About this Journal Submit a Manuscript Table of Contents
Advances in Virology
Volume 2011 (2011), Article ID 272193, 12 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2011/272193
Research Article

Nucleic Acid, Antibody, and Virus Culture Methods to Detect Xenotropic MLV-Related Virus in Human Blood Samples

1HIV Drug Resistance Program, National Cancer Institute at Frederick, Frederick, MD 21702-1201, USA
2Protein Expression Laboratory, SAIC-Frederick, Inc., NCI-Frederick, Frederick, MD 21702, USA
3Urologic Oncology Branch, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
4UC Davis Cancer Center, Sacramento, CA 95817, USA
5AIDS and Cancer Virus Program, SAIC-Frederick, Inc., National Cancer Institute, Frederick, MD 21702, USA
6Department of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260, USA
7Department of Molecular Biology and Microbiology, Tufts University, Boston, MA 02155, USA

Received 21 June 2011; Revised 8 August 2011; Accepted 27 August 2011

Academic Editor: Yoshinao Kubo

Copyright © 2011 M. F. Kearney et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. V. C. Lombardi, F. W. Ruscetti, J. D. Gupta et al., “Detection of an infectious retrovirus, XMRV, in blood cells of patients with chronic fatigue syndrome,” Science, vol. 326, no. 5952, pp. 585–589, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. A. Urisman, R. J. Molinaro, N. Fischer et al., “Identification of a novel gammaretrovirus in prostate tumors of patients homozygous for R462Q RNASEL variant,” Plos Pathogens, vol. 2, no. 3, article e25, pp. 211–225, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. J. Carpten, N. Nupponen, S. Isaacs et al., “Germline mutations in the ribonuclease L gene in families showing linkage with HPC1,” Nature Genetics, vol. 30, no. 2, pp. 181–184, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. G. Casey, P. J. Neville, S. J. Plummer et al., “RNASEL Arg462Gln variant is implicated in up to 13% of prostate cancer cases,” Nature Genetics, vol. 32, no. 4, pp. 581–583, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. K. Malathi, J. M. Paranjape, E. Bulanova et al., “A transcriptional signaling pathway in the IFN system mediated by 2'-5'-oligoadenylate activation of RNase L,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 102, no. 41, pp. 14533–14538, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. H. Rennert, D. Bercovich, A. Hubert et al., “A novel founder mutation in the RNASEL gene, 471delAAAG, is associated with prostate cancer in ashkenazi jews,” American Journal of Human Genetics, vol. 71, no. 4, pp. 981–984, 2002. View at Scopus
  7. A. Rokman, T. Ikonen, E. H. Seppala et al., “Germline alterations of the RNASEL gene, a candidate HPC1 gene at 1q25, in patients and families with prostate cancer,” American Journal of Human Genetics, vol. 70, no. 5, pp. 1299–1304, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. L. Wang, S. K. McDonnell, D. A. Elkins et al., “Analysis of the RNASEL gene in familial and sporadic prostate cancer,” American Journal of Human Genetics, vol. 71, no. 1, pp. 116–123, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. R. Schlaberg, D. J. Choe, K. R. Brown, H. M. Thaker, and I. R. Singh, “XMRV is present in malignant prostatic epithelium and is associated with prostate cancer, especially high-grade tumors,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 106, no. 38, pp. 16351–16356, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. R. S. Arnold, N. V. Makarova, A. O. Osunkoya et al., “XMRV infection in patients with prostate cancer: novel serologic assay and correlation with PCR and FISH,” Urology, vol. 75, no. 4, pp. 755–761, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. R. Schlaberg, D. J. Choe, K. R. Brown, H. M. Thaker, and I. R. Singh, “XMRV is present in malignant prostatic epithelium and is associated with prostate cancer, especially high-grade tumors,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 106, no. 38, pp. 16351–16356, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. B. P. Danielson, G. E. Ayala, and J. T. Kimata, “Detection of xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus in normal and tumor tissue of patients from the southern United States with prostate cancer is dependent on specific polymerase chain reaction conditions,” The Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 202, no. 10, pp. 1470–1477, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. B. C. Satterfield, R. A. Garcia, H. Jia, S. Tang, H. Zheng, and W. M. Switzer, “Serologic and PCR testing of persons with chronic fatigue syndrome in the United States shows no association with xenotropic or polytropic murine leukemia virus-related viruses,” Retrovirology, vol. 8, article 12, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  14. O. Hohn, K. Strohschein, A. U. Brandt et al., “No evidence for XMRV in German CFS and MS patients with fatigue despite the ability of the virus to infect human blood cells in vitro,” Plos One, vol. 5, no. 12, Article ID