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Advances in Virology
Volume 2011 (2011), Article ID 562831, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2011/562831
Review Article

The Evolutionary Processes of Canine Coronaviruses

Department of Public Health and Animal Sciences, University of Bari, 70010 Valenzano, Bari, Italy

Received 21 January 2011; Accepted 9 May 2011

Academic Editor: Peter J. M. Rottier

Copyright © 2011 Annamaria Pratelli. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Since the first identification of the virus in 1971, the disease caused by canine coronavirus (CCoV) has not been adequately investigated, and the role that the virus plays in canine enteric illness has not been well established. Only after the emergence in 2002 of SARS in human has new attention been focused on coronaviruses. As a consequence of the relatively high mutation frequency of RNA-positive stranded viruses, CCoV has evolved and, with the biomolecular techniques developed over the last two decades, new virus strains, serotypes, and subtypes have been identified in infected dogs. Considering the widespread nature of CCoV infections among dog populations, several studies have been carried out, focusing upon the epidemiological relevance of these viruses and underlining the need for further investigation into the biology of CCoVs and into the pathogenetic role of the infections. This paper reports the evolutionary processes of CCoVs with a note onto recent diagnostic methods.