Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications http://www.hindawi.com The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2015 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Synthesis and Characterization with Antineoplastic, Biochemical, Cytotoxic, and Antimicrobial Studies of Schiff Base Cu(II) Ion Complexes Wed, 29 Jul 2015 08:20:03 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bca/2015/923087/ Copper(II) complexes containing two Schiff base ligands derived from 2-hydroxybenzaldehyde with 2-aminophenol and 3-aminophenol have been synthesized and characterized by means of analytical, magnetic, and spectroscopic methods. Bacteria, fungus, Entamoeba histolytica, and antineoplastic activities of the synthesized complexes have been determined by monitoring the parameters cell growth inhibition, survival time of tumour mice, time-body relation, causing of intraperitoneal cells and macrophages, alkaline phosphatase activity, hematological effect, and biopsy of tumour. M. M. Haque, Md. Kudrat-E-Zahan, Laila Arjuman Banu, Md. Shariful Islam, and M. S. Islam Copyright © 2015 M. M. Haque et al. All rights reserved. Tolerance of Chemoorganotrophic Bioleaching Microorganisms to Heavy Metal and Alkaline Stresses Mon, 06 Jul 2015 07:08:50 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bca/2015/861874/ The bioleaching potential of the bacterium Bacillus mucilaginosus and the fungus Aspergillus niger towards industrial residues was investigated by assessing their response towards various heavy metals (including arsenic, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, nickel, lead, and zinc) and elevated pH. The plate diffusion method was performed for each metal to determine the toxicity effect. Liquid batch cultures were set up for more quantitative evaluation as well as for studying the influence of basicity. Growth curves were prepared using bacterial/fungal growth counting techniques such as plate counting, optical density measurement, and dry biomass determination. Cadmium, nickel, and arsenite had a negative influence on the growth of B. mucilaginosus, whereas A. niger was sensitive to cadmium and arsenate. However, it was shown that growth recovered when microorganisms cultured in the presence of these metals were inoculated onto metal-free medium. Based on the findings of the bacteriostatic/fungistatic effect of the metals and the adaptability of the microorganisms to fairly elevated pH values, it is concluded that both strains have potential applicability for further research concerning bioleaching of alkaline waste materials. Annick Monballiu, Nele Cardon, Minh Tri Nguyen, Christel Cornelly, Boudewijn Meesschaert, and Yi Wai Chiang Copyright © 2015 Annick Monballiu et al. All rights reserved. Synthesis, Characterization, and Anticancer Activity of New Metal Complexes Derived from 2-Hydroxy-3-(hydroxyimino)-4-oxopentan-2-ylidene)benzohydrazide Thu, 25 Jun 2015 06:05:03 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bca/2015/126023/ Novel metal(II) complexes derived from 2-hydroxy-N′-((Z)-3-(hydroxyimino)-4-oxopentan-2-ylidene)benzohydrazide ligand (H2L) were synthesized and characterized by elemental and thermal analyses (DTA and TGA), IR, UV-VIS, 1H-NMR, ESR and mass spectroscopy, magnetic susceptibilities, and conductivities measurements. The complexes adopt distorted octahedral geometry. The ESR spectra of the solid copper(II) complexes are characteristic to configuration and have an axial symmetry type of a ground state. The values confirmed the tetragonal octahedral geometry with a considerably ionic or covalent environment. The cytotoxic activity of the ligand and its metal complexes showed potent cytotoxicity effect against growth of human liver cancer HepG2 cell lines compared to the clinically used Sorafenib (Nexavar). Abdou Saad El-Tabl, Moshira Mohamed Abd El-Waheed, Mohammed Ahmed Wahba, and Nahla Abd El-Halim Abou El-Fadl Copyright © 2015 Abdou Saad El-Tabl et al. All rights reserved. Arsenic Primes Human Bone Marrow CD34+ Cells for Erythroid Differentiation Thu, 11 Jun 2015 08:54:36 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bca/2015/751013/ Arsenic trioxide exhibits therapeutic effects on certain blood malignancies, at least partly by modulating cell differentiation. Previous in vitro studies in human hematopoietic progenitor cells have suggested that arsenic may inhibit erythroid differentiation. However, these effects were all observed in the presence of arsenic compounds, while the concomitant cytostatic and cytotoxic actions of arsenic might mask a prodifferentiating activity. To eliminate the potential impacts of the cytostatic and cytotoxic actions of arsenic, we adopted a novel protocol by pretreating human bone marrow CD34+ cells with a low, noncytotoxic concentration of arsenic trioxide, followed by assaying the colony forming activities in the absence of the arsenic compound. Bone marrow specimens were obtained from chronic myeloid leukemia patients who achieved complete cytogenetic remission. CD34+ cells were isolated by magnetic-activated cell sorting. We discovered that arsenic trioxide enhanced the erythroid colony forming activity, which was accompanied by a decrease in the granulomonocytic differentiation function. Moreover, in erythroleukemic K562 cells, we showed that arsenic trioxide inhibited erythrocyte maturation, suggesting that arsenic might have biphasic effects on erythropoiesis. In conclusion, our data provided the first evidence showing that arsenic trioxide could prime human hematopoietic progenitor cells for enhanced erythroid differentiation. Yuanyuan Zhang, Shasha Wang, Chunyan Chen, Xiao Wu, Qunye Zhang, and Fan Jiang Copyright © 2015 Yuanyuan Zhang et al. All rights reserved. Synthesis and Characterization of Bioactive Acylpyrazolone Sulfanilamides and Their Transition Metal Complexes: Single Crystal Structure of 4-Benzoyl-3-methyl-1-phenyl-2-pyrazolin-5-one Sulfanilamide Wed, 27 May 2015 09:01:58 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bca/2015/717089/ Two Schiff base ligands Ampp-Sn 1 and Bmpp-Sn 2, afforded by a condensation reaction between sulfanilamide and the respective acylpyrazolone carbonyl precursors, their Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II), and Cu(II) complexes prepared by the reaction of ligands and corresponding metal salts in aqueous solutions, were synthesized and then characterized by both analytical and spectroscopic methods, in a view to developing new improved bioactive materials with novel properties. On the basis of elemental analysis, spectroscopic and TGA results, transition metal complexes, with octahedral geometry having two molecules of the bidentate keto-imine ligand each, have been proposed. The single crystal structure of Bmpp-Sn according to X-ray crystallography showed a keto-imine tautomer type of Schiff base, having three intramolecular bonds, one short N2H2O3 hydrogen bond of 1.90 Å and two long C13H13O2 and C32H32O3 hydrogen bonds of 2.48 Å. A moderate to low biological activities have been exhibited by synthesized compounds when compared with standard antimicrobial agents on screening the synthesized compounds against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus pumilus, Proteus vulgaris, and Aeromonas hydrophila for antibacterial activity and against free radical 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) for antioxidant activity. Omoruyi G. Idemudia, Alexander P. Sadimenko, Anthony J. Afolayan, and Eric C. Hosten Copyright © 2015 Omoruyi G. Idemudia et al. All rights reserved. Contribution of Shellfish Consumption to Lower Mercury Health Risk for Residents in Northern Jiaozhou Bay, China Mon, 25 May 2015 12:27:25 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bca/2015/159521/ Fish and marine mammal consumption are an important pathway for human exposure to mercury. The low mercury content in shellfish poses a low mercury health risk to people who consume shellfish. The objectives of this study are to detect mercury concentrations in different species of shellfish and to calculate the mercury health risk from shellfish consumption among traditional residents near northern Jiaozhou Bay. A total of 356 shellfish samples, which comprised 7 species from 5 different places in northern Jiaozhou Bay, were collected from April to June in 2012. The average mercury content in the collected shellfish ranged from 0.024 mgkg−1 to 0.452 mgkg−1. A total of 44 shellfish samples (12.36%) had mercury levels exceeding the national pollution-free aquatic products limit (0.3 mgkg−1). Generally, the viscus had the highest mercury content among all parts of the shellfish. A positive correlation between mercury content and total weight/edible part weight was found in most species of the collected shellfish. The results showed that shellfish consumption resulted in the lower risk of mercury exposure to residents based on the calculation of daily intake (DI) and target hazard quotient (THQ). Lei Zhang and Lei Zhang Copyright © 2015 Lei Zhang and Lei Zhang. All rights reserved. Synthesis, Characterization, Antioxidant, and Antibacterial Studies of Some Metal(II) Complexes of Tetradentate Schiff Base Ligand: (4E)-4-[(2-(E)-[1-(2,4-Dihydroxyphenyl)ethylidene]aminoethyl)imino]pentan-2-one Sun, 17 May 2015 06:48:35 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bca/2015/890734/ Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), and Zn(II) complexes of (4E)-4-[(2-(E)-[1-(2,4-dihydroxyphenyl)ethylidene]aminoethyl)imino]pentan-2-one have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analyses, molar conductance, electronic and IR spectral studies, and XRD. FTIR confirmed the ligand coordinates the metal ion to form mononuclear complex via the oxygen and nitrogen atoms of the phenolic group and azomethine group, respectively. Tetrahedral geometry is proposed for Co(II) complex and square-planar geometry for Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes. The antibacterial studies of the compounds were determined and they show that the metal complexes are more active than the free ligands. The antioxidant activity by DPPH and ABTS method was examined and it shows Cu(II); IC50 = 2.31 ± 1.54 µM for DPPH and Co(II); IC50 = 1.83 ± 1.08 µM for ABTS were the most active. Ikechukwu P. Ejidike and Peter A. Ajibade Copyright © 2015 Ikechukwu P. Ejidike and Peter A. Ajibade. All rights reserved. Corrosion Performance of Fe-Cr-Ni Alloys in Artificial Saliva and Mouthwash Solution Wed, 06 May 2015 08:26:07 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bca/2015/930802/ Several austenitic stainless steels suitable for high temperature applications because of their high corrosion resistance and excellent mechanical properties were investigated as biomaterials for dental use. The steels were evaluated by electrochemical techniques such as potentiodynamic polarization curves, cyclic polarization curves, measurements of open circuit potential, and linear polarization resistance. The performance of steels was evaluated in two types of environments: artificial saliva and mouthwash solution at 37°C for 48 hours. In order to compare the behavior of steels, titanium a material commonly used in dental applications was also tested in the same conditions. Results show that tested steels have characteristics that may make them attractive as biomaterials for dental applications. Contents of Cr, Ni, and other minor alloying elements (Mo, Ti, and Nb) determine the performance of stainless steels. In artificial saliva steels show a corrosion rate of the same order of magnitude as titanium and in mouthwash have greater corrosion resistance than titanium. J. Porcayo-Calderon, M. Casales-Diaz, V. M. Salinas-Bravo, and L. Martinez-Gomez Copyright © 2015 J. Porcayo-Calderon et al. All rights reserved. Application of Novel Amino-Functionalized NZVI@SiO2 Nanoparticles to Enhance Anaerobic Granular Sludge Removal of 2,4,6-Trichlorophenol Tue, 28 Apr 2015 08:46:01 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bca/2015/548961/ A novel amino-functionalized silica-coated nanoscale zerovalent iron (NZVI@SiO2-NH2) was successfully synthesized by using one-step liquid-phase method with the surface functionalization of nanoscale zerovalent iron (NZVI) to enhance degradation of chlorinated organic contaminants from anaerobic microbial system. NZVI@SiO2-NH2 nanoparticles were synthesized under optimal conditions with the uniform core-shell structure (80–100 nm), high loading of amino functionality (~0.9 wt%), and relatively large specific surface area (126.3 m2/g). The result demonstrated that well-dispersed NZVI@SiO2-NH2 nanoparticle with nFe0-core and amino-functional silicon shell can effectively remove 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP) in the neutral condition, much higher than that of NZVI. Besides, the surface-modified nanoparticles (NZVI@SiO2-NH2) in anaerobic granule sludge system also showed a positive effect to promote anaerobic biodechlorination system. More than 94.6% of 2,4,6-TCP was removed from the combined NZVI@SiO2-NH2-anaerobic granular sludge system during the anaerobic dechlorination processes. Moreover, adding the appropriate concentration of NZVI@SiO2-NH2 in anaerobic granular sludge treatment system can decrease the toxicity of 2,4,6-TCP to anaerobic microorganisms and improved the cumulative amount of methane production and electron transport system activity. The results from this study clearly demonstrated that the NZVI@SiO2-NH2/anaerobic granular sludge system could become an effective and promising technology for the removal of chlorophenols in industrial wastewater. Zeyu Guan, Jinquan Wan, Yongwen Ma, Yan Wang, and Yajie Shu Copyright © 2015 Zeyu Guan et al. All rights reserved. Corrigendum to “Synthesis and Characterization of New Palladium(II) Thiosemicarbazone Complexes and Their Cytotoxic Activity against Various Human Tumor Cell Lines” Sun, 29 Mar 2015 13:26:07 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bca/2015/915270/ Wilfredo Hernández, Juan Paz, Fernando Carrasco, Abraham Vaisberg, Evgenia Spodine, Jorge Manzur, Lothar Hennig, Joachim Sieler, Steffen Blaurock, and Lothar Beyer Copyright © 2015 Wilfredo Hernández et al. All rights reserved. N-Terminal Region of GbIspH1, Ginkgo biloba IspH Type 1, May Be Involved in the pH-Dependent Regulation of Enzyme Activity Sun, 29 Mar 2015 05:57:41 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bca/2015/241479/ GbIspH1, IspH type 1 in Ginkgo biloba chloroplast, is the Fe/S enzyme catalyzing the reductive dehydroxylation of HMBPP to isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) and dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP) at the final step of methylerythritol phosphate pathway in chloroplast. Compared to the bacterial IspH, plant IspH, including GbIspH1, has an additional polypeptide chain at the N-terminus. Here, biochemical function of the N-terminal region of GbIspH1 was investigated with the N-terminal truncated GbIspH1 (GbIspH1-truncated). Both wild type GbIspH1 (GbIspH1-full) and GbIspH1-truncated were catalytically active and produced IPP and DMAPP in a ratio of 15 : 1. Kinetic parameters of (17.3 ± 1.9 and 14.9 ± 2.3 µM) and (369 ± 10 and 347 ± 12 min−1) at pH 8.0 were obtained for GbIspH1-full and GbIspH1-truncated, respectively. Interestingly, GbIspH1-full and GbIspH1-truncated showed significantly different pH-dependent activities, and the maximum enzyme activities were obtained at pH 8.0 and 7.5, respectively. However, catalytic activation energies () of GbIspH1-full and GbIspH1-truncated were almost the same with 36.5 ± 1.6 and 35.0 ± 1.9 kJ/mol, respectively. It was suggested that the N-terminal region of GbIspH1 is involved in the pH-dependent regulation of enzyme activity during photosynthesis. Bok-Kyu Shin, Joong-Hoon Ahn, and Jaehong Han Copyright © 2015 Bok-Kyu Shin et al. All rights reserved. Oxaliplatin Analogues with Carboxy Derivatives of Boldine with Enhanced Antioxidant Activity Sat, 28 Feb 2015 06:03:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bca/2015/920143/ A new oxaliplatin analog [Pt(dach)(L5)] (1) was synthesized and characterized as a continuation of a study of the previously reported [Pt(dach)(L6)] (2), where dach = (1R,2R)-diaminocyclohexane, L5 = 3-carboxyboldine, and L6 = 3-carboxypredicentrine. Compounds 1 and 2 exhibited a substantially enhanced antioxidant activity compared to oxaliplatin (130 and 30 times for 1 and 13 and 4 times for 2 using the DPPH and FRAP assays, resp.). In addition, 1 and 2 exhibited cytotoxic activity in the same range as oxaliplatin toward the two human tumor cell lines (MCF-7 and HT-29) studied and two to four times lower activity in the human colon nontumor cell line (CCD-841). Preadministration of L5 or L6 to the colon tumor (HT-29) and the colon nontumor (CCD-841) cell lines prior to oxaliplatin addition increased the viability of the nontumor cell line to a greater extent than that of the tumor cell line. Marco Mellado, Carlos Jara, David Astudillo, Joan Villena, Patricio G. Reveco, and Franz A. Thomet Copyright © 2015 Marco Mellado et al. All rights reserved. Synthesis of Silver Abietate as an Antibacterial Agent for Textile Applications Wed, 25 Feb 2015 08:32:40 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bca/2015/215354/ This study explored the potential use of new silver abietate obtained from abietic acid as an antibacterial agent for textile applications. Synthesis, structure, and antibacterial studies of silver abietate compound are reported. Silver complex was obtained reacting abietic acid with silver. The new compounds were characterized by 1H NMR, 13C NMR, DEPT, IR, UV, and ESI-MS techniques which support the proposed structures. The new Ag abietate complex has no environmental hazard, its antibacterial activities were evaluated after being applied to cotton fabric by padding process according to the JIS L 1902-2008 agar diffusion test method and against three Gram-negative and three Gram-positive bacteria, respectively. Stability of antibacterial effect after repeated washings (3, 5, 10, and 20) was also tested which indicated that the synthesized silver abietate compound could be used as a new antibacterial agent in textile industry. In this way, the compound has been synthesized the first time in the literature and the applications have been investigated. A. Yıldız and M. Değirmencioğlu Copyright © 2015 A. Yıldız and M. Değirmencioğlu. All rights reserved. SALMO and S3M: A Saliva Model and a Single Saliva Salt Model for Equilibrium Studies Wed, 04 Feb 2015 06:30:38 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bca/2015/267985/ A model of synthetic saliva (SALMO, SALiva MOdel) is proposed for its use as standard medium in in vitro equilibrium and speciation studies of real saliva. The concentrations come out from the literature analysis of the composition of both real saliva and synthetic saliva. The chief interactions of main inorganic components of saliva, as well as urea and amino acids, are taken into account on the basis of a complex formation model, which also considers the dependence of the stability constants of these species on ionic strength and temperature. These last features allow the modelling of the speciation of saliva in different physiological conditions deriving from processes like dilution, pH, and temperature changes. To simplify equilibrium calculations, a plain approach is also proposed, in order to take into account all the interactions among the major components of saliva, by considering the inorganic components of saliva as a single 1 : 1 salt (MX), whose concentration is ( = analytical concentration of all the ions) and ion charge calculated as = ±1.163. The use of the Single Saliva Salt Model (S3M) considerably reduces the complexity of the systems to be investigated. In fact, only four species deriving from internal ionic medium interactions must be considered. Francesco Crea, Concetta De Stefano, Demetrio Milea, Alberto Pettignano, and Silvio Sammartano Copyright © 2015 Francesco Crea et al. All rights reserved. Novel Synthesis Method of Micronized Ti-Zeolite Na-A and Cytotoxic Activity of Its Silver Exchanged Form Tue, 03 Feb 2015 08:00:15 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bca/2015/428121/ The core-shell method is used as a novel synthetic process of micronized Ti-Zeolite Na-A which involves calcination at 700°C of coated Egyptian Kaolin with titanium tetrachloride in acidic medium as the first step. The produced Ti-coated metakaolinite is subjected to microwave irradiation at low temperature of 80°C for 2 h. The prepared micronized Ti-containing Zeolites-A (Ti-Z-A) is characterized by FTIR, XRF, XRD, SEM, and EDS elemental analysis. Ag-exchanged form of Ti-Z-Ag is also prepared and characterized. The Wt% of silver exchanged onto the Ti-Zeolite structure was determined by atomic absorption spectra. The in vitro cytotoxic activity of Ti-Z-Ag against human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (HePG2), colon cell line carcinoma (HCT116), lung carcinoma cell line (A549), and human Caucasian breast adenocarcinoma (MCF7) is reported. The results were promising and revealed that the exchanged Ag form of micronized Ti-Zeolite-A can be used as novel antitumor drug. H. F. Youssef, W. H. Hegazy, H. H. Abo-almaged, and G. T. El-Bassyouni Copyright © 2015 H. F. Youssef et al. All rights reserved. DNA Binding Test, X-Ray Crystal Structure, Spectral Studies, TG-DTA, and Electrochemistry of [CoX2(dmdphphen)] (Dmdphphen Is 2,9-Dimethyl-4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline, X = Cl, and NCS) Complexes Mon, 29 Dec 2014 08:01:10 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bca/2014/914241/ Two new neutral mixed-ligand cobalt(II) complexes, [CoCl2(dmdphphen)] 1 and [Co(NCS)2(dmdphphen)]  2, where dmdphphen is 2,9-dimethyl-4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline, were synthesized and characterized by an elemental analysis, UV-Vis, IR, TG/DTA, cyclic voltammetry CV, and single X-ray diffraction. Complex 2 crystallized as monoclinic with a space group P21/c. Co(II) ions are located in a distorted tetrahedral environment. TG/DTA result shows that these complexes are very stable and decomposed through one-step reaction. The two complexes exhibit a quasireversible one-electron response at −550 and 580 mV versus Cp2Fe/Cp2Fe+, which has been assigned to Co(I)/Co(II) and Co(II)/Co(III) couples. Absorption spectral studies reveal that such complexes exhibit hypochromicity during their interaction with CT-DNA. Mousa Al-Noaimi, Mohammed Suleiman, Hany W. Darwish, Ahmed H. Bakheit, Muneer Abdoh, Iyad Saadeddin, Naveen Shivalingegowda, Neartur Krishnappagowda Lokanath, Odey Bsharat, Assem Barakat, and Ismail Warad Copyright © 2014 Mousa Al-Noaimi et al. All rights reserved. Antioxidant Enzyme Inhibitor Role of Phosphine Metal Complexes in Lung and Leukemia Cell Lines Sun, 28 Dec 2014 08:05:19 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bca/2014/717421/ Phosphine metal complexes have been recently evaluated in the field of cancer therapy. In this research, the cytotoxic effects of some metal phosphines [PdCl2((CH2OH)2PCH2)2NCH3] (C1), [RuCl2(((CH2OH)2PCH2)2NCH3)2] (C2), [PtCl2((Ph2PCH2)2NCH3)(timin)2] (C3) on K562 (human myelogenous leukemia cell line) and A549 (adenocarcinomic human alveolar basal epithelial cells) cells were investigated using the MTT test. C1 and C2 are water-soluble metal complexes, which may have some advantages in in vitro and in vivo studies. The effects of the above-mentioned metal complexes on thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) (EC: 1.8.1.9), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) (EC: 1.11.1.9), and catalase (Cat) (EC: 1.11.1.6) enzymes were also tested. The results of this research showed that all three metal complexes indicated dose-dependent cytotoxicity on A549 and K562 cell lines and that the complexes inhibited different percentages of the TrxR, GPx, and Cat enzymes of these tumor cells. Burcu Saygıdeğer Demir, Tuğba Keleş, and Osman Serindağ Copyright © 2014 Burcu Saygıdeğer Demir et al. All rights reserved. Synthesis, Spectroscopic, Molecular Structure, and Antibacterial Studies of Dibutyltin(IV) Schiff Base Complexes Derived from Phenylalanine, Isoleucine, and Glycine Thu, 27 Nov 2014 06:51:21 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bca/2014/716578/ New series of organotin(IV) complexes and Schiff bases derived from amino acids have been designed and synthesized from condensation of 1H-indole-2,3-dione, 5-chloro-1H-indole-2,3-dione, and α-amino acids (phenylalanine, isoleucine, and glycine). All compounds are characterized by elemental analyses, molar conductance measurements, and molecular weight determinations. Bonding of these complexes is discussed in terms of their UV-visible, infrared, and nuclear magnetic resonance (1H, 13C, and 119Sn NMR) spectral studies. The results suggest that Schiff bases behave as monobasic bidentate ligands and coordinate with dibutyltin(IV) in octahedral geometry according to the general formula [Bu2Sn(L)2]. Elemental analyses and NMR spectral data of the ligands with their dibutyltin(IV) complexes agree with their proposed distorted octahedral structures. Few representative compounds are tested for their in vitro antibacterial activity against Gram-positive (B. cereus, Staphylococcus spp.) and Gram-negative (E. coli, Klebsiella spp.) bacteria. The results show that the dibutyltin complexes are more reactive with respect to their corresponding Schiff base ligands. Har Lal Singh and Jangbhadur Singh Copyright © 2014 Har Lal Singh and Jangbhadur Singh. All rights reserved. Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Study of Thermally Treated Bismuth Subgallate Wed, 26 Nov 2014 08:06:09 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bca/2014/547032/ Complex of bismuth, an anti-inflammatory drug, was studied by EPR spectroscopy. The aim of this study was to determine concentrations and properties of free radicals formed during thermal sterilization of bismuth subgallate according to pharmacopoeia norms to optimize its sterilization process. Different temperatures (160°C, 170°C, and 180°C) and times (120 minutes, 60 minutes, and 30 minutes) of sterilization were used. Interactions of bismuth subgallate with DPPH, the model free radical reference, were checked. -Factors, amplitudes (), integral intensities (), and linewidths () were obtained. Integral intensities were obtained by double integration of the first-derivative EPR lines. The influence of microwave power in the range of 2.2–70 mW on shape and parameters of the EPR spectra was examined. Thermal sterilization produced free radicals in bismuth subgallate in all tested cases. Strong interactions with free radicals were pointed out for all the analysed samples containing bismuth independent of sterilization conditions. Optimal conditions of thermal sterilization for bismuth subgallate with the lowest free radical formation are temperature 170°C and time of heating 60 minutes. Strong dipolar interactions exist in thermally sterilized bismuth subgallate. EPR spectroscopy is a useful method of examination of thermal sterilization conditions. Paweł Ramos and Barbara Pilawa Copyright © 2014 Paweł Ramos and Barbara Pilawa. All rights reserved. Human Lung Cancer Cell Line A-549 ATCC Is Differentially Affected by Supranutritional Organic and Inorganic Selenium Wed, 12 Nov 2014 06:58:45 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bca/2014/923834/ The effects of organic and inorganic forms of selenium (Se) on human cells have been extensively studied