About this Journal Submit a Manuscript Table of Contents
Advances in Urology
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 781459, 14 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/781459
Review Article

Biomarker-Based Targeting of the Androgen-Androgen Receptor Axis in Advanced Prostate Cancer

1Department of Oncology, Mayo Clinic, 200 First Street SW, Rochester, MN 55905, USA
2Department of Health Sciences Research, Mayo Clinic, 200 First Street SW, Rochester, MN 55905, USA
3Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Mayo Clinic, 200 First Street SW, Rochester, MN 55905, USA
4Masonic Cancer Center and Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA

Received 14 April 2012; Accepted 9 June 2012

Academic Editor: Joanne Edwards

Copyright © 2012 Manish Kohli et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. R. Siegel, E. Ward, O. Brawley, et al., “Cancer statistics, 2011: the impact of eliminating socioeconomic and racial disparities on premature cancer deaths,” CA—A Cancer Journal for Clinicians, vol. 61, no. 4, pp. 212–236, 2011.
  2. C. Huggins, “Prostatic cancer treated by orchiectomy, the five year results,” The Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 131, no. 7, pp. 576–581, 1946. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  3. C. Huggins and C. V. Hodges, “Studies on prostatic cancer: I. The effect of castration, of estrogen and of androgen injection on serum phosphatases in metastatic carcinoma of the prostate. 1941,” Journal of Urology, vol. 168, no. 1, pp. 9–12, 2002. View at Scopus
  4. N. Howlader, A. M. Noone, M. Krapcho, et al., SEER Cancer Statistics Review, 1976–2008, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Md, USA, 2011.
  5. E. D. Crawford, M. A. Eisenberger, D. G. McLeod et al., “A controlled trial of leuprolide with and without flutamide in prostatic carcinoma,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 321, no. 7, pp. 419–424, 1989. View at Scopus
  6. L. J. Denis, F. Keuppens, P. H. Smith et al., “Maximal androgen blockade: final analysis of EORTC phase III trial 30853,” European Urology, vol. 33, no. 2, pp. 144–151, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. M. A. Eisenberger, B. A. Blumenstein, E. D. Crawford et al., “Bilateral orchiectomy with or without flutamide for metastatic prostate cancer,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 339, no. 15, pp. 1036–1042, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. O. Dalesio, H. Van Tinteren, M. Clarke, R. Peto, and F. H. Schroder, “Maximum androgen blockade in advanced prostate cancer: an overview of the randomised trials,” The Lancet, vol. 355, no. 9214, pp. 1491–1498, 2000. View at Scopus
  9. N. L. Keating, A. J. O'Malley, and M. R. Smith, “Diabetes and cardiovascular disease during androgen deprivation therapy for prostate cancer,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 24, no. 27, pp. 4448–4456, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. I. B. Weinstein and A. Joe, “Oncogene addiction,” Cancer Research, vol. 68, no. 9, pp. 3077–3080, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. L. A. Garraway and W. R. Sellers, “Lineage dependency and lineage-survival oncogenes in human cancer,” Nature Reviews Cancer, vol. 6, no. 8, pp. 593–602, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. D. W. Russell and J. D. Wilson, “Steroid 5α-reductase: two genes/two enzymes,” Annual Review of Biochemistry, vol. 63, pp. 25–61, 1994. View at Scopus
  13. D. B. Lubahn, T. R. Brown, J. A. Simental et al., “Sequence of the intron/exon junctions of the coding region of the human androgen receptor gene and identification of a point mutation in a family with complete androgen insensitivity,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 86, no. 23, pp. 9534–9538, 1989. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. D. N. Lavery and I. J. McEwan, “Structure and function of steroid receptor AF1 transactivation domains: induction of active conformations,” Biochemical Journal, vol. 391, no. 3, pp. 449–464, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. D. N. Lavery and I. J. McEwan, “The human androgen receptor AF1 transactivation domain: interactions with transcription factor IIF and molten-globule-like structural characteristics,” Biochemical Society Transactions, vol. 34, no. 6, pp. 1054–1057, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. H. V. Heemers and D. J. Tindall, “Androgen receptor (AR) coregulators: a diversity of functions converging on and regulating the AR transcriptional complex,” Endocrine Reviews, vol. 28, no. 7, pp. 778–808, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. J. T. Isaacs, Y. Furuya, and R. Berges, “The role of androgen in the regulation of programmed cell death/apoptosis in normal and malignant prostatic tissue,” Seminars in Cancer Biology, vol. 5, no. 5, pp. 391–400, 1994. View at Scopus