e15632, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  15. M. Cornelissen, F. Zorgdrager, P. Blom et al., “Lack of detection of XMRV in seminal plasma from HIV-1 infected men in The Netherlands,” Plos One, vol. 5, no. 8, Article ID e12040, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. O. Erlwein, S. Kaye, M. O. McClure et al., “Failure to detect the novel retrovirus XMRV in chronic fatigue syndrome,” Plos One, vol. 5, no. 1, Article ID e8519, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. E. R. Gray, J. A. Garson, J. Breuer et al., “No evidence of XMRV or related retroviruses in a london HIV-1-positive patient cohort,” Plos One, vol. 6, no. 3, Article ID e18096, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  18. S. C. Lo, N. Pripuzova, B. Li et al., “Detection of MLV-related virus gene sequences in blood of patients with chronic fatigue syndrome and healthy blood donors,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 107, no. 36, pp. 15874–15879, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. M. Kearney and F. Maldarelli, “Current status of xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related retrovirus in chronic fatigue syndrome and prostate cancer: reach for a scorecard, not a prescription pad,” The Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 202, no. 10, pp. 1463–1466, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. B. Oakes, A. K. Tai, O. Cingoz et al., “Contamination of human DNA samples with mouse DNA can lead to false detection of XMRV-like sequences,” Retrovirology, vol. 7, p. 109, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. M. J. Robinson, O. W. Erlwein, S. Kaye et al., “Mouse DNA contamination in human tissue tested for XMRV,” Retrovirology, vol. 7, p. 108, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. J. A. Garson, P. Kellam, and G. J. Towers, “Analysis of XMRV integration sites from human prostate cancer tissues suggests PCR contamination rather than genuine human infection,” Retrovirology, vol. 8, article 13, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  23. S. Hue, E. R. Gray, A. Gall et al., “Disease-associated XMRV sequences are consistent with laboratory contamination,” Retrovirology, vol. 7, p. 111, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. K. Knox, D. Carrigan, G. Simmons et al., “No evidence of murine-like gammaretroviruses in CFS patients previously identified as XMRV-infected,” Science, vol. 333, no. 6038, pp. 94–97, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  25. T. Paprotka, K. A. Delviks-Frankenberry, O. Cingoz, et al., “Recombinant origin of the retrovirus XMRV,” Science, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  26. P. W. Tuke, K. I. Tettmar, A. Tamuri, J. P. Stoye, and R. S. Tedder, “PCR master mixes harbour murine DNA sequences. caveat emptor!,” Plos One, vol. 6, no. 5, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  27. S. Palmer, A. P. Wiegand, F. Maldarelli et al., “New real-time reverse transcriptase-initiated PCR assay with single-copy sensitivity for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 RNA in plasma,” Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol. 41, no. 10, pp. 4531–4536, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. G. Simmons, S. A. Glynn, J. A. Holmberg et al., “The blood xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus scientific research working group: mission, progress, and plans,” Transfusion, vol. 51, no. 3, pp. 643–653, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  29. W. K. Gillette, D. Esposito, T. E. Taylor, R. F. Hopkins, R. K. Bagni, and J. L. Hartley, “Purify first: rapid expression and purification of proteins from XMRV,” Protein Expression and Purification, vol. 76, pp. 238–247, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. J. Jin, F. Li, and W. Mothes, “Viral determinants of polarized assembly for the murine leukemia virus,” Journal of Virology, vol. 85, no. 15, pp. 7672–7682, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  31. E. C. Knouf, M. J. Metzger, P. S. Mitchell et al., “Multiple integrated copies and high-level production of the human retrovirus XMRV (xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus) from 22Rv1 prostate carcinoma cells,” Journal of Virology, vol. 83, no. 14, pp. 7353–7356, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. T. Paprotka, K. A. Delviks-Frankenberry, O. Cingoz et al., “Recombinant origin of the retrovirus XMRV,” Science, vol. 333, no. 6038, pp. 97–101, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  33. B. T. Huber, B. Oakes, A. K. Tai et al., “Contamination of human DNA samples with mouse DNA can lead to false detection of XMRV-like sequences,” Retrovirology, vol. 7, p. 109, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. J. N. Baraniuk, “Xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus in chronic fatigue syndrome and prostate cancer,” Current Allergy and Asthma Reports, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 210–214, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus