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Advances in Virology
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 637208, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/637208
Review Article

Antibody-Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity and NK Cell-Driven Immune Escape in HIV Infection: Implications for HIV Vaccine Development

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC 3010, Australia

Received 11 January 2012; Revised 13 February 2012; Accepted 13 February 2012

Academic Editor: Christoph Boesecke

Copyright © 2012 Gamze Isitman et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

The HIV-1 genome is malleable and a difficult target tot vaccinate against. It has long been recognised that cytotoxic T lymphocytes and neutralising antibodies readily select for immune escape HIV variants. It is now also clear that NK cells can also select for immune escape. NK cells force immune escape through both direct Killer-immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR)-mediated killing as well as through facilitating antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC). These newer finding suggest NK cells and ADCC responses apply significant pressure to the virus. There is an opportunity to harness these immune responses in the design of more effective HIV vaccines.