  18. F. A. Vicini, C. Vargas, A. Abner, L. Kestin, E. Horwitz, and A. Martinez, “Limitations in the use of serum prostate specific antigen levels to monitor patients after treatment for prostate cancer,” Journal of Urology, vol. 173, no. 5, pp. 1456–1462, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. J. A. Smith Jr., P. H. Lange, R. A. Janknegt, C. C. Abbou, and A. DeGery, “Serum markers as a predictor of response duration and patient survival after hormonal therapy for metastatic carcinoma of the prostate,” Journal of Urology, vol. 157, no. 4, pp. 1329–1334, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. E. J. Small and M. Roach, “Prostate-specific antigen in prostate cancer: a case study in the development of a tumor marker to monitor recurrence and assess response,” Seminars in Oncology, vol. 29, no. 3, pp. 264–273, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. R. W. Ross, W. Xie, M. M. Regan et al., “Efficacy of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) in patients with advanced prostate cancer: association between gleason score, prostate-specific antigen level, and prior ADT exposure with duration of ADT effect,” Cancer, vol. 112, no. 6, pp. 1247–1253, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. D. I. Quinn, S. M. Henshall, and R. L. Sutherland, “Molecular markers of prostate cancer outcome,” European Journal of Cancer, vol. 41, no. 6, pp. 858–887, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. M. Kohli and D. J. Tindall, “New developments in the medical management of prostate cancer,” Mayo Clinic Proceedings, vol. 85, no. 1, pp. 77–86, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. G. Attard, J. Richards, and J. S. De Bono, “New strategies in metastatic prostate cancer: targeting the androgen receptor signaling pathway,” Clinical Cancer Research, vol. 17, no. 7, pp. 1649–1657, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. Y. Chen, N. J. Clegg, and H. I. Scher, “Anti-androgens and androgen-depleting therapies in prostate cancer: new agents for an established target,” The Lancet Oncology, vol. 10, no. 10, pp. 981–991, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. Z. Culig and G. Bartsch, “Androgen axis in prostate cancer,” Journal of Cellular Biochemistry, vol. 99, no. 2, pp. 373–381, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. K. E. Knudsen and H. I. Scher, “Starving the addiction: new opportunities for durable suppression of AR signaling in prostate cancer,” Clinical Cancer Research, vol. 15, no. 15, pp. 4792–4798, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. K. J. Pienta and D. Bradley, “Mechanisms underlying the development of androgen-independent prostate cancer,” Clinical Cancer Research, vol. 12, no. 6, pp. 1665–1671, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. J. Sun, W. Liu, T. S. Adams et al., “DNA copy number alterations in prostate cancers: a combined analysis of published CGH studies,” Prostate, vol. 67, no. 7, pp. 692–700, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. W. Liu, S. Laitinen, S. Khan et al., “Copy number analysis indicates monoclonal origin of lethal metastatic prostate cancer,” Nature Medicine, vol. 15, no. 5, pp. 559–565, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. X. Mao, Y. Yu, L. K. Boyd et al., “Distinct genomic alterations in prostate cancers in Chinese and Western populations suggest alternative pathways of prostate carcinogenesis,” Cancer Research, vol. 70, no. 13, pp. 5207–5212, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. I. N. Holcomb, J. M. Young, I. M. Coleman et al., “Comparative analyses of chromosome alterations in soft-tissue metastases within and across patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer,” Cancer Research, vol. 69, no. 19, pp. 7793–7802, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. C. Ruiz, E. Lenkiewicz, L. Evers et al., “Advancing a clinically relevant perspective of the clonal nature of cancer,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 108, no. 29, pp. 12054–12059, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. A. Kumar, T. A. White, A. P. MacKenzie, et al., “Exome sequencing identifies a spectrum of mutation frequencies in advanced and lethal prostate cancers,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 108, no. 41, pp. 17087–17092, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  35. C. M. Robbins, W. A. Tembe, A. Baker et al., “Copy number and targeted mutational analysis reveals novel somatic events in metastatic prostate tumors,” Genome Research, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 47–55, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. B. S. Taylor, N. Schultz, H. Hieronymus et al., “Integrative genomic profiling of human prostate cancer,” Cancer Cell, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 11–22, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. M. F. Berger, M. S. Lawrence, F. Demichelis et al., “The genomic complexity of primary human prostate cancer,” Nature, vol. 