for nutritional concentrations; however, to date, little is known about the potential toxicity at supranutritional levels. In the present study we determined the effects of sodium selenite (SSe) and selenomethionine (SeMet) on cell growth and intracellular structures in lung cancer cells exposed at Se concentrations between 0 and 3 mM. Our results showed that SSe affected cell growth more rapidly than SeMet (24 h and 48 h, resp.). After 24 h of cells exposure to 0.5, 1.5, and 3 mM SSe, cell growth was reduced by 10, 50, and 60%, as compared to controls. After 48 h, nuclear fragmentation was evident in cells exposed to SSe, suggesting an induction to cell death. In contrast, SeMet did not affect cell proliferation, and the cells were phenotypically similar to controls. Microtubules and microfilaments structures were also affected by both Se compounds, again SSe being more toxic than SeMet. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the differential effects of organic and inorganic Se in supranutritional levels in lung cancer cells. Lérida Liss Flores Villavicencio, Gustavo Cruz-Jiménez, Gloria Barbosa-Sabanero, Carlos Kornhauser-Araujo, M. Eugenia Mendoza-Garrido, Guadalupe de la Rosa, and Myrna Sabanero-López Copyright © 2014 Lérida Liss Flores Villavicencio et al. All rights reserved. Synthesis and Characterisation of Copper(II) Complexes with Tridentate NNO Functionalized Ligand: Density Function Theory Study, DNA Binding Mechanism, Optical Properties, and Biological Application Thu, 16 Oct 2014 07:41:54 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bca/2014/104046/ The photo physical properties of two mononuclear pentacoordinated copper(II) complexes formulated as [Cu(L)(Cl)(H2O)] (1) and [Cu(L)(Br)(H2O)] (2) HL = (1-[(3-methyl-pyridine-2-ylimino)-methyl]-naphthalen-2-ol) were synthesized and characterized by elemental, physicochemical, and spectroscopic methods. The density function theory calculations are used to investigate the electronic structures and the electronic properties of ligand and complex. The interactions of copper(II) complexes towards calf thymus DNA were examined with the help of absorption, viscosity, and fluorescence spectroscopic techniques at pH 7.40. All spectroscopy's result indicates that complexes show good binding activity to calf thymus DNA through groove binding. The optical absorption and fluorescence emission properties of microwires were characterized by fluorescence microscope. From a spectroscopic viewpoint, all compounds strongly emit green light in the solid state. The microscopy investigation suggested that microwires exhibited optical waveguide behaviour which are applicable as fluorescent nanomaterials and can be used as building blocks for miniaturized photonic devices. Antibacterial study reveals that complexes are better antimicrobial agents than free Schiff base due to bacterial cell penetration by chelation. Moreover, the antioxidant study of the ligand and complexes is evaluated by using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free-radical assays, which demonstrate that the complexes are of higher antioxidant activity than free ligand. Madhumita Hazra, Tanushree Dolai, Akhil Pandey, Subrata Kumar Dey, and Animesh Patra Copyright © 2014 Madhumita Hazra et al. All rights reserved. Green Approach for Fabrication and Applications of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles Tue, 14 Oct 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bca/2014/523869/ Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) are known to be one of the multifunctional inorganic compounds which are widely used in everyday applications. This study aims to fabricate ZnO-NPs using grapefruit (Citrus paradisi) peel extract with particle size ranging from 12 to 72 nm. Structural, morphological, and optical properties of the synthesized nanoparticles have been characterized by using UV-Vis spectrophotometer, TEM, DLS, and FTIR analysis. They show the significant photocatalytic degradation efficiency (>56%, 10 mg/L, 6 h) against methylene blue and antioxidant efficacy (≥80% for 1.2 mM) against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl. From the results obtained it is suggested that green ZnO-NPs could be used effectively in environmental safety applications and also can address future medical concerns. Brajesh Kumar, Kumari Smita, Luis Cumbal, and Alexis Debut Copyright © 2014 Brajesh Kumar et al. All rights reserved. Axially Ligated Zirconium(IV) Tetraphenylporphyrin: Synthesis, Characterization, and Biological Activity Tue, 14 Oct 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bca/2014/543014/ A series of 5,10,15,20-tetraphenylporphinatozirconium(IV) acetylacetonatophenolates containing different phenols as axial ligands [Zr(TPP)(Y)(X)] (TPP = 5,10.15,20-tetraphenyl-21H, 23H-porphine; Y = acac; X = different phenolates) have been synthesized and characterized by various spectrochemical studies. The complexes were also screened for antimicrobial activities. Antifungal activity of some adducts has been carried out against the fungal strain Sclerotium rolfsii. Most of the complexes have shown good antibacterial activity. Gauri D. Bajju, Sunil Kumar Anand, and Gita Devi Copyright © 2014 Gauri D. Bajju et al. All rights reserved. Synthesis, Characterization, Semiempirical and Biological Activities of Organotin(IV) Carboxylates with 4-Piperidinecarboxylic Acid Mon, 13 Oct 2014 08:07:04 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bca/2014/959203/ Organotin (IV) carboxylates with the