Table 1: Examples of parallel evolution of viral innate immune evasion mechanisms.
(a) Bacteria

MechanismViral evasion strategyVirus protein

CRISPERGenetic variation of DNADNA polymerase [26]
Psp-induced signalingUnknown (Psp genetic variation)Unknown
Restriction/methylationMethylation of viral target DNAAcquired bacterial methylase [26]
ApoptosisLysogeny/tolerancePhage lysis gene regulation [27]

(b) Drosophila

MechanismEvasion strategyViral protein

DICER1Genetic variation of DNAVirus encodes miRNAs [28]
VagoIkB, Jak/Stat inhibitorsViral IkB, unknown inhibitor of Jak/STAT [29]
DICER2Binding of ds RNAFHV-B2 protein [30]
ApoptosisInhibitor of apoptosis (IAP)Baculovirus p35 [31, 32]

(c) Mammalian systems

MechanismEvasion strategyViral protein

Interferon signalingdsRNA binding
Influenza virus NS1 [33], VACV E3 (also inhibits DNApol III DNA sensing) [34]
Inhibition of signaling
VACV N1 family [5, 3537], HCV NS3A/4 [38], influenza virus NS1 [33], HCV core proteins inhibit Jak/Stat signaling [39], HCV NS5A inhibits MyD88 [40],
HIV Vif, and Vpr degrade IRF3 [37]
Inhibition of IFN bindingVACV soluble IFN alpha/beta receptors [41]

Viral RNA/DNA sensingInhibitors of RIG-I
HCV NS3A/4 proteolytic cleavage of MAVS [38, 42]
Inhibitors of MDA5, LGP2
Paramyxovirus V proteins [43]
Inhibitors of DDX3
VACV K7 [5]
Inhibitors of the AIM2/NLRP3 Inflammasome
KSHV vNLR [44], myxoma virus M013 [45]
Inhibitors of proteins activated downstream of the AIM2/NLRP3 inflammasome
Cowpox virus crmA
VACV SPI-2, sIL-1 𝛽 R, and sIL-18R [41]
DAIEBV EBERmiRNAs [25]

Programmed cell deathViral inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP)
KSHV vFLIP [46]
Viral bcl-2s
EBV bhrf1 and balf1 [47, 48],
KSHV orf16 [49]
Blockade of IL-1-mediated pyroptosisPoxvirus crmA, sIL-1 𝛽 , sIL18 [41]