470, no. 7333, pp. 214–220, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. J. Edwards, N. S. Krishna, K. M. Grigor, and J. M. S. Bartlett, “Androgen receptor gene amplification and protein expression in hormone refractory prostate cancer,” British Journal of Cancer, vol. 89, no. 3, pp. 552–556, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. O. H. Ford III, C. W. Gregory, D. Kim, A. B. Smitherman, and J. L. Mohler, “Androgen receptor gene amplification and protein expression in recurrent prostate cancer,” Journal of Urology, vol. 170, no. 5, pp. 1817–1821, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. M. J. Linja, K. J. Savinainen, O. R. Saramäki, T. L. J. Tammela, R. L. Vessella, and T. Visakorpi, “Amplification and overexpression of androgen receptor gene in hormone-refractory prostate cancer,” Cancer Research, vol. 61, no. 9, pp. 3550–3555, 2001. View at Scopus
  41. T. Visakorpi, E. Hyytinen, P. Koivisto et al., “In vivo amplification of the androgen receptor gene and progression of human prostate cancer,” Nature Genetics, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 401–406, 1995. View at Scopus
  42. M. A. Leversha, J. Han, Z. Asgari et al., “Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis of circulating tumor cells in metastatic prostate cancer,” Clinical Cancer Research, vol. 15, no. 6, pp. 2091–2097, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. G. Attard, J. F. Swennenhuis, D. Olmos et al., “Characterization of ERG, AR and PTEN gene status in circulating tumor cells from patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer,” Cancer Research, vol. 69, no. 7, pp. 2912–2918, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. J. P. Bergerat and J. Céraline, “Pleiotropic functional properties of androgen receptor mutants in prostate cancer,” Human Mutation, vol. 30, no. 2, pp. 145–157, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. G. N. Brooke and C. L. Bevan, “The role of androgen receptor mutations in prostate cancer progression,” Current Genomics, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 18–25, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. B. Gottlieb, L. K. Beitel, A. Nadarajah, M. Paliouras, and M. Trifiro, “The androgen receptor gene mutations database: 2012 update,” Human Mutation, vol. 33, no. 5, pp. 887–894, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. W. D. Tilley, C. M. Wilson, M. Marcelli, and M. J. McPhaul, “Androgen receptor gene expression in human prostate carcinoma cell lines,” Cancer Research, vol. 50, no. 17, pp. 5382–5386, 1990. View at Scopus
  48. J. Thompson, E. R. Hyytinen, K. Haapala et al., “Androgen receptor mutations in high-grade prostate cancer before hormonal therapy,” Laboratory Investigation, vol. 83, no. 12, pp. 1709–1713, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. K. Haapala, E. R. Hyytinen, M. Roiha et al., “Androgen receptor alterations in prostate cancer relapsed during a combined androgen blockade by orchiectomy and bicalutamide,” Laboratory Investigation, vol. 81, no. 12, pp. 1647–1651, 2001. View at Scopus
  50. E. R. Hyytinen, K. Haapala, J. Thompson et al., “Pattern of somatic androgen receptor gene mutations in patients with hormone-refractory prostate cancer,” Laboratory Investigation, vol. 82, no. 11, pp. 1591–1598, 2002. View at Scopus
  51. M. E. Taplin, G. J. Bubley, T. D. Shuster et al., “Mutation of the androgen-receptor gene in metastatic androgen-independent prostate cancer,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 332, no. 21, pp. 1393–1398, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. M. E. Taplin, G. J. Bubley, Y. J. Ko et al., “Selection for androgen receptor mutations in prostate cancers treated with androgen antagonist,” Cancer Research, vol. 59, no. 11, pp. 2511–2515, 1999. View at Scopus
  53. M. E. Taplin, B. Rajeshkumar, S. Halabi et al., “Androgen receptor mutations in androgen-independent prostate cancer: cancer and leukemia group B study 9663,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 21, no. 14, pp. 2673–2678, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. M. P. Steinkamp, O. A. O'Mahony, M. Brogley et al., “Treatment-dependent androgen receptor mutations in prostate cancer exploit multiple mechanisms to evade therapy,” Cancer Research, vol. 69, no. 10, pp. 4434–4442, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. G. Buchanan, N. M. Greenberg, H. I. Scher, J. M. Harris, V. R. Marshall, and W. D. Tilley, “Collocation of androgen receptor gene mutations in prostate cancer,” Clinical Cancer Research, vol. 7, no. 5, pp. 1273–1281, 2001. View at Scopus
