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Advances in Urology
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 404581, 11 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/404581
Review Article

Oncolytic Viruses in the Treatment of Bladder Cancer

1Department of Oncology, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada T6G 2E1
2Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada T6G 2B7

Received 15 April 2012; Accepted 5 June 2012

Academic Editor: Nan-Haw Chow

Copyright © 2012 Kyle G. Potts et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Bladder carcinoma is the second most common malignancy of the urinary tract. Up to 85% of patients with bladder cancer are diagnosed with a tumor that is limited to the bladder mucosa (Ta, T1, and CIS). These stages are commonly termed as non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC). Although the treatment of NMIBC has greatly improved in recent years, there is a need for additional therapies when patients fail bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) and chemotherapeutic agents. We propose that bladder cancer may be an ideal target for oncolytic viruses engineered to selectively replicate in and lyse tumor cells leaving normal cells unharmed. In support of this hypothesis, here we review current treatment strategies for bladder cancer and their shortcomings, as well as recent advancements in oncolytic viral therapy demonstrating encouraging safety profiles and antitumor activity.