- About this Journal ·
- Abstracting and Indexing ·
- Advance Access ·
- Aims and Scope ·
- Article Processing Charges ·
- Articles in Press ·
- Author Guidelines ·
- Bibliographic Information ·
- Citations to this Journal ·
- Contact Information ·
- Editorial Board ·
- Editorial Workflow ·
- Free eTOC Alerts ·
- Publication Ethics ·
- Reviewers Acknowledgment ·
- Submit a Manuscript ·
- Subscription Information ·
- Table of Contents
Advances in Urology
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 581712, 13 pages
The 2011 WPATH Standards of Care and Penile Reconstruction in Female-to-Male Transsexual Individuals
1Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, SE-41345 Gothenburg, Sweden
2Division of Psychiatry, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska University Hospital Huddinge, SE 14186 Stockholm, Sweden
3Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden
Received 9 January 2012; Revised 8 March 2012; Accepted 8 March 2012
Academic Editor: Amy B. Wisniewski
Copyright © 2012 Gennaro Selvaggi et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
- N. M. Fisk, “Editorial: gender dysphoria syndrome—the conceptualization that liberalizes indications for total gender reorientation and implies a broadly based multi-dimensional rehabilitative regimen,” Western Journal of Medicine, vol. 120, no. 5, pp. 386–391, 1974.
- G. Knudson, G. de Cuypere, and W. Bockting, “Recommendations for revision of the DSM diagnoses of gender identity disorders: consensus statement of the world professional association for transgender health,” International Journal of Transgenderism, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 115–118, 2010.
- World Health Organization, Manual of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases, Injuries, and Causes of Death, Tenth Revision, 1992.
- American Psychiatric Association, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR), American Psychiatric Association, Washington, DC, USA, 4th edition, 2000.
- W. Eicher, Transsexualismus: Moglichkeiten und Grenzen der Geschlechtsumwandlung, G. Fischer, Stuttgart, Germany, 1992.
- H. Benjamin, The Transsexual Phenomenon, Julian Press, New York, NY, USA, 1966.
- J. Walinder, “Transsexualism: definition, prevalence and sex distribution,” Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, Supplement, vol. 203, pp. 255–258, 1968.
- R. Ettner, S. Monstrey, and E. Eyler, Principles of Transgendereed Medicine and Surgery, The Haworth Press, New York, NY, USA, 2007.
- G. De Cuypere, M. Van Hemelrijck, A. Michel et al., “Prevalence and demography of transsexualism in Belgium,” European Psychiatry, vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 137–141, 2007.
- B. Reed, S. Rhodes, P. Schofield, and K. Wylie, “Gender variance in the UK: prevalence, incidence, growth and geographic distribution,” GIRES, 2009, http://www.gires.org.uk/assets/Medpro- Assets/GenderVarianceUK-report.pdf.
- J. N. Zhou, M. A. Hofman, L. J. G. Gooren, and D. F. Swaab, “A sex difference in the human brain and its relation to transsexuality,” Nature, vol. 378, no. 6552, pp. 68–70, 1995.
- F. P. M. Kruijver, J. N. Zhou, C. W. Pool, M. A. Hofman, L. J. G. Gooren, and D. F. Swaab, “Male-to-female transsexuals have female neuron numbers in a limbic nucleus,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 85, no. 5, pp. 2034–2041, 2000.
- D. F. Swaab, W. C. J. Chung, F. P. M. Kruijver, M. A. Hofman, and T. A. Ishunina, “Sexual differentiation of the human hypothalamus,” Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, vol. 511, pp. 75–105, 2002.
- A. Garcia-Falgueras and D. F. Swaab, “A sex difference in the hypothalamic uncinate nucleus: relationship to gender identity,” Brain, vol. 131, part 12, pp. 3132–3146, 2008.
- H. Berglund, P. Lindström, C. Dhejne-Helmy, and I. Savic, “Male-to-female transsexuals show sex-atypical hypothalamus activation when smelling odorous steroids,” Cerebral Cortex, vol. 18, no. 8, pp. 1900–1908, 2008.
- I. Savic and S. Arver, “Sex dimorphism of the brain in male-to-female transsexuals,” Cerebral Cortex, vol. 21, no. 11, pp. 2525–2533, 2011.
- The World Professional Association for Transgender Health, “Standards of Care for the Health of Transsexual, Transgender, and Gender Nonconforming People. 7th Version,” 2011, http://www.wpath.org.
