- About this Journal ·
- Abstracting and Indexing ·
- Aims and Scope ·
- Article Processing Charges ·
- Articles in Press ·
- Author Guidelines ·
- Bibliographic Information ·
- Citations to this Journal ·
- Contact Information ·
- Editorial Board ·
- Editorial Workflow ·
- Free eTOC Alerts ·
- Publication Ethics ·
- Reviewers Acknowledgment ·
- Submit a Manuscript ·
- Subscription Information ·
- Table of Contents
Autism Research and Treatment
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 505393, 11 pages
Unique Theory of Mind Differentiation in Children with Autism and Asperger Syndrome
1Department of Education, Dartmouth College, 6103 Raven House, Hanover, NH 03755, USA
2Office of Academic Affairs, The City University of New York, 535 East 80th Street, NY 10021, USA
Received 30 September 2011; Accepted 18 January 2012
Academic Editor: Bennett L. Leventhal
Copyright © 2012 Michele Tine and Joan Lucariello. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
- J. Lucariello, “New insights into the functions, development, and origins of theory of mind: the “Functional-Multilinear Socialization” (FMS) Model,” in The Development of the Mediated Mind: Sociocultural Context and Cognitive Development, J. Lucariello, J. Hudson, R. Fivush, and P. Bauer, Eds., pp. 33–57, Erlbaum, Mahwah, NJ, USA, 2004.
- J. M. Lucariello, T. M. Durand, and L. Yarnell, “Social versus intrapersonal ToM: social ToM is a cognitive strength for low- and middle-SES children,” Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, vol. 28, no. 4, pp. 285–297, 2007.
- V. Gallese and A. Goldman, “Mirror neurons and the simulation theory of mind-reading,” Trends in Cognitive Sciences, vol. 2, no. 12, pp. 493–501, 1998.
- P. L. Harris, “From simulation to folk psychology: the case for development,” Mind and Language, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 120–144, 1992.
- E. Meins, C. Fernyhough, R. Wainwright, M. Das Gupta, E. Fradley, and M. Tuckey, “Maternal mind-mindedness and attachment security as predictors of theory of mind understanding,” Child Development, vol. 73, no. 6, pp. 1715–1726, 2002.
- C. Moore, J. Barresi, and C. Thompson, “The cognitive basis of future-oriented prosocial behavior,” Social Development, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 198–217, 1998.
- T. Ruffman, J. Perner, M. Naito, L. Parkin, and W. A. Clements, “Older (but not younger) siblings facilitate false belief understanding,” Developmental Psychology, vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 161–174, 1998.
- A. L. Cutting and J. Dunn, “Theory of Mind, emotion understanding, language, and family background: individual differences and interrelations,” Child Development, vol. 70, no. 4, pp. 853–865, 1999.
- A. G. Butler and J. Lucariallo, “A differentiated Theory of Mind in gifted students: strength in intrapersonal reasoning,” in Proceedings of the Jean Piaget Society Conference, Baltimore, Md, USA, June 2006.
- H. M. Wellman, D. Cross, and J. Watson, “Meta-analysis of theory-of-mind development: the truth about false belief,” Child Development, vol. 72, no. 3, pp. 655–684, 2001.
- C. Hughes and J. Dunn, “Understanding mind and emotion: longitudinal associations with mental-state talk between young friends,” Developmental Psychology, vol. 34, no. 5, pp. 1026–1037, 1998.
- S. Baron-Cohen, A. M. Leslie, and U. Frith, “Does the autistic child have a "theory of mind"?” Cognition, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 37–46, 1985.
- S. Baron-Cohen, “Theory of mind and autism: a review,” International Review of Research in Mental Retardation, vol. 23, pp. 169–184, 2000.
- S. Baron-Cohen, “Out of sight or out of mind? Another look at deception in autism,” Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, vol. 33, no. 7, pp. 1141–1155, 1992.
- N. Yirmiya, D. Solomonica-Levi, and C. Shulman, “The ability to manipulate behavior and to understand manipulation of beliefs: a comparison of individuals with autism, mental retardation, and normal development,” Developmental Psychology, vol. 32, no. 1, pp. 62–69, 1996.
- S. Baron-Cohen, A. Spitz, and P. Cross, “Can children with autism recognize surprise?” Cognition and Emotion, vol. 7, pp. 507–516, 1993.
- S. Baron-Cohen, “Do people with autism understand what causes emotion?” Child Development, vol. 62, no. 2, pp. 385–395, 1991.
- S. Kazak, G. M. Collis, and V. Lewis, “Can young people with autism refer to knowledge states? Evidence from their understanding of 'know' and 'guess',” Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, vol. 38, no. 8, pp. 1001–1009, 1997.
- S. Baron-Cohen, “The autistic child's theory of mind: a case of specific developmental delay,” Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, vol. 30, no. 2, pp. 285–297, 1989.
- S. R. Leekam and J. Perner, “Does the autistic child have a metarepresentational deficit?” Cognition, vol. 40, no. 3, pp. 203–218, 1991.
- A. M. Leslie and L. Thaiss, “Domain specificity in conceptual development: neuropsychological evidence from autism,” Cognition, vol. 43, no. 3, pp. 225–251, 1992.
- T. German and A. Leslie, “Attending to and learning about mental states,” in Children’s Reasoning and the Mind, P. Mitchell and K. Riggs, Eds., pp. 229–253, Psychology Press, Hove, UK, 2000.
- B. J. Scholl and A. M. Leslie, “Modularity, development and “theory of mind”,” Mind and Language, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 131–153, 1999.
- A. Gopnik and H. M. Wellman, “The theory theory,” in Mapping the Mind: Domain Specificity in Cognition and Culture, L. A. Hirshfeld and S. A. Gelman, Eds., pp. 257–293, Cambridge University Press, New York, NY, USA, 1994.
- J. R. Brown, N. Donelan-McCall, and J. Dunn, “Why talk about mental states? The significance of children's conversations with friends, siblings, and mothers,” Child Development, vol. 67, no. 3, pp. 836–849, 1996.
- J. M. Jenkins and J. W. Astington, “Cognitive factors and family structure associated with theory of mind development in young children,” Developmental Psychology, vol. 32, no. 1, pp. 70–78, 1996.
- K. Milligan, J. W. Astington, and L. A. Dack, “Language and theory of mind: meta-analysis of the relation between language ability and false-belief understanding,” Child Development, vol. 78, no. 2, pp. 622–646, 2007.
- S. Baron-Cohen, T. Jolliffe, C. Mortimore, and M. Robertson, “Another advanced test of theory of mind: evidence from very high functioning adults with autism or Asperger syndrome,” Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, vol. 38, no. 7, pp. 813–822, 1997.
- S. Baron-Cohen, M. O'Riordan, V. Stone, R. Jones, and K. Plaisted, “Recognition of faux pas by normally developing children and children with asperger syndrome or high-functioning autism,” Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, vol. 29, no. 5, pp. 407–418, 1999.
- T. Jolliffe and S. Baron-Cohen, “The strange stories test: a replication with high-functioning adults with autism or Asperger syndrome,” Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, vol. 29, no. 5, pp. 395–406, 1999.
- M. D. Rutherford, S. Baron-Cohen, and S. Wheelwright, “Reading the mind in the voice: a study with normal adults and adults with Asperger syndrome and high functioning autism,” Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, vol. 32, no. 3, pp. 189–194, 2002.
- T. Bennett, P. Szatmari, S. Bryson et al., “Differentiating autism and asperger syndrome on the basis of language delay or impairment,” Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, vol. 38, no. 4, pp. 616–625, 2008.
- E. Schopler, “Are autism and Asperger syndrome (AS) different labels or different disabilities?” Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 109–110, 1996.
- U. Frith, “Emanuel Miller lecture: confusions and controversies about Asperger syndrome,” Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, vol. 45, no. 4, pp. 672–686, 2004.
- K. E. Macintosh and C. Dissanayake, “Annotation: the similarities and differences between autistic disorder and Asperger's disorder: a review of the empirical evidence,” Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, vol. 45, no. 3, pp. 421–434, 2004.
- S. Baron-Cohen, S. Wheelwright, and T. Jolliffe, “Is there a "language of the eyes"? Evidence from normal adults, and adults with autism or Asperger syndrome,” Visual Cognition, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 311–331, 1997.
- S. Ozonoff, S. J. Rogers, and B. F. Pennington, “Asperger's syndrome: evidence of an empirical distinction from High-Functioning autism,” Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, vol. 32, no. 7, pp. 1107–1122, 1991.
- K. Ziatas, K. Durkin, and C. Pratt, “Belief term development in children with autism, Asperger syndrome, specific language impairment, and normal development: links to theory of mind development,” Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, vol. 39, no. 5, pp. 755–763, 1998.
