About this Journal Submit a Manuscript Table of Contents
Advances in Virology
Volume 2011 (2011), Article ID 281425, 5 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2011/281425
Review Article

Testing Strategies for Detection of Xenotropic Murine Leukemia Virus-Related Virus Infection

Laboratory of Molecular Virology, CBER, Food and Drug Administration, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA

Received 10 March 2011; Revised 18 May 2011; Accepted 10 June 2011

Academic Editor: Myra McClure

Copyright © 2011 Shixing Tang and Indira K. Hewlett. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. A. Urisman, R. J. Molinaro, N. Fischer et al., “Identification of a novel Gammaretrovirus in prostate tumors of patients homozygous for R462Q RNASEL variant,” PLoS Pathogens, vol. 2, no. 3, article e25, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  2. V. C. Lombardi, F. W. Ruscetti, J. D. Gupta et al., “Detection of an infectious retrovirus, XMRV, in blood cells of patients with chronic fatigue syndrome,” Science, vol. 326, no. 5952, pp. 585–589, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  3. E. Callaway, “Virology: fighting for a cause,” Nature, vol. 471, no. 7338, pp. 282–285, 2011.
  4. J. Carlowe, “Chronic fatigue syndrome is not caused by XMRV virus, study shows,” The British Medical Journal, vol. 341, article c7358, 2010.
  5. J. M. Coffin and J. P. Stoye, “Virology. A new virus for old diseases?” Science, vol. 326, no. 5952, pp. 530–531, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  6. J. Cohen, “Retrovirology. More negative data for link between mouse virus and human disease,” Science, vol. 331, no. 6022, pp. 1253–1254, 2011.
  7. M. McClure and S. Kaye, “Can detection of xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus be linked to chronic fatigue syndrome?” Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics, vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 537–539, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  8. M. McClure and S. Wessely, “Chronic fatigue syndrome and human retrovirus XMRV,” The British Medical Journal, vol. 340, article c1099, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  9. R. H. Silverman, C. Nguyen, C. J. Weight, and E. A. Klein, “The human retrovirus XMRV in prostate cancer and chronic fatigue syndrome,” Nature Reviews Urology, vol. 7, no. 7, pp. 392–402, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  10. M. A. Wainberg and K.-T. Jeang, “XMRV as a human pathogen?” Cell Host & Microbe, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 260–262, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  11. R. A. Weiss, “A cautionary tale of virus and disease,” BMC Biology, vol. 8, article 124, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  12. S. C. Lo, N. Pripuzova, B. Li et al., “Detection of MLV-related virus gene sequences in blood of patients with chronic fatigue syndrome and healthy blood donors,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 107, no. 36, pp. 15874–15879, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  13. R. A. Smith, “Contamination of clinical specimens with MLV-encoding nucleic acids: implications for XMRV and other candidate human retroviruses,” Retrovirology, vol. 7, no. 1, article 112, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  14. J. P. Stoye, R. H. Silverman, C. A. Boucher, and S. F. Le Grice, “The xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related retrovirus debate continues at first international workshop,” Retrovirology, vol. 7, no. 1, article 113, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  15. J. A. Mikovits, V. C. Lombardi, M. A. Pfost, K. S. Hagen, and F. W. Ruscetti, “Detection of an infectious retrovirus, XMRV, in blood cells of patients with chronic fatigue syndrome,” Virulence, vol. 1, no. 5, pp. 386–390, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  16. J. A. Mikovits, Y. Huang, M. A. Pfost et al., “Distribution of xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV) infection in chronic fatigue syndrome and prostate cancer,” AIDS Reviews, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 149–152, 2010. View at Scopus
  17. T. Roe, T. C. Reynolds, G. Yu, and P. O. Brown, “Integration of murine leukemia virus DNA depends on mitosis,” The EMBO Journal, vol. 12, no. 5, pp. 2099–2108, 1993. View at Scopus
  18. B. P. Danielson, G. E. Ayala, and J. T. Kimata, “Detection of xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus in normal and tumor tissue of patients from the southern United States with prostate cancer is dependent on specific polymerase chain reaction conditions,” Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 202, no. 10, pp. 1470–1477, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  19. M. J. Robinson, O. W. Erlwein, S. Kaye et al., “Mouse DNA contamination in human tissue tested for XMRV,” Retrovirology, vol. 7, no. 1, article 108, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  20. B. Oakes, A. K. Tai, O. Cingoz et al., “Contamination of human DNA samples with mouse DNA can lead to false detection of XMRV-like sequences,” Retrovirology, vol. 7, no. 1, article 109, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  21. E. Sato, R. A. Furuta, and T. Miyazawa, “An endogenous murine leukemia viral