Table 3: Priapism treatments and outcomes.

Treatment( )

Observation/no treatment (incl. neurogenic)20
Embolization1
Irrigation only22
Irrigation followed by shunt36
Number of separate shunt procedures per patient
   (1)18
   (2)15
   (3)2
   (4)1

Immediate complications
procedureComplication and treatment ( )

Irrigation and injectionAtrial fibrillation → cardioversion (1)
Distal shuntWound infection → antibiotics (1)
Proximal shuntUrethral injury → prolonged catheter (2)
Perineal hematoma → evacuation (1)
Perineal wound infection → wound care (1)

Long-term outcomes

Number with follow-up35
Median follow-up (months)3, range 0.25–60
Chronic pain5
Further surgery
 Prosthesis placement3
 Shunt closure5
Intermittent priapism1
Erections inadequate for intercourse29