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Advances in Urology
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 813523, 5 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/813523
Review Article

Impact of Residual Fragments following Endourological Treatments in Renal Stones

1Department of Urology, Faculty of Medicine, Pamukkale University, 20070 Denizli, Turkey
2Department of Urology, Faculty of Medicine, Ege University, 35100 Izmir, Turkey

Received 27 February 2012; Revised 30 May 2012; Accepted 8 June 2012

Academic Editor: M. Hammad Ather

Copyright © 2012 Cenk Acar and Cag Cal. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Today, shock wave lithotripsy (SWL), percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL), and flexible ureterorenoscopy (URS) are the most widely used modalities for the management of renal stones. In earlier series, treatment success of renal calculi assessed with KUB radiography, ultrasound, or intravenous pyelography which are less sensitive than CT that leads to be diversity of study results in reporting outcome. Residual fragments (RFs) after interventional therapies may cause pain, infection, or obstruction. The size and location of RFs following SWL and PCNL are the major predictors for clinical significant symptoms and stone events requiring intervention. There is no consensus regarding schedule for followup of SWL, PCNL, and flexible URS. Active monitoring can be recommended when the stones become symptomatic, increase in size, or need intervention. RFs <4 mm after SWL and <2 mm after PCNL and flexible URS could be actively monitored on an annual basis with CT. Early repeat SWL and second-look endoscopy are recommended after primary SWL and PCNL, respectively. There is insufficient data for flexible URS, but RFs can be easily treated with repeat URS. Finally, medical therapy should be tailored based on the stone analysis and metabolic workup that may be helpful to prevent regrowth of the RFs.