  56. X. Y. Zhao, P. J. Malloy, A. V. Krishnan et al., “Glucocorticoids can promote androgen-independent growth of prostate cancer cells through a mutated androgen receptor,” Nature Medicine, vol. 6, no. 6, pp. 703–706, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. Z. Culig, A. Hobisch, M. V. Cronauer et al., “Mutant androgen receptor detected in an advanced-stage prostatic carcinoma is activated by adrenal androgens and progesterone,” Molecular Endocrinology, vol. 7, no. 12, pp. 1541–1550, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. Z. Culig, J. Stober, A. Gast et al., “Activation of two mutant androgen receptors from human prostatic carcinoma by adrenal androgens and metabolic derivatives of testosterone,” Cancer Detection and Prevention, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 68–75, 1996. View at Scopus
  59. J. M. Bentel and W. D. Tilley, “Androgen receptors in prostate cancer,” Journal of Endocrinology, vol. 151, no. 1, pp. 1–11, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. J. Veldscholte, C. Ris-Stalpers, G. G. J. M. Kuiper et al., “A mutation in the ligand binding domain of the androgen receptor of human LNCaP cells affects steroid binding characteristics and response to anti-androgens,” Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, vol. 173, no. 2, pp. 534–540, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. G. Buchanan, M. Yang, J. M. Harris et al., “Mutations at the boundary of the hinge and ligand binding domain of the androgen receptor confer increased transactivation function,” Molecular Endocrinology, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 46–56, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. G. Chen, X. Wang, S. Zhang et al., “Androgen receptor mutants detected in recurrent prostate cancer exhibit diverse functional characteristics,” Prostate, vol. 63, no. 4, pp. 395–406, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. W. D. Tilley, G. Buchanan, T. E. Hickey, and J. M. Bentel, “Mutations in the androgen receptor gene are associated with progression of human prostate cancer to androgen independence,” Clinical Cancer Research, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 277–285, 1996. View at Scopus
  64. G. Han, G. Buchanan, M. Ittmann et al., “Mutation of the androgen receptor causes oncogenic transformation of the prostate,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 102, no. 4, pp. 1151–1156, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. B. He, J. A. Kemppainen, and E. M. Wilson, “FXXLF and WXXLF sequences mediate the NH2-terminal interaction with the ligand binding domain of the androgen receptor,” The Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 275, no. 30, pp. 22986–22994, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. S. M. Dehm, K. M. Regan, L. J. Schmidt, and D. J. Tindall, “Selective role of an NH2-terminal WxxLF motif for aberrant androgen receptor activation in androgen depletion-independent prostate cancer cells,” Cancer Research, vol. 67, no. 20, pp. 10067–10077, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. X. B. Shi, A. H. Ma, C. G. Tepper et al., “Molecular alterations associated with LNCaP cell progression to androgen independence,” Prostate, vol. 60, no. 3, pp. 257–271, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. S. M. Dehm, L. J. Schmidt, H. V. Heemers, R. L. Vessella, and D. J. Tindall, “Splicing of a novel androgen receptor exon generates a constitutively active androgen receptor that mediates prostate cancer therapy resistance,” Cancer Research, vol. 68, no. 13, pp. 5469–5477, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. Z. Guo, X. Yang, F. Sun et al., “A novel androgen receptor splice variant is up-regulated during prostate cancer progression and promotes androgen depletion-resistant growth,” Cancer Research, vol. 69, no. 6, pp. 2305–2313, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. R. Hu, T. A. Dunn, S. Wei et al., “Ligand-independent androgen receptor variants derived from splicing of cryptic exons signify hormone-refractory prostate cancer,” Cancer Research, vol. 69, no. 1, pp. 16–22, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. S. Sun, C. C. T. Sprenger, R. L. Vessella et al., “Castration resistance in human prostate cancer is conferred by a frequently occurring androgen receptor splice variant,” Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 120, no. 8, pp. 2715–2730, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. P. A. Watson, Y. F. Chen, M. D. Balbas et al., “Constitutively active androgen receptor splice variants expressed in castration-resistant prostate cancer require full-length androgen receptor,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 107, no. 39, pp. 16759–16765, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. Y. Li, M. Alsagabi, D. Fan, G. S. Bova, A. H. Tewfik, and S. M. Dehm, “Intragenic rearrangement and altered RNA splicing of the androgen receptor in a cell-based model of prostate cancer progression,” Cancer Research, vol. 71, no. 6, pp. 2108–2117, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. Y. Li, T. H. Hwang, L. Oseth, et al., “AR intragenic deletions linked to androgen receptor splice variant expression and activity in models of prostate cancer progression,” Oncogene. In press.
  75. C. Kumar-Sinha, S. A. Tomlins, and A. M. Chinnaiyan, “Recurrent gene fusions in prostate cancer,” Nature Reviews Cancer, vol. 8, no. 7, pp. 497–511, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. C. Cai, H. Wang, Y. Xu, S. Chen, and S. P. Balk, “Reactivation of androgen receptor-regulated TMPRSS2:ERG gene expression in castration-resistant prostate cancer,” Cancer Research, vol. 69, no. 15, pp. 6027–6032, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  77. C. Wu, A. W. Wyatt, A. V. Lapuk, et al., “Integrated genome and transcriptome sequencing identifies a novel form of hybrid and aggressive prostate cancer,” Journal of Pathology, vol. 227, no. 1, pp. 53–61, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  78. T. W. Friedlander, R. Roy, S. A. Tomlins et al., “Common structural and epigenetic changes in the genome of castration-resistant prostate cancer,” Cancer Research, vol. 72, no. 3, pp. 616–625, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  79. T. Saloniemi, H. Jokela, L. Strauss, P. Pakarinen, and M. Poutanen, “The diversity of sex steroid action: novel functions of hydroxysteroid (17β) dehydrogenases as revealed by genetically modified mouse models,” Journal of Endocrinology, vol. 212, no. 1, pp. 27–40, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  80. A. T. El Gammal, M. Brüchmann, J. Zustin et al., “Chromosome 8p deletions and 8q gains are associated with tumor progression and poor prognosis in prostate cancer,” Clinical Cancer Research, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 56–64, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  81. H. Heemers, G. Verrijdt, S. Organe et al., “Identification of an androgen response element in intron 8 of the sterol regulatory element-binding protein cleavage-activating protein gene allowing direct regulation by the androgen receptor,” The Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 279, no. 29, pp. 30880–30887, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  82. J. D. Debes, L. J. Schmidt, H. Huang, and D. J. Tindall, “p300 mediates androgen-independent transactivation of the androgen receptor by interleukin 6,” Cancer Research, vol. 62, no. 20, pp. 5632–5636, 2002. View at Scopus
  83. J. D. Debes, T. J. Sebo, C. M. Lohse, L. M. Murphy, D. A. L. Haugen, and D. J. Tindall, “p300 in prostate cancer proliferation and progression,” Cancer Research, vol. 63, no. 22, pp. 7638–7640, 2003. View at Scopus
  84. H. J. Lenz, “The use and development of germline polymorphisms in clinical oncology,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 22, no. 13, pp. 2519–2521, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  85. R. W. Ross, W. K. Oh, W. Xie et al., “Inherited variation in the androgen pathway is associated with the efficacy of androgen-deprivation therapy in men with prostate cancer,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 26, no. 6, pp. 842–847, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  86. M. Kohli, S. M. Riska, D. W. Mahoney et al., “Germline predictors of androgen deprivation therapy response in advanced prostate cancer,” Mayo Clinic Proceedings, vol. 87, no. 3, pp. 240–246, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  87. M. Yang, W. Xie, E. Mostaghel et al., “SLCO2B1 and SLCO1B3 may determine time to progression for patients receiving androgen deprivation therapy for prostate cancer,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 29, no. 18, pp. 2565–2573, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  88. C.-N. Huang, S.-P. Huang, J.-B. Pao et al., “Genetic polymorphisms in oestrogen receptor-binding sites affect clinical outcomes in patients with prostate cancer receiving androgen-deprivation therapy,” Journal of Internal Medicine, vol. 271, no. 5, pp. 499–509, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  89. C.-N. Huang, S.-P. Huang, J.-B. Pao et al., “Genetic polymorphisms in androgen receptor-binding sites predict survival in prostate cancer patients receiving androgen-deprivation therapy,” Annals of Oncology, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 707–713, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  90. T. Sun, G. S. M. Lee, L. Werner et al., “Inherited variations in AR, ESR1, and ESR2 genes are not associated with prostate cancer aggressiveness or with efficacy of androgen deprivation therapy,” Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention, vol. 19, no. 7, pp. 1871–1878, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  91. J. S. De Bono, G. Attard, A. Adjei et al., “Potential applications for circulating tumor cells expressing the