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Advances in Urology
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 181987, 13 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/181987
Review Article

Bladder Cancer Immunotherapy: BCG and Beyond

Department of Urology, University of Iowa, 375 Newton Road, 3204 MERF, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA

Received 16 March 2012; Accepted 11 May 2012

Academic Editor: Trinity J. Bivalacqua

Copyright © 2012 Eric J. Askeland et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) has become the predominant conservative treatment for nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer. Its mechanism of action continues to be defined but has been shown to involve a T helper type 1 (Th1) immunomodulatory response. While BCG treatment is the current standard of care, a significant proportion of patients fails or do not tolerate treatment. Therefore, many efforts have been made to identify other intravesical and immunomodulating therapeutics to use alone or in conjunction with BCG. This paper reviews the progress of basic science and clinical experience with several immunotherapeutic agents including IFN-α, IL-2, IL-12, and IL-10.