- G. Selvaggi and J. Bellringer, “Gender reassignment surgery: an overview,” Nature Reviews Urology, vol. 8, no. 5, pp. 274–281, 2011.
- M. H. Murad, M. B. Elamin, M. Z. Garcia et al., “Hormonal therapy and sex reassignment: a systematic review and meta-analysis of quality of life and psychosocial outcomes,” Clinical Endocrinology, vol. 72, no. 2, pp. 214–231, 2010.
- The Harry Benjamin International Gender Dysphoria Association, “The Harry Benjamin International Gender Dysphoria Association’s Standards Of Care For World Professional Association for Gender Identity Disorders, 6th Version,” 2001, http://www.wpath.org/documents2/socv6.pdf.
- M. E. Petersen and R. Dickey, “Surgical sex reassignment: a comparative survey of international centers,” Archives of Sexual Behavior, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 135–156, 1995.
- G. Selvaggi and A. Elander, “Penile reconstruction/formation,” Current Opinion in Urology, vol. 18, no. 6, pp. 589–597, 2008.
- W. J. Meyer III, W. O. Bockting, and P. Cohen-Kettenis, “The standards of care for gender identity disorders, 6th version,” Journal of Psychology and Human Sexuality, vol. 13, pp. 1–30, 2001.
- S. Winter, P. Chalungsooth, Y. K. Teh et al., “Transpeople, transprejudice and pathologization: a seven-country factor analytic study,” International Journal of Sexual Health, vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 96–118, 2009.
- J. J. Hage and R. B. Karim, “Ought GIDNOS get nought? Treatment options for nontranssexual gender dysphoria,” Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, vol. 105, no. 3, pp. 1222–1227, 2000.
- G. De Cuypere, G. T'Sjoen, R. Beerten et al., “Sexual and physical health after sex reassignment surgery,” Archives of Sexual Behavior, vol. 34, no. 6, pp. 679–690, 2005.
- L. Gijs and A. Brewaeys, “Surgical treatment of gender dysphoria in adults and adolescents: recent developments, effectiveness, and challenges,” Annual Review of Sex Research, vol. 18, pp. 178–224, 2007.
- C. Klein and B. B. Gorzalka, “Sexual functioning in transsexuals following hormone therapy and genital surgery: a review,” Journal of Sexual Medicine, vol. 6, no. 11, pp. 2922–2939, 2009.
- F. Pfäfflin and A. Junge, “Sex reassignment. Thirty years of international follow-up studies after sex reassignment surgery: a comprehensive review, 1961–1991,” International Journal of Transgenderism, vol. 2, no. 3, 1998.
- S. Monstrey, P. Hoebeke, G. Selvaggi et al., “Penile reconstruction: is the radial forearm flap really the standard technique?” Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, vol. 124, no. 2, pp. 510–518, 2009.
- K. Wierckx, E. Van Caenegem, E. Elaut et al., “Quality of life and sexual health after sex reassignment surgery in transsexual men,” Journal of Sexual Medicine, vol. 8, no. 12, pp. 3379–3388, 2011.
- J. J. Hage and F. H. De Graaf, “Addressing the ideal requirements by free flap phalloplasty: some reflections on refinements of technique,” Microsurgery, vol. 14, no. 9, pp. 592–598, 1993.
- A. A. Lawrence, “Patient-reported complications and functional outcomes of male-to-female sex reassignment surgery,” Archives of Sexual Behavior, vol. 35, no. 6, pp. 717–727, 2006.
- C. Dhejne, P. Lichtenstein, M. Boman, A. L. Johansson, N. Langstrom, and M. Landen, “Long-term follow-up of transsexual persons undergoing sex reassignment surgery: cohort study in Sweden,” PloS One, vol. 6, no. 2, Article ID e16885, 2011.
- S. Monstrey, P. Hoebeke, M. Dhont et al., “Surgical therapy in transsexual patients : a multi-disciplinary approach,” Acta Chirurgica Belgica, no. 5, pp. 200–209, 2001.
- S. Baumeister, M. Sohn, C. Domke, and K. Exner, “Phalloplasty in female-to-male transsexuals: experience from 259 cases,” Handchirurgie, Mikrochirurgie, Plastische Chirurgie, vol. 43, no. 4, pp. 215–221, 2011.