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Advances in Urology
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 781459, 14 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/781459
Review Article

Biomarker-Based Targeting of the Androgen-Androgen Receptor Axis in Advanced Prostate Cancer

1Department of Oncology, Mayo Clinic, 200 First Street SW, Rochester, MN 55905, USA
2Department of Health Sciences Research, Mayo Clinic, 200 First Street SW, Rochester, MN 55905, USA
3Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Mayo Clinic, 200 First Street SW, Rochester, MN 55905, USA
4Masonic Cancer Center and Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA

Received 14 April 2012; Accepted 9 June 2012

Academic Editor: Joanne Edwards

Copyright © 2012 Manish Kohli et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Recent therapeutic advances for managing advanced prostate cancer include the successful targeting of the androgen-AR axis with several new drugs in castrate resistant prostate cancer including abiraterone acetate and enzalutamide (MDV3100). This translational progress from “bench to bed-side” has resulted in an enlarging repertoire of novel and traditional drug choices now available for use in advanced prostate cancer therapeutics, which has had a positive clinical impact in prolonging longevity and quality of life of advanced prostate cancer patients. In order to further the clinical utility of these drugs, development of predictive biomarkers guiding individual therapeutic choices remains an ongoing challenge. This paper will summarize the potential in developing predictive biomarkers based on the pathophysiology of the androgen-AR axis in tumor tissue from patients with advanced prostate cancer as well as inherited variation in the patient’s genome. Specific examples of rational clinical trial designs incorporating potential predictive biomarkers from these pathways will illustrate several aspects of pharmacogenetic and pharmacogenomic predictive biomarker development in advanced prostate cancer therapeutics.