Table 1: Correlation between prostate biopsy adverse effects and pharmacological treatment for benign prostatic hyperplasia.

Adverse effects*Control Group 1 Group 2 Group 3

Hematuria82 (59%)12 (36%) 0.011 (20%)0.021 (8%)0.003
Hematospermia42 (30%)6 (18%)0.23 (60%)0.12 (17%)0.5
Hematochezia16 (11%)4 (12%)11 (20%)0.51 (8%)1
Urethrorrhagia12 (9%)6 (18%)0.10 (zero)11 (8%)1
Fever4 (3%)1 (3%)10 (zero)10 (zero)1
Pain**16 (11%)2 (6%)0.51 (20%)0.51 (8%)1

Control: patients not using any medication (control/reference). Group 1: patients using alpha-blockers, exclusively. Group 2: patients using 5-alpha-reductase, exclusively. Group 3: patients using both medications. value ≤0.05 was considered significant (bold).*Lasting more than one week after the procedure. **Visual analog scale (VAS) ≥5, 24 h after the procedure.