- J. de Villiers, “Language and ToM: what are the developmental relationships?” in Understanding Other Minds: Perspectives from Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, S. Baron–Cohen, H. Tager-Flusberg, and D. Cohen, Eds., pp. 83–123, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2nd edition, 2000.
- S. Ozonoff and E. McMahon Griffith, “Neuropsychological function and the external validity of Asperger syndrome,” in Asperger Syndrome, A. Klin, F. R. Volkmar, and S. S. Sparrow, Eds., pp. 72–96, Guilford Press, New York, NY, USA, 2000.
- A. Klin, F. Volkmar, and S. Sparrow, Asperger Syndrome, Guilford Press, New York, NY, USA, 2000.
- American Psychiatric Association, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition, 2000.
- J. Raven, J. C. Raven, and J. H. Court, Manual for Raven's Progressive Matrices, Harcourt Assessment, San Antonio, Tex, USA, 2003.
- J. Raven, Raven’s Manuel Research Supplement 3, American Norms Neuropsychological Applications, Harcourt Assessment, San Antonio, Tex, USA, 2000.
- A. Gopnik and J. W. Astington, “Children's understanding of representational change and its relation to the understanding of false belief and the appearance-reality distinction,” Child Development, vol. 59, no. 1, pp. 26–37, 1988.
- F. G. Happé, “The role of age and verbal ability in the theory of mind task performance of subjects with autism,” Child Development, vol. 66, no. 3, pp. 843–855, 1995.
- D. Hammill and P. Newcomer, Test of Language Development: Intermediate, Pro-Ed, Austin, Tex, USA, 4th edition, 2008.
- D. Williams and F. Happé, “Pre-conceptual aspects of self-awareness in autism spectrum disorder: the case of action-monitoring,” Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 251–259, 2009.
- J. Lucariello, M. Le Donne, T. Durand, and L. Yarnell, “Social and intrapersonal theories of mind: “I interact therefore I am,” in Theory of Mind and Language in Developmental Contexts, A. Antonietti, O. Liverta-Sempio, and A. Marchetti, Eds., pp. 149–171, Springer, New York, NY, USA, 2006.
- G. Baird, T. Charman, S. Baron-Cohen et al., “A screening instrument for autism at 18 months of age: a 6-year follow- up study,” Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, vol. 39, no. 6, pp. 694–702, 2000.
- P. M. Greenfield, “Independence and interdependence as developmental scripts: implications for theory, research, and practice,” in Cross-Cultural Roots of Minority Child Development, P. M. Green and R. R. Cocking, Eds., pp. 1–40, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Hillsdale, NJ, USA, 1994.
- J. W. Astington and J. M. Jenkins, “A longitudinal study of the relation between language and theory-of-mind development,” Developmental Psychology, vol. 35, no. 5, pp. 1311–1320, 1999.
- T. Ruffman, L. Slade, K. Rowlandson, C. Rumsey, and A. Garnham, “How language relates to belief, desire, and emotion understanding,” Cognitive Development, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 139–158, 2003.
- H. Tager-Flusberg and R. M. Joseph, “How language facilitates the acquisition of false-belief understanding in children with autism,” in Why Language Matters for Theory of Mind, J. W. Astington and J. A. Baird, Eds., pp. 298–318, Oxford University Press, New York, NY, USA, 2005.
- M. T. Stein, A. Klin, and K. Miller, “When Asperger's syndrome and a nonverbal learning disability look alike,” Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 190–195, 2004.
- A. Klin, D. Pauls, R. Schultz, and F. Volkmar, “Three diagnostic approaches to asperger syndrome: implications for research,” Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 221–234, 2005.
- J. Lucariello, A. Butler, and L. Yarnell, “Interpretive theory of mind in low- and middle-SES children: social domain-basis and differentiation into social and intrapersonal forms,” In press.
- C. Gray, Comic Strip Conversations: Colorful Illustrated Interactions with Students with Autism and Related Disorders, Jenison Public Schools, Jenison, Mich, USA, 2000.
- J. McAfee, Navigating the Social World: A Curriculum for Educating Children with Asperger’s Syndrome and High-Functioning Autism, Future Horizons, Arlington, Tex, USA, 2001.
- C. Faherty, What Does It Mean to Me? A Workbook for Explaining Self-Dwareness and Life Lessons to the Child or Youth with High-Functioning Autism or Aspergers, Future Horizons, Arlington, Tex, USA, 2000.