Advances in Zoology The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2016 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Composition and Functional Diversity in Bird Communities in a Protected Humid Coastal Savanna Wed, 09 Dec 2015 11:22:14 +0000 Our current understanding of the vertebrate communities of a newly gazetted Tanzanian coastal national park is limited and strongly taxonomically biased towards large mammals. We conducted bird assessments in three sites in Saadani National Park using species lists to analyze some parameters to inform biodiversity conservation in the area. We recorded 3112 individuals in 268 species falling in 66 families, including 2 endangered, 2 vulnerable, and 6 near threatened species. Both species richness and species diversity varied between sites. Species relative abundances were not different between the sites although some functional groups, especially granivores, were more abundant than others. Bird assemblages included 21 forest specialists (FF-species), 35 forest generalists (F-species), and 68 forest visitors (f-species) overlapping among bushland, wooded grassland, grassland, and thickets suggesting presence of important microhabitats for the forest-associated species in this ecosystem. Bird species richness in a feeding guild also showed marked overlap between habitats suggesting availability of rich food resources for the birds. This paper highlights the importance of maintaining a structurally heterogeneous landscape to sustain diverse bird communities in the area. Alfan A. Rija, Abubakari S. Mgelwa, Robert B. Modest, and Shombe N. Hassan Copyright © 2015 Alfan A. Rija et al. All rights reserved. Trichodinid Parasites on the Gills of Channa punctatus from the Wild and Cultured Environments in Sylhet, Bangladesh Sat, 31 Jan 2015 06:12:16 +0000 Two trichodinid parasites, Trichodina cyprinocola and Trichodina pediculus, were acknowledged in the gills during a sampling preparation of thirty fish Channa punctatus from the wild and cultured environments. However, Trichodina pediculus was recorded only in one farmed fish. From a total of 33 parasites, 26.67% were encountered in wild and 46.67% in cultured fish. The overall incidence of infection by Trichodina cyprinocola was 33.33% whilst Trichodina pediculus was only 3.33%. Records from statistical analysis as well affirmed that fish host from the cultured environment constituted the highest rate of intensity , density , and infection index ( values. Both trichodinid species are identified based on the study in their unique denticles structure. Relatively large size of adhesive disc with tiny curved denticles and elongated denticle rays are the exceptional denticle morphology observed in Trichodina pediculus and compact association of sickle denticles with round tangent point alongside short vigorous upright rays evaluated the Trichodina cyprinocola. Mitu Deb, Md. Faruque Miah, Mohibur Rahman, and Zobada Kanak Khan Copyright © 2015 Mitu Deb et al. All rights reserved. Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto Aquatic Stages Development Comparison between Insectary and Semifield Structure Mon, 05 Jan 2015 09:33:48 +0000 Effective malaria vector control initiatives need a clear understanding of mosquito behaviour and its ecology. This study compared larvae development to adult emergence in insectary and malaria-sphere (SFS). This is the preliminary study which gives an insight to forthcoming studies. Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto eggs were hatched in insectary and transferred in densities of 20 and 50 per microhabitat with twenty replicates of each density. Both densities of larvae were reared in semifield structure and in insectary from the same batch of eggs. They were provided with tetramin fish food. In both densities of 20 and 50, pupation rate and time were found to be similar in SFS and insectary, but, in survivorship from larvae to pupae at density of 50, more larvae survived significantly to pupae stage in SFS than in insectary (). The adult emergence rates were similar for densities of 20 and 50 between SFS and Insectary. There was a significant difference between SFS and insectary in light intensity () and temperatures (), with SFS having higher rates than insectary. The findings of this study have shown that larvae development rates are encouraging having semifield structures for malaria vector rearing for behavioural studies toward malaria control. Eliningaya