apr 2013 08:57:12 +0000 The challenges in designing future head disk interface (HDI) demand efficient theoretical modeling tools with flexibility in investigating various combinations of perfluoropolyether (PFPE) and carbon overcoat (COC) materials. For broad range of time and length scales, we developed multiscale/multiphysical modeling approach, which can bring paradigm-shifting improvements in advanced HDI design. In this paper, we introduce our multiscale modeling methodology with an effective strategic framework for the HDI system. Our multiscale methodology in this paper adopts a bottom to top approach beginning with the high-resolution modeling, which describes the intramolecular/intermolecular PFPE-COC degrees of freedom governing the functional oligomeric molecular conformations on the carbon surfaces. By introducing methodology for integrating atomistic/molecular/mesoscale levels via coarse-graining procedures, we investigated static and dynamic properties of PFPE-COC combinations with various molecular architectures. By bridging the atomistic and molecular scales, we are able to systematically incorporate first-principle physics into molecular models, thereby demonstrating a pathway for designing materials based on molecular architecture. We also discussed future materials (e.g., graphene for COC, star-like PFPEs) and systems (e.g., heat-assisted magnetic recording (HAMR)) with higher scale modeling methodology, which enables the incorporation of molecular/mesoscale information into the continuum scale models. Myung S. Jhon, Pil Seung Chung, Robert L. Smith, and Lorenz T. Biegler Copyright © 2013 Myung S. Jhon et al. All rights reserved. Mechanical Hybrid KERS Based on Toroidal Traction Drives: An Example of Smart Tribological Design to Improve Terrestrial Vehicle Performance Mon, 25 Mar 2013 16:59:37 +0000 We analyse in terms of efficiency and traction capabilities a recently patented traction drive, referred to as the double roller full-toroidal variator (DFTV). We compare its performance with the single roller full-toroidal variator (SFTV) and the single roller half-toroidal variator (SHTV). Modeling of these variators involves challenging tribological issues; the traction and efficiency performances depend on tribological phenomena occurring at the interface between rollers and disks, where the lubricant undergoes very severe elastohydrodynamic lubrication regimes. Interestingly, the DFTV shows an improvement of the mechanical efficiency over a wide range of transmission ratios and in particular at the unit speed ratio as in such conditions in which the DFTV allows for zero-spin, thus strongly enhancing its traction capabilities. The very high mechanical efficiency and traction performances of the DFTV are exploited to investigate the performance of a flywheel-based Kinetic Energy Recovery System (KERS), where the efficiency of the variator plays an important role in determining the overall energy recovery performance. The energy boost capabilities and the round-trip efficiency are calculated for the three different variators considered in this study. The results suggest that the energy recovery potential of the mechanical KERS can be improved with a proper choice of the variator. Francesco Bottiglione, Giuseppe Carbone, Leonardo De Novellis, Luigi Mangialardi, and Giacomo Mantriota Copyright © 2013 Francesco Bottiglione et al. All rights reserved. Effect of Nitrogen Implantation on Metal Transfer during Sliding Wear under Ambient Conditions Thu, 21 Mar 2013 18:01:18 +0000 Nitrogen implantation in Interstitial-Free steel was evaluated for its impact on metal transfer and 1100 Al rider wear. It was determined that nitrogen implantation reduced metal transfer in a trend that increased with dose; the Archard wear coefficient reductions of two orders of magnitude were achieved using a dose of 2e17 ions/cm2, 100 kV. Cold-rolling the steel and making volumetric wear measurements of the Al-rider determined that the hardness of the harder material had little impact on volumetric wear or friction. Nitrogen implantation had chemically affected the tribological process studied in two ways: directly reducing the rider wear and reducing the fraction of rider wear that ended up sticking to the ISF steel surface. The structure of the nitrogen in the ISF steel did not affect the tribological behavior because no differences in friction/wear measurements were detected after postimplantation heat treating to decompose the as-implanted ε-Fe3N to γ-Fe4N. The fraction of rider-wear sticking to the steel depended primarily on the near-surface nitrogen content. Covariance analysis of the debris oxygen and nitrogen contents indicated that nitrogen implantation enhanced the tribo-oxidation process with reference to the unimplanted material. As a result, the reduction in metal transfer was likely related to the observed tribo-oxidation in addition to the introduction of nitride wear elements into the debris. The primary Al rider wear mechanism was stick-slip, and implantation reduced the friction and friction noise associated with that wear mechanism. Calculations based on the Tabor junction growth formula indicate that the mitigation of the stick-slip mechanism resulted from a reduced adhesive strength at the interface during the sticking phase. Luke Autry and Harris Marcus Copyright © 2013 Luke Autry and Harris Marcus. All rights reserved. The Head-Disk Interface Roadmap to an Areal Density of Tbit/in2 Wed, 20 Mar 2013 11:05:55 +0000 This paper reviews the state of the head-disk interface (HDI) technology, and more particularly the head-medium spacing (HMS), for today’s and future hard-disk drives. Current storage areal density on a disk surface is fast approaching the one terabit per square inch mark, although the compound annual growth rate has reduced considerably from ~100%/annum in the late 1990s to 20–30% today. This rate is now lower than the historical, Moore’s law equivalent of ~40%/annum. A necessary enabler to a high areal density is the HMS, or the distance from the bottom of the read sensor on the flying head to the top of the magnetic medium on the rotating disk. This paper describes the various components of the HMS and various scenarios and challenges on how to achieve a goal of 4.0–4.5 nm for the 4 Tbit/in2 density point. Special considerations will also be given to the implication of disruptive technologies such as sealing the drive in an inert atmosphere and novel recording schemes such as bit patterned media and heat assisted magnetic recording. Bruno Marchon, Thomas Pitchford, Yiao-Tee Hsia, and Sunita Gangopadhyay Copyright © 2013 Bruno Marchon et al. All rights reserved. A Correlative Defect Analyzer Combining Glide Test with Atomic Force Microscope Tue, 19 Mar 2013 11:02:40 +0000 We have developed a novel instrument combining a glide tester with an Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) for hard disk drive (HDD) media defect test and analysis. The sample stays on the same test spindle during both glide test and AFM imaging without losing the relevant coordinates. This enables an in situ evaluation with the high-resolution AFM of the defects detected by the glide test. The ability for the immediate follow-on AFM analysis solves the problem of relocating the defects quickly and accurately in the current workflow. The tool is furnished with other functions such as scribing, optical imaging, and head burnishing. Typical data generated from the tool are shown at the end of the paper. It is further demonstrated that novel experiments can be carried out on the platform by taking advantage of the correlative capabilities of the tool. Jizhong He Copyright © 2013 Jizhong He. All rights reserved. A Clue to Understand Environmental Influence on Friction and Wear of Diamond-Like Nanocomposite Thin Film Mon, 04 Mar 2013 15:09:46 +0000 The wear and friction of diamond-like nanocomposite (DLN) film have been investigated in air with different relative humidity (RH), under deionized (DI) water and saline solution. The structure of the film has been characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The result shows two interpenetrating network structure: a–C:H and a–Si:O, and they are interpenetrated by Si–C bonding. The tribological performance has been measured using ball-on-disc tribometer with tungsten carbide ball as counterbody at 10 N normal load. Results show that with increasing relative humidity (RH) from 35% to 80%, the coefficient of friction (COF) increases gradually from 0.005 to 0.074, whereas with increasing RH the wear factor decreases from  mm3/Nm and attains a minimum value of  mm3/Nm at 50% RH. With further increase of RH the wear factor increases again. Moreover, in DI water and especially in saline solution, both the COF and wear factor have been found to be significantly low. A clue has been interpreted to understand environmental dependency, considering the effect of surface dangling bonds, charge transfer, and chemical interactions. Sukhendu Jana, Sayan Das, Utpal Gangopadhyay, Anup Mondal, and Prajit Ghosh Copyright © 2013 Sukhendu Jana et al. All rights reserved. Contact Thermal Analysis and Wear Simulation of a Brake Block Wed, 27 Feb 2013 10:04:26 +0000 The present paper describes an experimental test and a coupled contact-thermal-wear analysis of a railway wheel/brake block system through the braking process. During the test, the friction, the generated heat, and the wear were evaluated. It was found that the contact between the brake block and the wheel occurs in relatively small and slowly moving hot spots, caused by the wear and the thermal effects. A coupled simulation method was developed including numerical frictional contact, transient thermal and incremental wear calculations. In the 3D simulation, the effects of the friction, the thermal expansion, the wear, and the temperature-dependent material properties were also considered. A good agreement was found between the results of the test and the calculations, both for the thermal and wear results. The proposed method is suitable for modelling the slowly oscillating wear caused by the thermal expansions in the contact area. Nándor Békési and Károly Váradi Copyright © 2013 Nándor Békési and Károly Váradi. All rights reserved. Surface Layer States of Worn Uncoated and TiN-Coated WC/Co-Cemented Carbide Cutting Tools after Dry Plain Turning of Carbon Steel Sun, 24 Feb 2013 08:44:29 +0000 Analyzing wear mechanisms and developments of surface layers in WC/Co-cemented carbide cutting inserts is of great importance for metal-cutting manufacturing. By knowing relevant processes within the surface layers of cutting tools during machining the choice of machining parameters can be influenced to get less wear and high tool life of the cutting tool. Tool wear obviously influences tool life and surface integrity of the workpiece (residual stresses, surface quality, work hardening, etc.), so the choice of optimised process parameters is of great relevance. Vapour-deposited coatings on WC/Co-cemented carbide cutting inserts are known to improve machining performance and tool life, but the mechanisms behind these improvements are not fully understood. The interaction between commercial TiN-coated and uncoated WC/Co-cemented carbide cutting inserts and a normalised SAE 1045 steel workpiece was investigated during a dry plain turning operation with constant material removal under varied machining parameters. Tool wear was assessed by light-optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and EDX analysis. The state of surface layer was investigated by metallographic sectioning. Microstructural changes and material transfer due to tribological processes in the cutting zone were examined by SEM and EDX analyses. Johannes Kümmel, Katja Poser, Frederik Zanger, Jürgen Michna, and Volker Schulze Copyright © 2013 Johannes Kümmel et al. All rights reserved. Journal Bearings Lubrication Aspect Analysis Using Non-Newtonian Fluids Mon, 04 Feb 2013 14:47:50 +0000 The aim of this work is related to an analysis of journal bearings lubrication using non-Newtonian fluids which are described by a power-law model. The performance characteristics of the journal bearings are determined for various values of the non-Newtonian power-law index “” which is equal to: 0.9, 1, and 1.1. Obtained numerical results show that for the dilatant fluids (), the load-carrying capacity, the pressure, the temperature, and the frictional force increased while for the pseudo-plastic fluids () they decreased. The influence of the thermal effects on these characteristics is important at higher values of the flow behavior index “.” Obtained results are compared to those obtained by others. Good agreement is observed between the different results. Abdessamed Nessil, Salah Larbi, Hacene Belhaneche, and Maamar Malki Copyright © 2013 Abdessamed Nessil et al. All rights reserved. Atomistic Frictional Properties of the C(100)2x1-H Surface Sun, 03 Feb 2013 14:57:10 +0000 Density functional theory- (DFT-) based ab initio calculations were used to investigate the surface-to-surface interaction and frictional behavior of two hydrogenated C(100) dimer surfaces. A monolayer of hydrogen atoms was applied to the fully relaxed C(100)2x1 surface having rows of C=C dimers with a bond length of 1.39 Å. The obtained C(100)2x1-H surfaces (C–H bond length 1.15 Å) were placed in a large vacuum space and translated toward each other. A cohesive state at a surface separation of 4.32 Å that is stabilized by approximately 0.42 eV was observed. An increase in the charge separation in the surface dimer was calculated at this separation having a 0.04 e transfer from the hydrogen atom to the carbon atom. The Mayer bond orders were calculated for the C–C and C–H bonds and were found to be 0.962 and 0.947, respectively. σ C–H bonds did not change substantially from the fully separated state. A significant decrease in the electron density difference between the hydrogen atoms on opposite surfaces was seen and assigned to the effects of Pauli repulsion. The surfaces were translated relative to each other in the (100) plane, and the friction force was obtained as a function of slab spacing, which yielded a 0.157 coefficient of friction. Paul M. Jones, Huan Tang, Yiao-Tee Hsia, Xiaoping Yan, James D. Kiely, Junwei Huang, Christopher Platt, Xiaoding Ma, Michael Stirniman, and Lang Dinh Copyright © 2013 Paul M. Jones et al. 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