genome contaminant in a commercial RT-PCR Kit is amplified using standard primers for XMRV,” Retrovirology, vol. 7, no. 1, article 110, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  22. S. Hue, E. R. Gray, A. Gall et al., “Disease-associated XMRV sequences are consistent with laboratory contamination,” Retrovirology, vol. 7, no. 1, article 111, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  23. R. Schlaberg, D. J. Choe, K. R. Brown, H. M. Thaker, and I. R. Singh, “XMRV is present in malignant prostatic epithelium and is associated with prostate cancer, especially high-grade tumors,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 106, no. 38, pp. 16351–16356, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  24. F. J. van Kuppeveld, A. S. Jong, K. H. Lanke et al., “Prevalence of xenotropic murine leukaemia virus-related virus in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome in the Netherlands: retrospective analysis of samples from an established cohort,” The British Medical Journal, vol. 340, article c1018, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  25. K. S. Jones, Y. K. Huang, C. Petrow-Sadowski, et al., “Evidence for sequeence variation in XMRV,” in Proceedings of the Annual Meeting on Retroviruses, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, New York, NY, USA, abstract 13, 2010.
  26. T. Paprotka, K. A. Delviks-Frankenberry, O. Cingoz, et al., “Recombinant origin of the retrovirus XMRV,” Science, vol. 333, no. 6038, pp. 97–101, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  27. A. Dupressoir and T. Heidmann, “Expression of intracisternal A-particle retrotransposons in primary tumors of oncogene-expressing transgenic mice,” Oncogene, vol. 14, no. 24, pp. 2951–2958, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  28. G. Simmons, S. A. Glynn, J. A. Holmberg et al., “The Blood Xenotropic Murine Leukemia Virus-Related Virus Scientific Research Working Group: mission, progress, and plans,” Transfusion, vol. 51, no. 3, pp. 643–653, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  29. R. S. Arnold, N. V. Makarova, A. O. Osunkoya et al., “XMRV infection in patients with prostate cancer: novel serologic assay and correlation with PCR and FISH,” Urology, vol. 75, no. 4, pp. 755–761, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  30. S. Sabunciyan, N. Mandelberg, C. S. Rabkin, R. Yolken, and R. Viscidi, “No difference in antibody titers against xenotropic MLV related virus in prostate cancer cases and cancer-free controls,” Molecular and Cellular Probes, vol. 25, no. 2-3, pp. 134–136, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  31. H. C. T. Groom, V. C. Boucherit, K. Makinson et al., “Absence of xenotropic murine leukaemia virus-related virus in UK patients with chronic fatigue syndrome,” Retrovirology, vol. 7, no. 1, article 10, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  32. N. Onlamoon, J. Das Gupta, P. Sharma et al., “Infection, viral dissemination and antibody responses of rhesus macaques exposed to the human gammaretrovirus XMRV,” The Journal of Virology, vol. 85, no. 9, pp. 4547–4557, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  33. X. Qiu, P. Swanson, K. C. Luk et al., “Characterization of antibodies elicited by XMRV infection and development of immunoassays useful for epidemiologic studies,” Retrovirology, vol. 7, no. 1, article 68, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  34. R. K. Bagni, K. Beam, A. Meade, et al., “Development and optimization of a multiplex serological assay to detect XMRV antibodies,” in Proceedings of the 1st International Workshop on XMRV, abstract O_14, 2010.
  35. O. Hohn, H. Krause, P. Barbarotto et al., “Lack of evidence for xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus(XMRV) in German prostate cancer patients,” Retrovirology, vol. 6, no. 1, article 92, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  36. W. M. Switzer, H. Jia, O. Hohn et al., “Absence of evidence of xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus infection in persons with chronic fatigue syndrome and healthy controls in the United States,” Retrovirology, vol. 7, no. 1, article 57, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  37. B. C. Satterfield, R. A. Garcia, H. Jia, et al., “Serological and PCR testing of persons with chronic fatigue syndrome in the United States shows no association with xenotropic or polytropic murine leukemia virus-related viruses,” Retrovirology, vol. 8, no. 1, article 12, 2011.
  38. O. Hohn, K. Strohschein, A. U. Brandt et al., “No evidence for XMRV in German CFS and MS patients with fatigue despite the ability of the virus to infect human blood cells in vitro,” PLoS One, vol. 5, no. 12, article e15632, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  39. A. L. Aloia, K. S. Sfanos, W. B. Isaacs et al., “XMRV: a new virus in prostate cancer?” Cancer Research, vol. 70, no. 24, pp. 10028–10033, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  40. E. Barnes, P. Flanagan, A. Brown et al., “Failure to detect xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus in blood of individuals at high risk of blood-borne viral infections,” Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 202, no. 10, pp. 1482–1485, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus