Advances in Zoology http://www.hindawi.com The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2014 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Hormone and Metabolite Profiles in Nesting Green and Flatback Turtles: Turtle Species with Different Life Histories Wed, 27 Aug 2014 09:04:01 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/az/2014/503209/ Herbivorous turtle, Chelonia mydas, inhabiting the south China Sea and breeding in Peninsular Malaysia, and Natator depressus, a carnivorous turtle inhabiting the Great Barrier Reef and breeding at Curtis Island in Queensland, Australia, differ both in diet and life history. Analysis of plasma metabolites levels and six sex steroid hormones during the peak of their nesting season in both species showed hormonal and metabolite variations. When compared with results from other studies progesterone levels were the highest whereas dihydrotestosterone was the plasma steroid hormone present at the lowest concentration in both C. mydas and N. depressus plasma. Interestingly, oestrone was observed at relatively high concentrations in comparison to oestradiol levels recorded in previous studies suggesting that it plays a significant role in nesting turtles. Also, hormonal correlations between the studied species indicate unique physiological interactions during nesting. Pearson correlation analysis showed that in N. depressus the time of oviposition was associated with elevations in both plasma corticosterone and oestrone levels. Therefore, we conclude that corticosterone and oestrone may influence nesting behaviour and physiology in N. depressus. To summarise, these two nesting turtle species can be distinguished based on the hormonal profile of oestrone, progesterone, and testosterone using discriminant analysis. Maria P. Ikonomopoulou, Adrian J. Bradley, Kammarudin Ibrahim, Colin J. Limpus, Manuel A. Fernandez-Rojo, Dimitrios Vagenas, and Joan M. Whittier Copyright © 2014 Maria P. Ikonomopoulou et al. All rights reserved. Geographical Variation in Morphological and Bioacoustic Traits of Pseudopaludicola mystacalis (Cope, 1887) and a Reassessment of the Taxonomic Status of Pseudopaludicola serrana Toledo, 2010 (Anura: Leptodactylidae: Leiuperinae) Tue, 12 Aug 2014 09:42:49 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/az/2014/563165/ Comparisons of advertisement calls of anurans can be used to determine intra- and interspecific differences or affinities. Described from midwestern Brazil, Pseudopaludicola mystacalis is widely distributed and abundant in major open Brazilian ecosystems. However, researchers frequently fail to determine the true taxonomic status of some of these populations and attribute them to unidentified or misidentified species. Herein, we employ morphological and bioacoustic data to reassess the distribution range and to evaluate intraspecific variation in P. mystacalis based on specimens from fifteen localities and seven Brazilian states. We also reassess the distribution and taxonomic status of Pseudopaludicola serrana, herein considered as a junior synonym of P. murundu based on morphology, bioacoustics, and molecular data. André Pansonato, Jessica Rhaiza Mudrek, Fernanda Simioni, Itamar Alves Martins, and Christine Strüssmann Copyright © 2014 André Pansonato et al. All rights reserved. Efficacy of Germinated Cereals as Bait Carrier for Zinc Phosphide and Bromadiolone against Field and Commensal Rodent Pests: A Laboratory Evaluation Thu, 07 Aug 2014 06:14:48 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/az/2014/565306/ Both sexes of rodent pests such as Bandicota bengalensis, Millardia meltada, Mus booduga, and Rattus rattus were subjected to toxicity tests (acute rodenticide: 1.5% and 2% zinc phosphide and chronic rodenticide: bromadiolone (0.005%), under no-choice and choice tests) by using their preferred germinated cereals, namely, paddy, pearl millet, and finger millet, as bait base, individually. The results indicated that the poison baits in the germinated cereals induced all the chosen four species of rodent pests to consume greater quantities of bait perhaps due to the bait carrier’s palatability and texture. Besides these, the chosen three germinated cereals proved themselves that they are also capable of acting as suitable bait base for both selected rodenticides in bringing maximum mortality among the tested rodent pests under both no-choice and choice tests. Therefore, these germinated cereals may be recommended as a bait carrier for both zinc phosphide (2%) and bromadiolone (0.005%) poisons for the control of all these four species of rodent pests under field conditions. However, this requires field based trials with rodenticides for making a final recommendation. P. Sakthivel and P. Neelanarayanan Copyright © 2014 P. Sakthivel and P. Neelanarayanan. All rights reserved. Three New Species and One New Record of Genus Chimarra Stephens (Trichoptera: Philopotamoidea: Philopotamidae) from Indian Himalaya Mon, 21 Jul 2014 07:24:53 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/az/2014/950954/ Three new species and one new record are added to the philopotamid fauna of India from the Indian Himalaya. The newly described species under the genus Chimarra Stephens include Chimarra butticulata sp.n. and C. gangotriensis sp.n. both from Uttarakhand and C. sangtami sp.n. from Nagaland. The record of C. nigra Kimmins (from Sikkim) constitutes the first record of that species from India, although it was previously known from Nepal. It is redescribed here from India as there are minor differences in the male genitalia from previously described species (in original paper of Kimmins only lateral view of the phallus was illustrated and in the redescribed species the ventral view of phallus is illustrated along with the lateral view). The four species belong to two different species groups and one species is unplaced in the species group. These species are distinguishable from each other as well as from the previously known allied species by consistent taxonomic features of the inferior appendages, tergite X, and the phallic apparatus of males. Manpreet Singh Pandher and Simarjit Kaur Copyright © 2014 Manpreet Singh Pandher and Simarjit Kaur. All rights reserved. Osteometric Effects of Surgical Caponisation on Some Long Bones in Cockerel Chickens Mon, 07 Jul 2014 07:12:16 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/az/2014/645071/ The study was conducted to assess the osteometric effects of surgical caponisation on long bones of cockerel chickens. Sixty- (60-) day-old chicks were distributed into two experimental groups with thirty (30) cockerels per group. The birds were caponised at eight (8) weeks of age. The mean of final body weights of caponized groups was significantly higher () than the uncaponised group. The weights of all long bones measured as well as lengths between the two groups were not statistically different () from one another except the weight of femur of the caponized group and the lengths of tibia and tarsometatarsus () that differed significantly from one another (). All the proximal, midshaft, and distal diameters of all the long bones measured between the two groups were not statistically different () from one another except the midshaft diameter of ulna that was significantly higher () in caponized group. It was concluded that caponisation of cockerel chickens at eight (8) weeks of age has no significant osteometric effects () on almost all the long bones studied when they were normalised to the final body weights. Muhammad Abdullahi Mahmud, Peter Shaba, James Gana, Helen Yarubi Yisa, Ruth Ndagimba, Wosilat Abdulsalam, Silas Ndagi, and Habiba Lami Abubakar Copyright © 2014 Muhammad Abdullahi Mahmud et al. All rights reserved. Mates of Competitive Females: The Relationships between Female Aggression, Mate Quality, and Parental Care Mon, 30 Jun 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/az/2014/319567/ Though rarely mate-limited, females in a wide variety of species express traits commonly associated with mate competition in males. Recent research has shown that these competitive traits (ornaments, armaments, and intense aggression) often function in the context of female-female competition for nonsexual reproductive resources and are often positively related to reproductive success. Increased success could occur because competitive females acquire limited ecological resources (nest sites, territories, etc.) or because they pair with high quality males, that is, older, more ornamented, or more parental males. Further, males paired with aggressive/low care females may compensate by increasing their paternal efforts. Here, I examined patterns of social pairing and parental care in free-living dark-eyed juncos (Junco hyemalis), a biparental songbird. I found no detectable relationship between female competitive behavior (aggression) and male quality (age, size, or ornamentation) or male provisioning. Thus, neither of the mate choice hypotheses (females compete for males or males prefer aggressive females) was supported. Instead, these results suggest that females compete for nonsexual resources and mate quality is a secondary consideration. I also found a negative relationship between male and female provisioning rates, suggesting that partners adjust their level of parental effort in response to their partner’s efforts. Kristal E. Cain Copyright © 2014 Kristal E. Cain. All rights reserved.