general formulae R2Sn(Cl)L [R = Me (1), n-Bu (2), Ph (3)] and R3SnL [R = Me (4), Ph (5)] have been synthesized by the reaction of 4-piperidinecarboxylic acid (HL) with KOH and R2SnCl2 (R = Me, n-Bu, Ph)/R3SnCl (R = Me, Ph) in methanol under stirring conditions. The metal ligand binding site, structure, and stability of complexes have been verified by FT-IR, (1H, 13C) NMR, EI-MS technique, and semiempirical study. The FT-IR data indicate the bidentate chelating mode of the carboxylate ligand which is also confirmed by semiempirical study. In solution state, five and four coordinated geometry around tin was confirmed by NMR spectroscopy. The EI-MS data agreed well with the molecular structure of the complexes. Thermodynamic parameters and molecular descriptors were calculated by using semiempirical PM3 method. HOMO-LUMO calculations show that chlorodiorganotin complexes are more susceptible to nucleophilic attack as compared to triorganotin complexes. Computed negative heat of formation indicates that complexes 1–4 are thermodynamically stable. The organotin(IV) carboxylates displayed powerful antimicrobial activities against various strains of bacteria and fungi and their minimal inhibitory concentration were also evaluated. The complexes exhibited comparatively higher hemolytic activity as compared to free ligand. Shabbir Hussain, Saqib Ali, Saira Shahzadi, Saroj K. Sharma, Kushal Qanungo, and Muhammad Shahid Copyright © 2014 Shabbir Hussain et al. All rights reserved. Synthesis, Characterization, DNA Interaction, and Antitumor Activities of La (III) Complex with Schiff Base Ligand Derived from Kaempferol and Diethylenetriamine Sun, 12 Oct 2014 13:30:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bca/2014/354138/ A novel La (III) complex, [LaL(H2O)3]NO3·3H2O, with Schiff base ligand L derived from kaempferol and diethylenetriamine, has been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, IR, UV-visible, 1H NMR, thermogravimetric analysis, and molar conductance measurements. The fluorescence spectra, circular dichroism spectra, and viscosity measurements and gel electrophoresis experiments indicated that the ligand L and La (III) complex could bind to CT-DNA presumably via intercalative mode and the La (III) complex showed a stronger ability to bind and cleave DNA than the ligand L alone. The binding constants () were evaluated from fluorescence data and the values ranged from 0.454 to 0.659 × 105 L mol−1 and 1.71 to 17.3 × 105 L mol−1 for the ligand L and La (III) complex, respectively, in the temperature range of 298–310 K. It was also found that the fluorescence quenching mechanism of EB-DNA by ligand L and La (III) complex was a static quenching process. In comparison to free ligand L, La (III) complex exhibited enhanced cytotoxic activities against tested tumor cell lines HL-60 and HepG-2, which may correlate with the enhanced DNA binding and cleaving abilities of the La (III) complex. Qin Wang, Yu Huang, Jin-Sheng Zhang, and Xin-Bin Yang Copyright © 2014 Qin Wang et al. All rights reserved. Synthesis, Spectroscopic Characterization, and Biological Evaluation Studies of 5-Bromo-3-(((hydroxy-2-methylquinolin-7-yl)methylene)hydrazono)indolin-2-one and Its Metal (II) Complexes Sun, 12 Oct 2014 12:49:04 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bca/2014/483282/ The Schiff base ligand 5-bromo-3-(((8-hydroxy-2-methylquinolin-7-yl)methylene)hydrazono)indolin-2-one (BHMQMHI) was prepared via condensation of 5-bromo-3-hydrazonoindolin-2-one and 7-formyl-8-hydroxy-2-methylquinoline and its Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), Cd(II), and Hg(II) complexes have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, conductance data, magnetic susceptibility measurements, IR, UV-Vis, mass spectrometry, 1H NMR, ESR, XRD, and thermal studies. By these spectral studies it is found that Co(II), Ni(II), and Cu(II) complexes have exhibited octahedral geometry whereas the Zn(II), Cd(II), and Hg(II) complexes have exhibited tetrahedral geometry. Potentiometric studies have been carried out on complexes of Schiff base (BHMQMHI) with Cu(II), Co(II), and Ni(II). Calvin-Bjerrum pH-titration technique as used by Irving and Rossotti has been applied to determine stability constants in mixed solvents at °C. The present study reports the protonation constants of this ligand and stability constants of its metal complexes in dioxane-water (50%, v/v) mixtures. Metal-ligand stability constants fall in the order of Cu(II) > Co(II) > Ni(II) which is in agreement with those reported by Irving stability order. The Schiff base (BHMQMHI) and its metal complexes have been screened for their in vitro antibacterial and antifungal activities by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) method. The DNA cleavage activities of all the complexes were studied by agarose gel electrophoresis method. In addition, the free ligand along with its complexes has been studied for their antioxidant activity. Kuruba Siddappa and Nabiya Sultana Mayana Copyright © 2014 Kuruba Siddappa and Nabiya Sultana Mayana. All rights reserved. Potentiometric and Blood Plasma Simulation Studies of Nickel(II) Complexes of Poly(amino)amido Pentadentate Ligands: Computer Aided Metal-Based Drug Design Sun, 12 Oct 2014 12:25:25 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bca/2014/863612/ The thermodynamic equilibria of nickel(II) with N,N′-di(aminoethylene)-2,6-pyridinedicarbonylamine (L1), Bis-(N,N-dimethylethyl)-2,6-pyridinedicarboxamide (L2), and N,N′-bis[2(2-pyridyl)-methyl]pyridine-2,6-dicarboxamide (L3) have been studied at 25°C and an ionic strength of 0.15 mol dm−3 by glass electrode potentiometry. The protonation and formation constants added to blood plasma model predict that Cu(II) competes effectively against Ni(II), Zn(II), and Ca(II) for these ligands in vivo. Sebusi Odisitse and Graham E. Jackson Copyright © 2014 Sebusi Odisitse and Graham E. Jackson. All rights reserved. In Vitro Antibacterial Activity and Mechanism of Silver Nanoparticles against Foodborne Pathogens Wed, 17 Sep 2014 08:49:28 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bca/2014/581890/ Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Planomicrobium sp. and to explore the antibacterial activity against food borne pathogenic bacteria Bacillus subtilis, (3053) Klebsiella planticola (2727) Klebsiella pneumoniae (MAA) Serratia nematodiphila (CAA) and Escherichia coli. In the current studies, 1 mM of silver nitrate was added into 100 mL of Planomicrobium sp. culture supernatant. The bioreduction of pure AgNO3 was characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive analysis (EDS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) analysis. The formation of silver nanoparticles was confirmed by the presence of an absorption peak at 400 nm using UV-visible spectrophotometry. The morphology and size of the silver nanoparticles was monitored by TEM and SEM. Crystal structure was obtained by carrying out X-ray diffraction studies and it showed face centered cubic (FCC) structure. The bactericidal effect of silver nanoparticles was compared based on diameter of inhibition zone in well method. Bacterial sensitivity to nanoparticles a key factor in manufacture the suitable for long life application in food packaging and food safety. Food safety is a worldwide health goal and the food borne diseases get a main disaster on health. Therefore, controlling of bacterial pathogens in food is credit of harms associated to health and safety. S. Rajeshkumar and C. Malarkodi Copyright © 2014 S. Rajeshkumar and C. Malarkodi. All rights reserved. Synthesis, Characterization, and Biological Activity of N′-[(Z)-(3-Methyl-5-oxo-1-phenyl-1,5-dihydro-4H-pyrazol-4-ylidene)(phenyl)methyl]benzohydrazide and Its Co(II), Ni(II), and Cu(II) Complexes Mon, 15 Sep 2014 13:07:51 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bca/2014/718175/ Reaction of 1-phenyl-3-methyl-4-benzoyl-pyrazol-5-one and benzoyl hydrazide in refluxing ethanol gave N′-[(Z)-(3-methyl-5-oxo-1-phenyl-1,5-dihydro-4H-pyrazol-4-ylidene)(phenyl)methyl]benzohydrazide (HL1), which was characterized by NMR spectroscopy and single-crystal X-ray structure study. X-ray diffraction analyses of the crystals revealed a nonplanar molecule, existing in the keto-amine form, with intermolecular hydrogen bonding forming a seven-membered ring system. The reaction of HL1 with Co(II), Ni(II), and Cu(II) halides gave the corresponding complexes, which were characterized by elemental analysis, molar conductance, magnetic measurements, and infrared and electronic spectral studies. The compounds were screened for their in vitro cytotoxic activity against HL-60 human promyelocytic leukemia cells and antimicrobial activity against some bacteria and yeasts. Results showed that the compounds are potent against HL-60 cells with the IC50 value ≤5 μM, while some of the compounds were active against few studied Gram-positive bacteria. Jonnie N. Asegbeloyin, Oguejiofo T. Ujam, Emmanuel C. Okafor, Ilknur Babahan, Esin Poyrazoglu Coban, Ali Özmen, and Halil Biyik Copyright © 2014 Jonnie N. Asegbeloyin et al. All rights reserved. Antimicrobial Applications of Transition Metal Complexes of Benzothiazole Based Terpolymer: Synthesis, Characterization, and Effect on Bacterial and Fungal Strains Sun, 14 Sep 2014 10:12:41 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bca/2014/764085/ Terpolymer of 2-amino-6-nitro-benzothiazole-ethylenediamine-formaldehyde (BEF) has been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis and various spectral techniques like FTIR, UV-Visible, and 1H and 13C-NMR. The terpolymer metal complexes were prepared with Cu2+, Ni2+, and Zn2+ metal ions using BEF terpolymer as a ligand. The complexes have been characterized by elemental analysis and IR, UV-Visible, ESR, 1H-NMR, and 13C-NMR spectral studies. Gel permeation chromatography was used to determine the molecular weight of the ligand. The surface features and crystalline behavior of the ligand and its complexes were analyzed by scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffraction methods. Thermogravimetric analysis was used to analyze the thermal stability of the ligand and its metal complexes. Kinetic parameters such as activation energy and order of reaction () and thermodynamic parameters, namely, , , , and , were calculated using Freeman-Carroll (FC), Sharp-Wentworth (SW), and Phadnis-Deshpande (PD) methods. Thermal degradation model of the terpolymer and its metal complexes was also proposed using PD method. Biological activities of the ligand and its complexes were tested against Shigella sonnei, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella species, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, and Salmonella typhimurium bacteria and Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Penicillium species, Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans, Mucor species fungi. Mohamed A. Riswan Ahamed, Raja S. Azarudeen, and N. Mujafar Kani Copyright © 2014 Mohamed A. Riswan Ahamed et al. All rights reserved.