J. Kweka, Filemoni Tenu, Frank Magogo, and Leonard E. G. Mboera Copyright © 2015 Eliningaya J. Kweka et al. All rights reserved. Ichthyofaunal Diversity and Water Quality in the Kangsabati Reservoir, West Bengal, India Wed, 31 Dec 2014 06:46:01 +0000 The ichthyofauna in relation to water quality was studied on monthly basis from March, 2010 to February, 2011 in the Kangsabati Reservoir, West Bengal. The study revealed that physicochemical parameters of Kangsabati Reservoir were congenial for 39 fish species of commercial importance, belonging to 7 orders, 15 families, and 26 genera. The Cypriniformes were dominant with 17 species, followed by Siluriformes and Perciformes, with 7 species each, Channiformes with 3 species, Osteoglossiformes and Synbranchiformes with 2 species each, and Anguilliformes with 1 species. Regarding their conservation status, 27 species were of least concern, 1 species was vulnerable, 6 species were near threatened, 1 species was data deficient, and 4 species were not evaluated (IUCN-Version 2014.1). Economical values have also been evaluated. Water parameters such as temperature, pH, alkalinity, dissolved oxygen, hardness, free CO2, salinity, total inorganic nitrogen, and phosphate were recorded and found suitable for fish production. Conductivity, transparency, and high chloride level are minor limiting factor that may needs rectification for improved fisheries management. Amalesh Bera, Manojit Bhattacharya, Bidhan Chandra Patra, and Utpal Kumar Sar Copyright © 2014 Amalesh Bera et al. All rights reserved. Reproductive Biology of Bothrops erythromelas from the Brazilian Caatinga Tue, 16 Dec 2014 07:28:32 +0000 The reproductive biology of Bothrops erythromelas, a small pit viper from the Caatinga, a semiarid biome in Brazil, is described based on analysis of individuals deposited in zoological collections. Males are smaller and also attain sexual maturity at a smaller size than females. Female reproductive cycle is seasonal with an extended period of secondary vitellogenesis and births occurring in a restricted period from late spring to early summer. Sperm storage in females may probably occur in infundibular tubular glands and uterine muscular twisting (UMT), which is a polymorphic condition within B. erythromelas. Seasonal spermatogenesis in males is variable with some intraspecific variation regarding the male reproductive stage per season. Most males are reproductively active during spring/summer and reproductively quiescent during autumn/winter, although some individuals vary (e.g., show testicular spermatogenesis and active sexual segment of the kidneys (SSK) during winter). The SSK could be identified in every male. Most males showed highly hypertrophied SSK in spring/summer and moderately hypertrophied SSK in autumn/winter. The ampulla ductus deferentis was observed and histochemical reactions were conducted. We discuss the probable influence of the unique environmental conditions of the Caatinga region and phylogenetic inertia in the reproductive patterns of this snake species. Verônica Alberto Barros, Claudio Augusto Rojas, and Selma Maria Almeida-Santos Copyright © 2014 Verônica Alberto Barros et al. All rights reserved. Morphological and Molecular Identification of Three Ceriodaphnia Species (Cladocera: Daphniidae) from Australia Sun, 14 Dec 2014 11:17:33 +0000 Australian Ceriodaphnia (Cladocera: Daphniidae) are examined using morphological attributes and two mitochondrial DNA (COI and 16s) and one nuclear DNA (28s) gene fragments to differentiate the species. The sequence data supports the existence of three species, that is, C. dubia, one reinstated species C. spinata Henry, 1919, and one new species C. sp. 1. Morphological characteristics were also able to accurately separate the three species. Furthermore, genetic analysis of COI sequences from Ceriodaphnia supported three clades. The high degree of correlation between morphological and molecular identification in this study indicates that mitochondrial markers, COI and 16s, are appropriate molecular markers for species discrimination and identification of Ceriodaphnia. Pranay Sharma Copyright © 2014 Pranay Sharma. All rights reserved. Seasonal Changes in Condition Factor and Weight-Length Relationship of Invasive Carassius gibelio (Bloch, 1782) from Leszczynskie Lakeland, Poland Sun, 23 Nov 2014 08:02:46 +0000 Samples of invasive cyprinid fish, the Prussian carp (Carassius gibelio), were collected by fyke nets in Leszczynskie Lakeland (Poland) during the summer and autumn, 2010, and during the spring, 2011. All captured fish were females. For each fish, the total weight () and the standard length () were measured and Fulton’s condition factor was computed. Graphical investigation and the Mann-Whitney-Wilcoxon test showed statistically significant location shift of the distribution from summer to autumn (upward) and from autumn to spring (downward). Relationship between total weight and standard length was described with the mean growth curve . Seasonal parameters ( and ) were estimated with a nonlinear regression approach, that is, numerical optimization methods. Growth was allometric in summer and autumn and isometric in spring. The differences between summer and autumn growth curves and between autumn and spring growth curves were statistically significant. The seasonality exhibited by the condition factor and the growth curve may be due to different spawning, breeding, and feeding activity in the different seasons and to variable environmental conditions. Marcello De Giosa, Przemyslaw Czerniejewski, and Agnieszka Rybczyk Copyright © 2014 Marcello De Giosa et al. All rights reserved. Sublethal Effects of Methanolic Extract of Raphia hookeri on the Reproductive Capacity of Clarias gariepinus Wed, 05 Nov 2014 11:24:28 +0000 Raphia hookeri fruits are used for fishing in Nigeria due to their ichthyotoxic properties. This study investigated the toxic effects of R. hookeri on the reproductive capacity of Clarias gariepinus. The results from both short-term (96-hour test) and long-term (3-month sublethal test) bioassays revealed a linear relationship between R. hookeri extract dose and negative effects on the catfish. The percentage survival of both sexes of the catfish decreased with increasing extract concentration at short-term exposure, with LC50 values of 600 mg/L and 800 mg/L for male and female, respectively. At long-term exposure, the reproductive capacity of 10–12-month-old male and female brood-stocks diminished at relatively higher concentrations of R. hookeri fruit extract, with the gravid females producing fewer and mostly unviable eggs. The fruit extract also affected the eggs’ hatchability and fry survival when the exposed gravid females were treated with pituitary hormone and sperms from unexposed males, while the exposed males were unable to sexually stimulate female brooders. Sperms and pituitary hormone from exposed males were infertile, leading to low percentage of hatched eggs and mortality of the few hatched fries within 24 hours. These results confirmed the ethnobotanical use of this fruit extract for fishing in Nigeria. Adedotun O. Afolayan, Temitope I. Borokini, and Gloria O. Afolayan Copyright © 2014 Adedotun O. Afolayan et al. All rights reserved. Pesticidal and Mosquitocidal Activities of Clausena excavata Burm. F. (Rutaceae) against Spodoptera litura (Fab.) (Noctuidae: Lepidoptera) and Aedes aegypti L., Anopheles stephensi Liston, and Culex quinquefasciatus Say. (Diptera: Culicidae) Wed, 10 Sep 2014 08:18:29 +0000 The aim of this paper is to evaluate the larvicidal and ovicidal activities of hexane, diethyl ether, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, and methanol extract of Indian medicinal plant, Clausena excavata, at different concentrations against lepidopteran agricultural field pest, Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), and Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi, and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae). Twenty-five early fourth instar larvae of S. litura and A. aegypti, An. stephensi and C. quinquefasciatus were exposed to various concentrations and were assayed in the laboratory by using specific protocols. The 24 h LC50 and LC90 values of the C. excavata leaf extract was determined by probit analysis. The ovicidal activity were determined against S. litura and A. aegypti, An. stephensi, and C. quinquefasciatus and was assessed 120 hrs after treatment. Results of this study show that the selected Indian medicinal plant C. excavata may be a potential source of natural larvicidal and ovicidal activities against selected pest and vector mosquitoes. Mathivanan Thangarasu, Krishnappa Kaliyamoorthy, and Elumalai Kuppusamy Copyright © 2014 Mathivanan Thangarasu et al. All rights reserved. Orangutan Night-Time Long Call Behavior: Sleep Quality Costs Associated with Vocalizations in Captive Pongo Sun, 07 Sep 2014 06:32:16 +0000 Researchers have suggested that the ability of male primates to emit long-distance vocalizations is energetically costly and potentially incurring important adaptive consequences upon the calling individuals. Here, we present the first preliminary data on captive orangutan (Pongo spp.) nocturnal long calls, generated at the Indianapolis Zoo. We used videography to characterize long calls with observed behavioral contexts for 48 nights (816 observed hours totaling 83 long calls). We generated somnographic data for a subset of the long calls. Overall measures of sleep quality generated by infrared videography were then compared to the somnographic, nocturnal long call data. We tested hypotheses related to the proximate mechanisms involved in the initialization of vocalization and the potential costs of emitting long calls to overall sleep quality. We found that (1) performed long calls were conscious and premeditated in nature and (2) greater number of night-time long calls shared a positive relationship with arousability and sleep fragmentation and a negative relationship with total sleep time and sleep quality. These findings strongly suggest that only several minutes of total time invested in long calls throughout the night disproportionately cost the caller by negatively impacting overall sleep quality. David R. Samson, Del Hurst, and Robert W. Shumaker Copyright © 2014 David R. Samson et al. All rights reserved. Microgeographical Variations in Coloration of Male Iberian Wall Lizards May Be Related to Habitat and Climatic Conditions Wed, 03 Sep 2014 08:09:06 +0000 Intraspecific variations in coloration may represent a compromise between selection for intraspecific communication and selection for thermoregulation and predator avoidance. Iberian wall lizards, Podarcis hispanica, exhibit substantial levels of intraspecific variation that cannot be necessarily attributed to genetic differences. We compared variations in coloration and habitat use of three phenotypically distinct populations of P. hispanica in Central Spain. Results suggested that differences in coloration may be related to habitat characteristics and climatic conditions. Thus, lizards from populations with colder temperatures were darker and larger, which may favor thermoregulation. Lizards that lived in habitats with more vegetation and darker granite rocks showed a dark brown to black dorsal coloration. In contrast, lizards from habitats with gypsum and light sandy soil without vegetation or large rocks had a brighter yellow to green dorsal coloration. These differences may increase crypsis to predators in each habitat. There were also differences in the characteristics and relative importance of sexual visual signals (i.e., ventrolateral coloration and number of lateral blue spots) and chemical signals (i.e., number of femoral pores) that might increase efficiency of communication in each environment. Natural selection for traits that allow a better thermoregulation, predator avoidance, and communication might lead to population divergence. Marianne Gabirot, Pilar López, and José Martín Copyright © 2014 Marianne Gabirot et al. All rights reserved. Diversity and Distribution of Avian Fauna of Swat, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan Tue, 02 Sep 2014 05:41:03 +0000 This survey was conducted from January 2013 to December 2013 to explore the avian fauna of Swat valley and to find out the major threats to the avian fauna of the area as it was neglected for years. Direct and indirect methods were used in the study by visiting the field and by interviewing the local peoples and hunters about the current and past status of the avian fauna of the area. During the current study direct and indirect methods were used. A total of 138 species were recorded belonging to 13 orders and 48 families. The order Passeriformes were recorded much in number that were 31 species. Most of the birds were migratory and few were resident. The fauna was very rich due to the flora of the area and also due to less hunting. Orders Anseriformes, Apodiformes, Charadriiformes, Columbiformes, Pelecaniformes, Phoenicopteriformes, and Psittaciformes were found migratory and orders Ciconiiformes, Coraciiformes, Galliformes, and Piciformes were found resident while some members of Gruiformes and Passeriformes were found migratory and some resident. Amir Jan Pathan, Shahroz Khan, Naveed Akhtar, and Kausar Saeed Copyright © 2014 Amir Jan Pathan et al. All rights reserved. Hormone and Metabolite Profiles in Nesting Green and Flatback Turtles: Turtle Species with Different Life Histories Wed, 27 Aug 2014 09:04:01 +0000 Herbivorous turtle, Chelonia mydas, inhabiting the south China Sea and breeding in Peninsular Malaysia, and Natator depressus, a carnivorous turtle inhabiting the Great Barrier Reef and breeding at Curtis Island in Queensland, Australia, differ both in diet and life history. Analysis of plasma metabolites levels and six sex steroid hormones during the peak of their nesting season in both species showed hormonal and metabolite variations. When compared with results from other studies progesterone levels were the highest whereas dihydrotestosterone was the plasma steroid hormone present at the lowest concentration in both C. mydas and N. depressus plasma. Interestingly, oestrone was observed at relatively high concentrations in comparison to oestradiol levels recorded in previous studies suggesting that it plays a significant role in nesting turtles. Also, hormonal correlations between the studied species indicate unique physiological interactions during nesting. Pearson correlation analysis showed that in N. depressus the time of oviposition was associated with elevations in both plasma corticosterone and oestrone levels. Therefore, we conclude that corticosterone and oestrone may influence nesting behaviour and physiology in N. depressus. To summarise, these two nesting turtle species can be distinguished based on the hormonal profile of oestrone, progesterone, and testosterone using discriminant analysis. Maria P. Ikonomopoulou, Adrian J. Bradley, Kammarudin Ibrahim, Colin J. Limpus, Manuel A. Fernandez-Rojo, Dimitrios Vagenas, and Joan M. Whittier Copyright © 2014 Maria P. Ikonomopoulou et al. All rights reserved. Geographical Variation in Morphological and Bioacoustic Traits of Pseudopaludicola mystacalis (Cope, 1887) and a Reassessment of the Taxonomic Status of Pseudopaludicola serrana Toledo, 2010 (Anura: Leptodactylidae: Leiuperinae) Tue, 12 Aug 2014 09:42:49 +0000 Comparisons of advertisement calls of anurans can be used to determine intra- and interspecific differences or affinities. Described from midwestern Brazil, Pseudopaludicola mystacalis is widely distributed and abundant in major open Brazilian ecosystems. However, researchers frequently fail to determine the true taxonomic status of some of these populations and attribute them to unidentified or misidentified species. Herein, we employ morphological and bioacoustic data to reassess the distribution range and to evaluate intraspecific variation in P. mystacalis based on specimens from fifteen localities and seven Brazilian states. We also reassess the distribution and taxonomic status of Pseudopaludicola serrana, herein considered as a junior synonym of P. murundu based on morphology, bioacoustics, and molecular data. André Pansonato, Jessica Rhaiza Mudrek, Fernanda Simioni, Itamar Alves Martins, and Christine Strüssmann Copyright © 2014 André Pansonato et al. All rights reserved. Efficacy of Germinated Cereals as Bait Carrier for Zinc Phosphide and Bromadiolone against Field and Commensal Rodent Pests: A Laboratory Evaluation Thu, 07 Aug 2014 06:14:48 +0000 Both sexes of rodent pests such as Bandicota bengalensis, Millardia meltada, Mus booduga, and Rattus rattus were subjected to toxicity tests (acute rodenticide: 1.5% and 2% zinc phosphide and chronic rodenticide: bromadiolone (0.005%), under no-choice and choice tests) by using their preferred germinated cereals, namely, paddy, pearl millet, and finger millet, as bait base, individually. The results indicated that the poison baits in the germinated cereals induced all the chosen four species of rodent pests to consume greater quantities of bait perhaps due to the bait carrier’s palatability and texture. Besides these, the chosen three germinated cereals proved themselves that they are also capable of acting as suitable bait base for both selected rodenticides in bringing maximum mortality among the tested rodent pests under both no-choice and choice tests. Therefore, these germinated cereals may be recommended as a bait carrier for both zinc phosphide (2%) and bromadiolone (0.005%) poisons for the control of all these four species of rodent pests under field conditions. However, this requires field based trials with rodenticides for making a final recommendation. P. Sakthivel and P. Neelanarayanan Copyright © 2014 P. Sakthivel and P. Neelanarayanan. All rights reserved. Three New Species and One New Record of Genus Chimarra Stephens (Trichoptera: Philopotamoidea: Philopotamidae) from Indian Himalaya Mon, 21 Jul 2014 07:24:53 +0000 Three new species and one new record are added to the philopotamid fauna of India from the Indian Himalaya. The newly described species under the genus Chimarra Stephens include Chimarra butticulata sp.n. and C. gangotriensis sp.n. both from Uttarakhand and C. sangtami sp.n. from Nagaland. The record of C. nigra Kimmins (from Sikkim) constitutes the first record of that species from India, although it was previously known from Nepal. It is redescribed here from India as there are minor differences in the male genitalia from previously described species (in original paper of Kimmins only lateral view of the phallus was illustrated and in the redescribed species the ventral view of phallus is illustrated along with the lateral view). The four species belong to two different species groups and one species is unplaced in the species group. These species are distinguishable from each other as well as from the previously known allied species by consistent taxonomic features of the inferior appendages, tergite X, and the phallic apparatus of males. Manpreet Singh Pandher and Simarjit Kaur Copyright © 2014 Manpreet Singh Pandher and Simarjit Kaur. All rights reserved. Osteometric Effects of Surgical Caponisation on Some Long Bones in Cockerel Chickens Mon, 07 Jul 2014 07:12:16 +0000 The study was conducted to assess the osteometric effects of surgical caponisation on long bones of cockerel chickens. Sixty- (60-) day-old chicks were distributed into two experimental groups with thirty (30) cockerels per group. The birds were caponised at eight (8) weeks of age. The mean of final body weights of caponized groups was significantly higher () than the uncaponised group. The weights of all long bones measured as well as lengths between the two groups were not statistically different () from one another except the weight of femur of the caponized group and the lengths of tibia and tarsometatarsus () that differed significantly from one another (). All the proximal, midshaft, and distal diameters of all the long bones measured between the two groups were not statistically different () from one another except the midshaft diameter of ulna that was significantly higher () in caponized group. It was concluded that caponisation of cockerel chickens at eight (8) weeks of age has no significant osteometric effects () on almost all the long bones studied when they were normalised to the final body weights. Muhammad Abdullahi Mahmud, Peter Shaba, James Gana, Helen Yarubi Yisa, Ruth Ndagimba, Wosilat Abdulsalam, Silas Ndagi, and Habiba Lami Abubakar Copyright © 2014 Muhammad Abdullahi Mahmud et al. All rights reserved. Mates of Competitive Females: The Relationships between Female Aggression, Mate Quality, and Parental Care Mon, 30 Jun 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Though rarely mate-limited, females in a wide variety of species express traits commonly associated with mate competition in males. Recent research has shown that these competitive traits (ornaments, armaments, and intense aggression) often function in the context of female-female competition for nonsexual reproductive resources and are often positively related to reproductive success. Increased success could occur because competitive females acquire limited ecological resources (nest sites, territories, etc.) or because they pair with high quality males, that is, older, more ornamented, or more parental males. Further, males paired with aggressive/low care females may compensate by increasing their paternal efforts. Here, I examined patterns of social pairing and parental care in free-living dark-eyed juncos (Junco hyemalis), a biparental songbird. I found no detectable relationship between female competitive behavior (aggression) and male quality (age, size, or ornamentation) or male provisioning. Thus, neither of the mate choice hypotheses (females compete for males or males prefer aggressive females) was supported. Instead, these results suggest that females compete for nonsexual resources and mate quality is a secondary consideration. I also found a negative relationship between male and female provisioning rates, suggesting that partners adjust their level of parental effort in response to their partner’s efforts. Kristal E. Cain Copyright © 2014 Kristal E. Cain. All rights reserved.