Table 2: Significant risk factors identified by the GEE and/or PHREG methods.

Questions Possible responsesResponse associated with higher incontinence risk GEE*PHREG**
P valueP valueHazard ratio

F1What about problems with constipation in the past 12 months?(1) Yes
(2) No
(3) Don’t know.
Yes 0.0108 0.0162 1.53
F2In general, how would you describe your health? Would you say that it is excellent, very good, good, fair, or poor?(1) Excel
(2) V. Good
(3) Good
(4) Fair
(5) Poor
(6) Don’t know
Poor0.0139 0.0122 0.57
F3Have you had any blood, cloudiness, or foul smell in your urine in the past 12 months? (1) Yes
(2) No
(3) Don’t know.
Yes0.0287 0.0241 2.02
F4In general, over a 24-hour period, about how many times do you go to the toilet and urinate?At least 8 times0.0038 0.0026 1.60
F5Have you ever had female surgery such as your ovaries, vagina, fallopian tubes, uterus, rectum, or urethra?(1) Yes
(2) No
(3) Don’t know.
Yes0.0044 0.0620 1.70
F6Do you have trouble getting to the bathroom on time? (1) Yes
(2) No
(3) Don’t know.
Yes<0.0001 <0.0001 6.86
F7How often do you wet or soil yourself during the day or night?(1) Would you say never
(2) Less than once a week
(3) Once or twice a week
(4) Three or more times a  week
At least once a week<0.0001 <0.0001 31.53
F8 Some people find that occasionally they experience wet undergarments soon after they empty their bladders into the toilet. In other words, the bladder feels empty, but later leaks more. Is this ever true for you?(1) Yes
(2) No
(3) Don’t know
Yes<0.0001 <0.0001 4.75
F9How about your memory? Has it become worse within the last five years? (1) Yes
(2) No
(3) Don’t know.
Yes0.0224 0.0141 1.47
F10How likely do you think it is that you will have a urine loss condition in the future?(1) Is it very likely
(2) Somewhat likely
(3) A little likely
(4) Not likely at all
(1) Very likely
(2) Somewhat likely
0.0003 <0.0001 3.34
F11In an average week, would you say that you get a large amount of exercise, a fair amount of exercise, a little exercise, or no exercise?(1) Large amount,
(2) Fair amount
(3) A little
(4) No exercise at all
(5) Don’t know
(3) A little
(4) No exercise at all
0.0098 0.0563 1.44
F12How often do you run errands outside the home for either family members or friends? (Would you say…) (1) Al. everyday
(2) ≥1/week
(3) 1 or 2/month
(4) Few/year
(5) Less often than that
(6)Don’t know.
(4) Few/year, or
(5) Less often than that
0.0333 0.0236 0.69
F13In the past 12 months, have you had to use a catheter or urine tube to empty your bladder?(1) Yes
(2) No
(3) Don’t know
Yes0.0133 0.0038 0.20
F14Have you ever been told by a doctor that you had high blood pressure?(1) Yes
(2) No
(3) Don’t know.
Yes 0.0287 0.0148 0.66
F15When you go for visits to your doctor (regular doctor), does your doctor ask you if you are having any problems with urine loss or bladder control problems?(1) Yes
(2) No
(3) Not regular
(4) Don’t know
(2) No
or
(3) Not regularly
0.0062 0.0028 0.62

*GEE: generalized estimating equation.
**PHREG: proportional hazard regression model.