insulin-like growth factor-I receptor,” Clinical Cancer Research, vol. 13, no. 12, pp. 3611–3616, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  92. D. R. Shaffer, M. A. Leversha, D. C. Danila et al., “Circulating tumor cell analysis in patients with progressive castration-resistant prostate cancer,” Clinical Cancer Research, vol. 13, no. 7, pp. 2023–2029, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  93. D. C. Danila, M. Fleisher, and H. I. Scher, “Circulating tumor cells as biomarkers in prostate cancer,” Clinical Cancer Research, vol. 17, no. 12, pp. 3903–3912, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  94. Y. Jiang, J. F. Palma, D. B. Agus, Y. Wang, and M. E. Gross, “Detection of androgen receptor mutations in circulating tumor cells in castration-resistant prostate cancer,” Clinical Chemistry, vol. 56, no. 9, pp. 1492–1495, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  95. D. de Jong, S. L. J. Verbeke, D. Meijer, P. C. W. Hogendoorn, J. V. M. G. Bovee, and K. Szuhai, “Opening the archives for state of the art tumour genetic research: sample processing for array-CGH using decalcified, formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue-derived DNA samples,” BMC Research Notes, vol. 4, article 1, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  96. N. C. Buchan and S. L. Goldenberg, “Intermittent androgen suppression for prostate cancer,” Nature Reviews Urology, vol. 7, no. 10, pp. 552–560, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  97. C. N. A. M. Oldenhuis, S. F. Oosting, J. A. Gietema, and E. G. E. de Vries, “Prognostic versus predictive value of biomarkers in oncology,” European Journal of Cancer, vol. 44, no. 7, pp. 946–953, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  98. R. Simon, “The use of genomics in clinical trial design,” Clinical Cancer Research, vol. 14, no. 19, pp. 5984–5993, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  99. R. Simon and S. J. Wang, “Use of genomic signatures in therapeutics development in oncology and other diseases,” Pharmacogenomics Journal, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 166–173, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  100. R. Simon and A. Maitournam, “Evaluating the efficiency of targeted designs for randomized clinical trials,” Clinical Cancer Research, vol. 10, no. 20, pp. 6759–6763, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  101. A. Liu, C. Liu, Q. Li, K. F. Yu, and V. W. Yuan, “A threshold sample-enrichment approach in a clinical trial with heterogeneous subpopulations,” Clinical Trials, vol. 7, no. 5, pp. 537–545, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  102. S. J. Wang, R. T. O'Neill, and H. M. J. Hung, “Approaches to evaluation of treatment effect in randomized clinical trials with genomic subset,” Pharmaceutical Statistics, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 227–244, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  103. D. J. Sargent, B. A. Conley, C. Allegra, and L. Collette, “Clinical trial designs for predictive marker validation in cancer treatment trials,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 23, no. 9, pp. 2020–2027, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  104. B. Freidlin and R. Simon, “Adaptive signature design: an adaptive clinical trial design for generating and prospectively testing a gene expression signature for sensitive patients,” Clinical Cancer Research, vol. 11, no. 21, pp. 7872–7878, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  105. J. C. Eickhoff, K. Kim, J. Beach, J. M. Kolesar, and J. R. Gee, “A Bayesian adaptive design with biomarkers for targeted therapies,” Clinical Trials, vol. 7, no. 5, pp. 546–556, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  106. J. J. Lee, X. Gu, and S. Liu, “Bayesian adaptive randomization designs for targeted agent development,” Clinical Trials, vol. 7, no. 5, pp. 584–596, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  107. C. J. Ryan, S. Halabi, S. S. Ou, N. J. Vogelzang, P. Kantoff, and E. J. Small, “Adrenal androgen levels as predictors of outcome in prostate cancer patients treated with ketoconazole plus antiandrogen withdrawal: results from a Cancer and Leukemia Group B study,” Clinical Cancer Research, vol. 13, no. 7, pp. 2030–2037, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  108. E. Efstathiou, M. Titus, D. Tsavachidou et al., “Effects of abiraterone acetate on androgen signaling in castrate-resistant prostate cancer in bone,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 30, no. 6, pp. 637–643, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus