About this Journal Submit a Manuscript Table of Contents
Advances in Urology
Volume 2010 (2010), Article ID 269254, 3 pages
Review Article

Pseudomembranous Trigonitis: A Common but Underrecognized Urological Entity

2nd Department of Urology, School of Medicine, University of Athens, Sismanoglio Hospital, Sismanogliou 1, 15126 Athens, Greece

Received 18 July 2010; Revised 11 September 2010; Accepted 28 October 2010

Academic Editor: Darius J. Bagli

Copyright © 2010 M. Stavropoulos et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. S. P. Jost, J. A. Gosling, and J. S. Dixon, “The fine structure of human pseudomembranous trigonitis,” British Journal of Urology, vol. 64, no. 5, pp. 472–477, 1989. View at Scopus
  2. A. Heymann, “Die cystitis trigoni der frau,” Zentralblatt fur die Krankheiten der Hahn und Sexual Organe, vol. 16, pp. 422–433, 1905.
  3. D. P. Wiener, L. G. Koss, B. Sablay, and S. Z. Freed, “The prevalence and significance of Brunn's nests, cystitis cystica and squamous metaplasia in normal bladders,” Journal of Urology, vol. 122, no. 3, pp. 317–321, 1979. View at Scopus
  4. S. C. Mueller, J. W. Thueroff, and H. J. Rumpelt, “Urothelial leukoplakia: new aspects of etiology and therapy,” Journal of Urology, vol. 137, no. 5, pp. 979–983, 1987. View at Scopus
  5. D. Pacchioni, A. Revelli, G. Casetta et al., “Immunohistochemical detection of estrogen and progesterone receptors in the normal urinary bladder and in pseudomembranous trigonitis,” Journal of Endocrinological Investigation, vol. 15, no. 10, pp. 719–725, 1992. View at Scopus
  6. G. A. Russell, T. Crowley, and J. O. Dalrymple, “Squamous metaplasia in the penile urethra due to oestrogen therapy,” British Journal of Urology, vol. 69, no. 3, pp. 282–285, 1992. View at Scopus
  7. L. Henry and M. Fox, “Histological findings in pseudomembranous trigonitis,” Journal of Clinical Pathology, vol. 24, no. 7, pp. 605–608, 1971. View at Scopus
  8. I. Ozbry, Y. Aksoy, O. Polat, O. Bicgi, and A. Demirel, “Squamous metaplasia of the bladder: findings in 14 patients and review of the literature,” International Urology and Nephrology, vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 457–461, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. C. Perrotta, M. Aznar, R. Mejia, X. Albert, and C. W. Ng, “Oestrogens for preventing recurrent urinary tract infection in postmenopausal women,” Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, no. 2, Article ID CD005131, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  10. E. D. Long and R. T. Shepherd, “The incidence and significance of vaginal metaplasia of the bladder trigone in adult women,” British Journal of Urology, vol. 55, no. 2, pp. 189–194, 1983. View at Scopus
  11. P. M. Allen, G. D. Davis, L. W. Bowen, P. K. Sand, D. B. Hebert, and E. J. Wilkinson, “The female urethral syndrome is rarely associated with human papillomavirus infection types 6/11, 16, 18, 31, 33,” International Urogynecology Journal and Pelvic Floor Dysfunction, vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 195–197, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. S. P. Jost, J. S. Dixon, and J. A. Gosling, “Ultrastructural observations on cystitis cystica in human bladder urothelium,” British Journal of Urology, vol. 71, no. 1, pp. 28–33, 1993. View at Scopus
  13. K. Sugaya, S. Nishijima, M. Oda et al., “Transabdominal vesical sonography of urethral syndrome and stress incontinence,” International Journal of Urology, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 36–42, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. S. Murakami, T. Igarashi, M. Takahara, T. Yamanishi, J. Shimazaki, and H. Shigematsu, “Squamous metaplasia of the trigone in women with recurrent cystitis syndrome,” Acta Urologica Japonica, vol. 31, no. 2, pp. 301–307, 1985. View at Scopus
  15. F. C. Burkhard, N. Blick, W. W. Hochreiter, and U. E. Studer, “Urinary urgency and frequency, and chronic urethral and/or pelvic pain in females. Can doxycycline help?” Journal of Urology, vol. 172, no. 1, pp. 232–235, 2004. View at Scopus
  16. E. Costantini, A. Zucchi, M. del Zingaro, and L. Mearini, “Treatment of urethral syndrome: a prospective randomized study with Nd:YAG laser,” Urologia Internationalis, vol. 76, no. 2, pp. 134–138, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  17. L. K. Daha, C. R. Riedl, D. Lazar, R. Simak, and H. Pflüger, “Effect of intravesical glycosaminoglycan substitution therapy on bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis, bladder capacity and potassium sensitivity,” Scandinavian Journal of Urology and Nephrology, vol. 42, no. 4, pp. 369–372, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  18. M. L. Sommariva, S. D. Sandri, and V. Ceriani, “Efficacy of sodium hyaluronate in the management of chemical and radiation cystitis,” Minerva Urologica e Nefrologica, vol. 62, no. 2, pp. 145–150, 2010.
  19. B. R. Toft and J. Nordling, “Recent developments of intravesical therapy of painful bladder syndrome/interstitial cystitis: a review,” Current Opinion in Urology, vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 268–272, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus