Advances in Urology The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2016 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. From Inflammation to Prostate Cancer: The Role of Inflammasomes Mon, 27 Jun 2016 06:40:00 +0000 Inflammation-associated studies entice specific attention due to inflammation’s role in multiple stages of prostate cancer development. However, mechanistic regulation of inflammation inciting prostate cancer remains largely uncharacterized. A focused class of inflammatory regulators known as inflammasomes has recently gained attention in cancer development. Inflammasomes are a multiprotein complex that drives a cascade of proinflammatory cytokines regulating various cellular activities. Inflammasomes activation is linked with infection, stress, or danger signals, which are common events within the prostate gland. In this study, we review the potential of inflammasomes in understanding the role of inflammation in prostate cancer. Dev Karan and Seema Dubey Copyright © 2016 Dev Karan and Seema Dubey. All rights reserved. Evaluation of Lymphorrhea and Incidence of Lymphoceles: 4DryField® PH in Radical Retropubic Prostatectomy Thu, 23 Jun 2016 07:49:59 +0000 Purpose. To investigate impact of polysaccharide hemostat 4DryField PH (4DF) applied on lymph node dissection area after radical retropubic prostatectomy (RRP) on lymphorrhea and lymphocele (LC) formation. Methods. 104 consecutive patients underwent RRP, 51 without 4DF treatment (CT-group) and 53 with 4DF treatment (4DF-group). Groups were comparable (age, risk profile, and lymph node numbers). Postoperative drain loss (PDL) and development of early and late LC were analyzed (mean follow-up at 7 months: 100%). Results. PDL was 452.5 ± 634.2 mL without and 308.5 ± 214 mL with 4DF treatment. PDL > 1000 mL only occurred in CT-group (5/51). Overall, 45 LC (26 in CT- versus 19 in the 4DF-group) were diagnosed. At day 8, LC were equally distributed between groups. Incidence of late LC, however, was twice in controls (16/51) versus 4DF-patients (8/53). Symptomatic LC (4 in untreated patients, 2 in 4DF-patients) were treated with percutaneous drainage (duration: 45 days in untreated patients versus 12 days in 4DF-patients). Conclusion. Application of 4DF on lymph node dissection areas lessened total drain loss and significantly lowered high volume drain loss. Furthermore, 4DF reduced frequency of late lymphoceles and lymphoceles requiring treatment by half, as well as duration of percutaneous drainage by more than two-thirds. Johannes-J. Karsch, Martin Berthold, and Jürgen Breul Copyright © 2016 Johannes-J. Karsch et al. All rights reserved. Severity of Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms among Middle Aged and Elderly Nigerian Men: Impact on Quality of Life Sun, 19 Jun 2016 12:27:18 +0000 Objectives. To compare the severity of LUTS among middle aged and elderly Nigerian men and determine the influence of LUTS severity on QoL. Methods. This cross-sectional study was conducted among new patients presenting with LUTS attending Urology clinic between 2011 and 2015. Assessment of symptoms was based on IPSS and bother score completed by the eligible subjects on the same day of their clinic visits. Results. Four hundred patients were studied comprising 229 middle aged and 171 elderly men. Interquartile range (IQR) of IPSS scores for men <65 years and those ≥65 years was 14.0 (16.0) and 19 (15.0), respectively (). Mild LUTS was significantly associated with best, good, and poor quality of life while moderate LUTS was associated with poor QoL. Severe LUTS was significantly associated with all the categories of QoL (Best-Worst). Among the cohort of subjects with poor QoL, elderly patients had a significantly higher median IPSS score (). Conclusions. There is no level of severity of LUTS in which patients’ QoL is not impaired although mild symptomatology may be associated with better QoL and severe symptomatology with poor QoL. Careful attention to QoL may help identify patients who require early and prompt treatment irrespective of the IPSS. Patrick Temi Adegun, Philip Babatunde Adebayo, and Peter Olufemi Areo Copyright © 2016 Patrick Temi Adegun et al. All rights reserved. Transperitoneal Laparoscopic Pyelopyelostomy for Retrocaval Ureter without Excision of the Retrocaval Segment: Experience on Three Cases Tue, 14 Jun 2016 11:21:00 +0000 Introduction. Retrocaval ureter is a rare congenital anomaly. Open surgery was the classic treatment for this condition. Laparoscopy is currently an admitted procedure to treat many urological diseases. The objective of our study is to present our experience and discuss the safety and the feasibility of transperitoneal laparoscopic pyelopyelostomy for treatment of retrocaval ureter (RCU). Materials and Methods. Three symptomatic patients underwent laparoscopic repair for RCU in our department. The diagnosis was suspected on the computed tomography scan (CT) and confirmed on ascending pyelography. After placement of a JJ stent, and, using the transperitoneal approach, the retro peritoneum was exposed; the ureter was identified in both sides of the vena cava. The retrocaval segment was entirely mobilized and pulled from behind of the vena cava after section of renal pelvis. A pyelopyelostomy was done in a normal anatomic position. Results. All operations were achieved laparoscopically without conversion to open surgery. The mean operative time was 140 minutes (110–190). No intraoperative complication occurred. Blood loss was less than 50 mL in all patients. The mean hospital stay was 5 days (4–6 days). All patients were symptom-free after surgery and had reduction of hydronephrosis in control imagery. Conclusion. Laparoscopy seems safe, feasible, and reproducible in managing retrocaval ureter. Y. El Harrech, O. Ghoundale, E. H. Kasmaoui, and D. Touiti Copyright © 2016 Y. El Harrech et al. All rights reserved. Reliability of the Grading System for Voiding Cystourethrograms in the Management of Vesicoureteral Reflux: An Interrater Comparison Wed, 16 Mar 2016 06:25:46 +0000 Aim. Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) is one of the most common conditions seen in pediatric urology. Fortunately, there are many treatment options for this disorder. The grading system for VUR varies among doctors, and the literature on its reliability is sparse. Here, we assessed the effectiveness of the current VUR grading system. Methods. A series of 40 voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG) studies were selected. Four pediatric urologists (PU) and four pediatric radiologists (PR) independently graded each VCUG and then agreed on a uniform interpretation. For statistical analysis the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was applied to assess interrater agreement. Results. ICC values ranging from 0.82 to 0.88 reflected the strong reliability of VCUG for grading cases of VUR among pediatric urologists and radiologists as separate groups, and the reliability between the two groups was also good, as indicated by an ICC of 0.89. Despite the high ICC, disagreement existed between raters; the lowest agreement was associated with middle grades (III and IV). Conclusions. The interrater reliability of the international grading system for VUR was high but imperfect. Thus, grading differences at middle grades can profoundly influence the type of treatment pursued. Süleyman Çelebi, Seyithan Özaydın, Cemile Beşik Baştaş, Özgür Kuzdan, Cankat Erdoğan, Mehmet Yazıcı, İsmail Caymaz, and Serdar Sander Copyright © 2016 Süleyman Çelebi et al. All rights reserved. Diverticulectomy in the Management of Intradiverticular Bladder Tumors: A Twelve-Year Experience at a Single Institution Tue, 15 Mar 2016 11:28:41 +0000 Purpose. In this retrospective case review we analyze the outcomes of patients treated for intradiverticular bladder tumors (IDT). Materials and Methods. A retrospective case review was done between January 2002 and May 2014 in Hotel-Dieu de France hospital. The series included 17 patients diagnosed with IDT, all males with a mean age of 49.8 years. Results. One patient was treated with tumor resection and adjuvant BCG instillation with no recurrence on follow-up cystoscopies and urine cytologies. 64% of patients were treated by diverticulectomy. Mean follow-up time was 38.7 months. At the end of the follow-up, 81% were disease-free. One patient had a radical cystectomy 6 months after diverticulectomy for recurrent high grade tumor; another one had a nodal metastasis 10 months after diverticulectomy and was managed with chemotherapy. 29% of patients were treated with radical cystectomy. Mean follow-up time was 28.4 months. No recurrence was documented on annual CT scans. Conclusions. Our data support a conservative approach for tumors confined to the bladder diverticulum, even in high grade or in the presence of CIS provided complete removal is feasible and close follow-up is ensured. Ali Bourgi, Elias Ayoub, and Sleiman Merhej Copyright © 2016 Ali Bourgi et al. All rights reserved. Urethral Stricture Disease: Challenges and Ongoing Controversies Mon, 14 Mar 2016 09:15:09 +0000 Miroslav L. Djordjevic, Francisco E. Martins, Vladimir Kojovic, and Dmitry Kurbatov Copyright © 2016 Miroslav L. Djordjevic et al. All rights reserved. Assessment of Potential Live Kidney Donors and Computed Tomographic Renal Angiograms at Christchurch Hospital Thu, 10 Mar 2016 07:53:16 +0000 Aims. To examine the outcome of potential live kidney donors (PLKD) assessment program at Christchurch Hospital and, also, to review findings of Computed Tomographic (CT) renal angiograms that led to exclusion in the surgical assessment. Methods. Clinical data was obtained from the database of kidney transplants, Proton. Radiological investigations were reviewed using the hospital database, Éclair. The transplant coordinator was interviewed to clarify information about PLKD who did not proceed to surgery, and a consultant radiologist was interviewed to explain unfavorable findings on CT renal angiograms. Results. 162 PLKD were identified during the period January 04–June 08. Of those, 65 (40%) proceeded to have nephrectomy, 15 were accepted and planned to proceed to surgery, 13 were awaiting further assessment, and 69 (42.5%) did not proceed to nephrectomy. Of the 162 PLKD, 142 (88%) were directed donors. The proportion of altruistic PLKD who opted out was significantly higher than that of directed PLKD (45% versus 7%, ). Conclusions. This audit demonstrated a positive experience of live kidney donation at Christchurch Hospital. CT renal angiogram can potentially detect incidental or controversial pathologies in the kidney and the surrounding structures. Altruistic donation remains controversial with higher rates of opting out. Thamer Alsulaiman, Stephen Mark, Sarah Armstrong, and David McGregor Copyright © 2016 Thamer Alsulaiman et al. All rights reserved. Sexual (Dys)function after Urethroplasty Wed, 09 Mar 2016 11:47:34 +0000 There is a paucity of published literature on the andrological consequences of urethral repair. Until recently authors have focused mainly on technical aspects and objective results. Reported outcomes of urethral reconstruction surgery have traditionally focused only on urodynamic parameters such as flow rates. Patient reported outcome measures have largely been neglected and there is a scarcity of well conducted systematic studies on the subject. For these reasons whether the different components of sexual life are more or less affected by different types of urethral reconstruction remains largely unknown. In an attempt to clarify the available scientific evidence, the authors make a critical review of available literature, systematizing it by sexual domain and study type. Brief pathophysiological correlations are discussed. Luís Xambre Copyright © 2016 Luís Xambre. All rights reserved. Ultrasound Guidance for Renal Tract Access and Dilation Reduces Radiation Exposure during Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy Wed, 02 Mar 2016 06:48:27 +0000 Purposes. To present our series of 38 prone percutaneous nephrolithotomy procedures performed with renal access and tract dilation purely under ultrasound guidance and describe the benefits and challenges accompanying this approach. Methods. Thirty-eight consecutive patients presenting for percutaneous nephrolithotomy for renal stone removal were included in this prospective cohort study. Ultrasonographic imaging in the prone position was used to obtain percutaneous renal access and guide tract dilation. Fluoroscopic screening was used only for nephrostomy tube placement. Preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative procedural and patient data were collected for analysis. Results. Mean age of patients was years. Forty-five percent of patients were male with mean BMI of and mean stone size of millimeters. Renal puncture was performed successfully with ultrasonographic guidance in all cases with mean puncture time of seconds. Mean dilation time was  min and mean stone fragmentation time was  min. Mean total operative time was . No patients experienced any significant immediate postoperative complication. All patients were rendered stone-free and no additional secondary procedures were required. Conclusions. Ultrasound guidance for renal access and tract dilation in prone percutaneous nephrolithotomy is a feasible and effective technique. It can be performed safely with significantly reduced fluoroscopic radiation exposure to the patient, surgeon, and intraoperative personnel. Thomas Chi, Selma Masic, Jianxing Li, and Manint Usawachintachit Copyright © 2016 Thomas Chi et al. All rights reserved. Anterior Urethral Stricture Disease Negatively Impacts the Quality of Life of Family Members Tue, 01 Mar 2016 11:55:08 +0000 Purpose. To quantify the quality of life (QoL) distress experienced by immediate family members of patients with urethral stricture via a questionnaire given prior to definitive urethroplasty. The emotional, social, and physical effects of urethral stricture disease on the QoL of family members have not been previously described. Materials and Methods. A questionnaire was administered prospectively to an immediate family member of 51 patients undergoing anterior urethroplasty by a single surgeon (SBB). The survey was comprised of twelve questions that addressed the emotional, social, and physical consequences experienced as a result of their loved one. Results. Of the 51 surveyed family members, most were female (92.2%), lived in the same household (86.3%), and slept in the same room as the patient (70.6%). Respondents experienced sleep disturbances (56.9%) and diminished social lives (43.1%). 82.4% felt stressed by the patient’s surgical treatment, and 83.9% (26/31) felt that their intimacy was negatively impacted. Conclusions. Urethral stricture disease has a significant impact on the family members of those affected. These effects may last decades and include sleep disturbance, decreased social interactions, emotional stress, and impaired sexual intimacy. Treatment of urethral stricture disease should attempt to mitigate the impact of the disease on family members as well as the patient. Jonathan R. Weese, Valary T. Raup, Jairam R. Eswara, Stephen D. Marshall, Andrew J. Chang, Joel Vetter, and Steven B. Brandes Copyright © 2016 Jonathan R. Weese et al. All rights reserved. Prevalence, Risk Factors, and Clinical Relevance of Fluoroquinolone-Resistant Organisms in Rectal Cultures: Should We Target Antibiotic Prophylaxis Prior to Prostate Biopsy? Tue, 01 Mar 2016 08:00:28 +0000 The rise of infectious complications after prostate biopsy has been linked to the growing resistance of enterobacteria to fluoroquinolone (FQ) antibiotics. In this review, we investigated the potential benefit of targeted antibiotic prophylaxis based on rectal cultures prior to prostate biopsy. An electronic search for all related literature published in English was performed from April until June 2015 using the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases. Data were obtained regarding the true prevalence of FQ-resistant bacteria in the rectum of patients, the identification of those patients at risk of harbouring FQ-resistant bacteria, the risk of infectious complications after transrectal prostate biopsy in patients with FQ-resistant bacteria, and the effect of targeted prophylaxis. Although there is limited evidence that a targeted approach might be beneficial, we conclude that current studies on the use of rectal cultures in the prebiopsy setting have too many limitations and confounding variables to definitely accept this approach in clinical practice. Whether this methodology is useful in a certain region will greatly depend on local fluoroquinolone-resistance rates. J. Van Besien, P. Uvin, A. M. Van den Abeele, and L. Merckx Copyright © 2016 J. Van Besien et al. All rights reserved. Robotic Partial Nephrectomy with the Da Vinci Xi Tue, 09 Feb 2016 13:31:42 +0000 Purpose. The surgical expertise to perform robotic partial nephrectomy is heavily dependent on technology. The Da Vinci Xi (XI) is the latest robotic surgical platform with significant advancements compared to its predecessor. We describe our operative technique and experience with the XI system for robotic partial nephrectomy (RPN). Materials and Methods. Patients with clinical T1 renal masses were offered RPN with the XI. We used laser targeting, autopositioning, and a novel “in-line” port placement to perform RPN. Results. 15 patients underwent RPN with the XI. There were no intraoperative complications and no operative conversions. Mean console time was 101.3 minutes (range 44–176 minutes). Mean ischemia time was 17.5 minutes and estimated blood loss was 120 mLs. 12 of 15 patients had renal cell carcinoma. Two patients had oncocytoma and one had benign cystic disease. All patients had negative surgical margins and pathologic T1 disease. Two postoperative complications were encountered, including one patient who developed a pseudoaneurysm and one readmitted for presumed urinary tract infection. Conclusions. RPN with the XI system can be safely performed. Combining our surgical technique with the technological advancements on the XI offers patients acceptable pathologic and perioperative outcomes. George J. S. Kallingal, Sanjaya Swain, Fadi Darwiche, Sanoj Punnen, Murugesan Manoharan, Mark L. Gonzalgo, and Dipen J. Parekh Copyright © 2016 George J. S. Kallingal et al. All rights reserved. Retracted: Technique of Intravesical Laparoscopy for Ureteric Reimplantation to Treat VUR Mon, 01 Feb 2016 07:30:00 +0000 Advances in Urology Copyright © 2016 Advances in Urology. All rights reserved. Hypothesis That Urethral Bulb (Corpus Spongiosum) Plays an Active Role in Male Urinary Continence Sun, 31 Jan 2016 15:17:19 +0000 The proximal urethral bulb in men is enlarged, surrounds the bulbous urethra, and extends dorsally towards the perineum. During intercourse engorgement takes place due to increased blood flow through the corpus spongiosum. Antegrade ejaculation is facilitated by contraction of the bulbospongiosus muscles during climax. Micturition during sexual stimulation is functionally inhibited. Supporting the bulb may indirectly facilitate continence in a certain subset of patients with postprostatectomy incontinence. During physical activity with increased abdominal pressure, reflex contraction of the pelvic floor muscles as well as the bulbospongiosus muscles occurs to support sphincter function and limit urinary incontinence. Operations to the prostate may weaken urinary sphincter function. It is hypothesized that the distal urinary sphincter may be supported indirectly by placing a hammock underneath the urethral bulb. During moments of physical stress the “cushion” of blood within the supported corpus spongiosum helps to increase the zone of coaptation within the sphincteric (membranous) urethra. This may lead to urinary continence in patients treated by a transobturator repositioning sling in patients with postprostatectomy incontinence. This paper describes the possible role of the urethral bulb in male urinary continence, including its function after retroluminal sling placement (AdVance, AdVance XP® Male Sling System, Minnetonka, USA). Peter Rehder, Nina M. Staudacher, Joerg Schachtner, Maria E. Berger, Florian Schillfahrt, Verena Hauser, Raphael Mueller, Viktor Skradski, Wolfgang Horninger, and Bernhard Glodny Copyright © 2016 Peter Rehder et al. All rights reserved. Pathological Characteristics of Primary Bladder Carcinoma Treated at a Tertiary Care Hospital and Changing Demographics of Bladder Cancer in Sri Lanka Thu, 14 Jan 2016 14:18:28 +0000 Objectives. The aim was to compare demographics and pathological features of bladder carcinoma treated in a urology unit with findings of previous studies done in Sri Lanka. Materials and Methods. Data of newly diagnosed patients with bladder cancer in a tertiary referral centre from 2011 to 2014 were analysed. Data on bladder cancers diagnosed from 1993 to 2014 were obtained from previous publications and Sri Lanka Cancer Registry. Results. There were 148 patients and mean age was 65 years. Male to female ratio was 4.1 : 1. Urothelial carcinoma (UC) was found in 89.2% of patients. Muscle invasion was noted in 35% of patients compared to 48.4% two decades ago. In patients with UC, 16.5% were found to have pT1 high grade tumour. It was 5.3% from 1993 to 2000. Pure squamous cell carcinoma was found in 8.1% of patients while primary or de novo carcinoma in situ (not associated with high grade pT1 tumours) was seen in one patient only. Conclusions. The percentage of squamous carcinoma is higher among Sri Lankan patients while primary carcinoma in situ is a rarity. The percentage of muscle invasive disease has decreased while the percentage of pT1 high grade tumours has increased during the last two decades in Sri Lanka. S. Sasikumar, K. S. N. Wijayarathna, K. A. M. S. Karunaratne, U. Gobi, A. Pathmeswaran, and Anuruddha M. Abeygunasekera Copyright © 2016 S. Sasikumar et al. All rights reserved. A Narrative Review on the Pathophysiology and Management for Radiation Cystitis Tue, 22 Dec 2015 11:16:37 +0000 Radiation cystitis is a recognised complication of pelvic radiotherapy. Incidence of radiation cystitis ranges from 23 to 80% and the incidence of severe haematuria ranges from 5 to 8%. High quality data on management strategies for radiation cystitis is sparse. Treatment modalities are subclassified into systemic therapies, intravesical therapies, and hyperbaric oxygen and interventional procedures. Short-term cure rates range from 76 to 95% for hyperbaric oxygen therapy and interventional procedures. Adverse effects of these treatment strategies are acceptable. Ultimately, most patients require multimodal treatment for curative purposes. Large randomised trials exploring emergent management strategies are required in order to strengthen evidence-based treatment strategies. Urologists encounter radiation cystitis commonly and should be familiar with diagnostic modalities and treatment strategies. C. Browne, N. F. Davis, E. Mac Craith, G. M. Lennon, D. W. Mulvin, D. M. Quinlan, Gerard P. Mc Vey, and D. J. Galvin Copyright © 2015 C. Browne et al. All rights reserved. Total Psoas Area Predicts Complications following Radical Cystectomy Mon, 21 Dec 2015 11:20:43 +0000 Purpose. To determine whether total psoas area (TPA), a simple estimate of muscle mass, is associated with complications after radical cystectomy. Materials and Methods. Patients who underwent radical cystectomy at our institution from 2011 to 2012 were retrospectively identified. Total psoas area was measured on preoperative CT scans and normalized for patient height. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine whether TPA was a predictor of 90-day postoperative complications. Overall survival was compared between TPA quartiles. Results. 135 patients were identified for analysis. Median follow-up was 24 months (IQR: 6–37 months). Overall 90-day complication rate was 56% (75/135). TPA was significantly lower for patients who experienced any complication (7.8 cm2/m2 versus 8.8 cm2/m2, ) and an infectious complication (7.0 cm2/m2 versus 8.7 cm2/m2, ) than those who did not. On multivariable analysis, TPA (adjusted OR 0.70 (95% CI 0.56–0.89), ) and Charlson comorbidity index (adjusted OR 1.34 (95% CI 1.01–1.79), ) were independently associated with 90-day complications. TPA was not a predictor of overall survival. Conclusions. Low TPA is associated with infectious complications and is an independent predictor of experiencing a postoperative complication following radical cystectomy. Timothy D. Lyon, Nicholas J. Farber, Leo C. Chen, Thomas W. Fuller, Benjamin J. Davies, Jeffrey R. Gingrich, Ronald L. Hrebinko, Jodi K. Maranchie, Jennifer M. Taylor, and Tatum V. Tarin Copyright © 2015 Timothy D. Lyon et al. All rights reserved. A Randomized Controlled Trial to Compare the Safety and Efficacy of Tadalafil and Tamsulosin in Relieving Double J Stent Related Symptoms Mon, 14 Dec 2015 09:58:53 +0000 Objectives. To evaluate the safety and efficacy of Tadalafil and Tamsulosin in treating Double J stent related symptoms. Methods. In a prospective study, 161 patients with DJ related symptoms were randomized into 3 groups: Group A patients (54), Group B patients (53), and Group C patients (54). They were given Tadalafil, Tamsulosin, and placebo, respectively, at 1st week till removal of DJ stent at 3rd week. All patients completed Ureteral Stent Symptom Questionnaire (USSQ) at 1st week and at 3rd week. The statistical significant difference among groups was determined by the -test, Kruskal-Wallis test and multivariate analysis were used to assess association of the variables within the three groups, and the level of significance was set at . Results. Tadalafil and Tamsulosin were comparable in relieving urinary symptoms, general health, and work performance (OR = 0.65, 1.8, and 0.92). But Tadalafil was more effective in relieving body pain, sexual problems, and additional problems than Tamsulosin (OR = 5.95, 19.25, and 2.69) and was statistically significant as . Conclusion. Tadalafil was as effective as Tamsulosin in relieving urinary symptom but more effective in relieving sexual symptoms and body pain. Satinder Pal Aggarwal, Shivam Priyadarshi, Vinay Tomar, S. S. Yadav, Goto Gangkak, Nachiket Vyas, Neeraj Agarwal, and Ujwal Kumar Copyright © 2015 Satinder Pal Aggarwal et al. All rights reserved. Management of Long-Segment and Panurethral Stricture Disease Tue, 08 Dec 2015 11:56:58 +0000 Long-segment urethral stricture or panurethral stricture disease, involving the different anatomic segments of anterior urethra, is a relatively less common lesion of the anterior urethra compared to bulbar stricture. However, it is a particularly difficult surgical challenge for the reconstructive urologist. The etiology varies according to age and geographic location, lichen sclerosus being the most prevalent in some regions of the globe. Other common and significant causes are previous endoscopic urethral manipulations (urethral catheterization, cystourethroscopy, and transurethral resection), previous urethral surgery, trauma, inflammation, and idiopathic. The iatrogenic causes are the most predominant in the Western or industrialized countries, and lichen sclerosus is the most common in India. Several surgical procedures and their modifications, including those performed in one or more stages and with the use of adjunct tissue transfer maneuvers, have been developed and used worldwide, with varying long-term success. A one-stage, minimally invasive technique approached through a single perineal incision has gained widespread popularity for its effectiveness and reproducibility. Nonetheless, for a successful result, the reconstructive urologist should be experienced and familiar with the different treatment modalities currently available and select the best procedure for the individual patient. Francisco E. Martins, Sanjay B. Kulkarni, Pankaj Joshi, Jonathan Warner, and Natalia Martins Copyright © 2015 Francisco E. Martins et al. All rights reserved. A Prospective Study of Bipolar Transurethral Resection of Prostate Comparing the Efficiency and Safety of the Method in Large and Small Adenomas Mon, 07 Dec 2015 13:27:06 +0000 Bipolar technology offers a new perspective in the treatment of BPH. Purpose. To present our experience with the TURis system (Olympus, Tokyo, Japan). Materials and Methods. From February 2011 till December 2013 in a prospective study, 93 patients were treated for BPH. They were evaluated with IPSS, QoL, uroflow (), and residual urine (RU), preoperatively as well as 6 and 9 months postoperatively. Based on the prostate volume, the patients were divided into two groups: group A () with prostates ≥ 75 cc and group B () with smaller prostate glands. All patients underwent bipolar TURP or/and plasma vaporization. Results. The postoperative improvement for IPSS, QoL, , and RU was statistically significant. The operation time was longer in group A in comparison with group B (). The former group also had higher infection and stricture formation rates; however, there was no statistical difference between the two groups. Conclusions. Treatment with the TURis constitutes an effective technique and can be offered to large prostates with results equivalent to those in small ones. Regarding safety, large adenomas treated with TURis are not at a higher risk for urethral stricture but their odds to develop urogenital infections are relatively higher compared to the smaller adenomas. Nikolaos Mertziotis, Diomidis Kozyrakis, Christos Kyratsas, and Andreas Konandreas Copyright © 2015 Nikolaos Mertziotis et al. All rights reserved. Complications of Radical Cystectomy and Orthotopic Reconstruction Mon, 30 Nov 2015 12:28:09 +0000 Radical cystectomy and orthotopic reconstruction significant morbidity and mortality despite advances in minimal invasive and robotic technology. In this review, we will discuss early and late complications, as well as describe efforts to minimize morbidity and mortality, with a focus on ileal orthotopic bladder substitute (OBS). We summarise efforts to minimize morbidity and mortality including enhanced recovery as well as early and late complications seen after radical cystectomy and OBS. Centralisation of complex cancer services in the UK has led to a fall in mortality and high volume institutions have a significantly lower rate of 30-day mortality compared to low volume institutions. Enhanced recovery pathways have resulted in shorter length of hospital stay and potentially a reduction in morbidity. Early complications of radical cystectomy occur as a direct result of the surgery itself while late complications, which can occur even after 10 years after surgery, are due to urinary diversion. OBS represents the ideal urinary diversion for patients without contraindications. However, all patients with OBS should have regular long term follow-up for oncological surveillance and to identify complications should they arise. Wei Shen Tan, Benjamin W. Lamb, and John D. Kelly Copyright © 2015 Wei Shen Tan et al. All rights reserved. Posterior Urethral Strictures Tue, 24 Nov 2015 13:17:10 +0000 Pelvic fracture urethral injuries are typically partial and more often complete disruptions of the most proximal bulbar and distal membranous urethra. Emergency management includes suprapubic tube placement. Subsequent primary realignment to place a urethral catheter remains a controversial topic, but what is not controversial is that when there is the development of a stricture (which is usually obliterative with a distraction defect) after suprapubic tube placement or urethral catheter removal, the standard of care is delayed urethral reconstruction with excision and primary anastomosis. This paper reviews the management of patients who suffer pelvic fracture urethral injuries and the techniques of preoperative urethral imaging and subsequent posterior urethroplasty. Joel Gelman and Eric S. Wisenbaugh Copyright © 2015 Joel Gelman and Eric S. Wisenbaugh. All rights reserved. Acridine Orange and Flow Cytometry: Which Is Better to Measure the Effect of Varicocele on Sperm DNA Integrity? Sun, 22 Nov 2015 06:42:10 +0000 We evaluated the effect of varicocelectomy on semen parameters and levels of sperm DNA damage in infertile men. A total of 75 infertile men with varicocele and 40 fertile men (controls) were included in this study. Semen analysis and sperm DNA damage expressed as the DNA fragmentation index using acridine orange staining and chromatin condensation test by flow cytometry were assessed before and 6 months after varicocelectomy. The patients were also followed up for 1 year for pregnancy outcome. Semen parameters were significantly lower in varicocele patients compared to controls (). Mean percentages of sperm DNA fragmentation and sperm DNA chromatin condensation in patients were significantly higher than those in controls (). After varicocelectomy, sperm DNA fragmentation improved significantly, whereas sperm chromatin condensation was not significantly changed. In 15 out of 75 varicocele patients, clinical pregnancy was diagnosed; those with positive pregnancy outcome had significant improvement in sperm count, progressive sperm motility, and sperm DNA fragmentation, but there was no significant difference in sperm DNA condensation compared to negative pregnancy outcome patients. We concluded from this study that acridine orange stain is more reliable method than flow cytometry in the evaluation of sperm DNA integrity after varicocelectomy. Essam-Elden M. Mohammed, Eman Mosad, Asmaa M. Zahran, Diaa A. Hameed, Emad A. Taha, and Mohamed A. Mohamed Copyright © 2015 Essam-Elden M. Mohammed et al. All rights reserved. The Use of Flaps and Grafts in the Treatment of Urethral Stricture Disease Thu, 19 Nov 2015 10:21:30 +0000 The use of various grafts and flaps plays a critical role in the successful surgical management of urethral stricture disease. A thorough comprehension of relevant anatomy and principles of tissue transfer techniques are essential to understanding the appropriate use of grafts or flaps to optimize outcomes. We briefly review these principles and discuss which technique may be best suited for a given anterior urethral stricture, depending on the location and length of the stricture, the presence or absence of an intact corpus spongiosum, and the availability of adequate and healthy penile skin. Eric S. Wisenbaugh and Joel Gelman Copyright © 2015 Eric S. Wisenbaugh and Joel Gelman. All rights reserved. A Review of the Literature on Primary Leiomyosarcoma of the Prostate Gland Thu, 12 Nov 2015 12:46:09 +0000 Primary leiomyosarcoma of the prostate (PLSOP) is rare, with less than 200 cases reported so far. PLSOPs present with lower urinary tract symptoms, haematuria, and perineal pain; may or may not be associated with a history of previous treatment for adenocarcinoma of prostate by means of radiotherapy and or hormonal treatment; may afflict children and adult male. Examination may reveal benign enlarged prostate and hard enlarged mass. PLSOPs may be diagnosed by histological examination findings of spindle-shaped carcinoma cells in prostate specimens. Immunohistochemical staining tends to be positive for vimentin, CD44, smooth muscle actin, and calponin, focally positive for desmin, and at times positive for keratin. They stain negatively for PSA, S-100, CD34, CD117, and cytokeratin. Cytogenetic study on primary leiomyosarcoma of the prostate gland may show clonal chromosomal rearrangement involving Chromosomes 2, 3, 9, 11, and 19. On the whole the prognosis is poor. Surgery with or without chemotherapy would appear to be the mainstay of treatment for PLSOPs that are operable, but generally there is no consensus opinion on the best therapeutic approach. Most cases of PLSOPs are diagnosed in an advanced stage of the disease. A global multicenter trial is required to find therapies that would improve the prognosis. Anthony Kodzo-Grey Venyo Copyright © 2015 Anthony Kodzo-Grey Venyo. All rights reserved. Flexible Ureteroscopy Can Be More Efficacious in the Treatment of Proximal Ureteral Stones in Select Patients Wed, 04 Nov 2015 07:15:23 +0000 Purpose. We aimed to compare and evaluate the outcomes and complications of two endoscopic treatment procedures, semirigid ureteroscopy (SR-URS) and flexible ureteroscopy (F-URS), in the treatment of proximal ureteral stones (PUS). Methods. SR-URS (group 1) was done on 68 patients whereas 64 patients underwent F-URS (group 2) for the treatment of PUS. Success rate was defined as the absence of stone fragments or presence of asymptomatic insignificant residual fragments < 2 mm. Outcomes and complications were recorded. Results. The differences were statistically not significant in age, gender, body mass index (BMI), and stone characteristics between groups. Mean ureteral stone size was 9.1 ± 0.4 mm and 8.9 ± 0.5 mm for groups 1 and 2. Mean operative time was 34.1 ± 1.5 min and 49.4 ± 2.3 min for groups 1 and 2 (). SFRs were 76.5% and 87.5% for groups 1 and 2 (). Two major complications (ureteral avulsion and ureteral rupture) occurred in group 1. Conclusion. F-URS is safer and less invasive than SR-URS in patients with PUS. There is no statistically significant difference in the efficacy of either technique. Nonetheless we recommend F-URS in the management of PUS as a first-line treatment option in select cases of proximal ureteral calculi. Erdal Alkan, Ali Sarıbacak, Ahmet Oguz Ozkanli, Mehmet Murad Basar, Oguz Acar, and Mevlana Derya Balbay Copyright © 2015 Erdal Alkan et al. All rights reserved. Can CT Virtual Cystoscopy Replace Conventional Cystoscopy in Early Detection of Bladder Cancer? Tue, 27 Oct 2015 09:41:13 +0000 Aim. To correlate findings of conventional cystoscopy with CT virtual cystoscopy (CTVC) in detecting bladder tumors and to evaluate accuracy of virtual cystoscopy in early detection of bladder cancer. Material and Method. From June 2013 to June 2014, 50 patients (46 males, four females) with history and investigations suggestive of urothelial cancer, with mean age 62.76 ± 10.45 years, underwent CTVC by a radiologist as per protocol and subsequently underwent conventional cystoscopy (CPE) the same day or the next day. One urologist and one radiologist, blinded to the findings of conventional cystoscopy, independently interpreted the images, and any discrepant readings were resolved with consensus. Result. CTVC detected 23 out of 25 patients with bladder tumor(s) correctly. Two patients were falsely detected as negative while two were falsely labeled as positive in CTVC. Virtual and conventional cystoscopy were comparable in detection of tumor growth in urinary bladder. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of virtual cystoscopy were 92% each. Conclusion. CTVC correlates closely with the findings of conventional cystoscopy. Bladder should be adequately distended and devoid of urine at the time of procedure. However, more studies are required to define the role of virtual cystoscopy in routine clinical practice. Sachin Abrol, Ankush Jairath, Sanika Ganpule, Arvind Ganpule, Shashikant Mishra, Ravindra Sabnis, and Mahesh Desai Copyright © 2015 Sachin Abrol et al. All rights reserved. Reduced Cardiovascular Capacity and Resting Metabolic Rate in Men with Prostate Cancer Undergoing Androgen Deprivation: A Comprehensive Cross-Sectional Investigation Mon, 26 Oct 2015 11:41:27 +0000 Objectives. To investigate if androgen deprivation therapy exposure is associated with additional risk factors for cardiovascular disease and metabolic treatment-related toxicities. Methods. One hundred and seven men (42–89 years) with prostate cancer undergoing androgen deprivation therapy completed a maximal graded objective exercise test to determine maximal oxygen uptake, assessments for resting metabolic rate, body composition, blood pressure and arterial stiffness, and blood biomarker analysis. A cross-sectional analysis was undertaken to investigate the potential impact of therapy exposure with participants stratified into two groups according to duration of androgen deprivation therapy (<3 months and ≥3 months). Results. Maximal oxygen uptake (26.1 ± 6.0 mL/kg/min versus 23.2 ± 5.8 mL/kg/min, ) and resting metabolic rate (1795 ± 256 kcal/d versus 1647 ± 236 kcal/d, ) were significantly higher in those with shorter exposure to androgen deprivation. There were no differences between groups for peripheral and central blood pressure, arterial stiffness, or metabolic profile. Conclusion. Three months or longer exposure to androgen deprivation therapy was associated with reduced cardiorespiratory capacity and resting metabolic rate, but not in a range of blood biomarkers. These findings suggest that prolonged exposure to androgen deprivation therapy is associated with negative alterations in cardiovascular outcomes. Trial registry is: ACTRN12609000200280. Bradley A. Wall, Daniel A. Galvão, Naeem Fatehee, Dennis R. Taaffe, Nigel Spry, David Joseph, and Robert U. Newton Copyright © 2015 Bradley A. Wall et al. All rights reserved. Surgical Repair of Bulbar Urethral Strictures: Advantages of Ventral, Dorsal, and Lateral Approaches and When to Choose Them Wed, 21 Oct 2015 14:27:11 +0000 Objectives. To review the available literature describing the three most common approaches for buccal mucosal graft (BMG) augmentation during reconstruction of bulbar urethral strictures. Due to its excellent histological properties, buccal mucosa graft is now routinely used in urethral reconstruction. The best approach for the placement of such a graft remains controversial. Methods. PubMed search was conducted for available English literature describing outcomes of bulbar urethroplasty augmentation techniques using dorsal, ventral, and lateral approaches. Prospective and retrospective studies as well as meta-analyses and latest systematic reviews were included. Results. Most of the studies reviewed are of retrospective nature and majority described dorsal or ventral approaches. Medium- and long-term outcomes of all three approaches were comparable ranging between 80 and 88%. Conclusion. Various techniques of BMG augmentation urethroplasty have been described for repairs of bulbar urethral strictures. In this review, we describe and compare the three most common “competing” approaches for bulbar urethroplasty with utilization of BMG. Krishnan Venkatesan, Stephen Blakely, and Dmitriy Nikolavsky Copyright © 2015 Krishnan Venkatesan et al. All rights reserved.