Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2015 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. DNA Binding Test, X-Ray Crystal Structure, Spectral Studies, TG-DTA, and Electrochemistry of [CoX2(dmdphphen)] (Dmdphphen Is 2,9-Dimethyl-4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline, X = Cl, and NCS) Complexes Mon, 29 Dec 2014 08:01:10 +0000 Two new neutral mixed-ligand cobalt(II) complexes, [CoCl2(dmdphphen)] 1 and [Co(NCS)2(dmdphphen)]  2, where dmdphphen is 2,9-dimethyl-4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline, were synthesized and characterized by an elemental analysis, UV-Vis, IR, TG/DTA, cyclic voltammetry CV, and single X-ray diffraction. Complex 2 crystallized as monoclinic with a space group P21/c. Co(II) ions are located in a distorted tetrahedral environment. TG/DTA result shows that these complexes are very stable and decomposed through one-step reaction. The two complexes exhibit a quasireversible one-electron response at −550 and 580 mV versus Cp2Fe/Cp2Fe+, which has been assigned to Co(I)/Co(II) and Co(II)/Co(III) couples. Absorption spectral studies reveal that such complexes exhibit hypochromicity during their interaction with CT-DNA. Mousa Al-Noaimi, Mohammed Suleiman, Hany W. Darwish, Ahmed H. Bakheit, Muneer Abdoh, Iyad Saadeddin, Naveen Shivalingegowda, Neartur Krishnappagowda Lokanath, Odey Bsharat, Assem Barakat, and Ismail Warad Copyright © 2014 Mousa Al-Noaimi et al. All rights reserved. Antioxidant Enzyme Inhibitor Role of Phosphine Metal Complexes in Lung and Leukemia Cell Lines Sun, 28 Dec 2014 08:05:19 +0000 Phosphine metal complexes have been recently evaluated in the field of cancer therapy. In this research, the cytotoxic effects of some metal phosphines [PdCl2((CH2OH)2PCH2)2NCH3] (C1), [RuCl2(((CH2OH)2PCH2)2NCH3)2] (C2), [PtCl2((Ph2PCH2)2NCH3)(timin)2] (C3) on K562 (human myelogenous leukemia cell line) and A549 (adenocarcinomic human alveolar basal epithelial cells) cells were investigated using the MTT test. C1 and C2 are water-soluble metal complexes, which may have some advantages in in vitro and in vivo studies. The effects of the above-mentioned metal complexes on thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) (EC:, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) (EC:, and catalase (Cat) (EC: enzymes were also tested. The results of this research showed that all three metal complexes indicated dose-dependent cytotoxicity on A549 and K562 cell lines and that the complexes inhibited different percentages of the TrxR, GPx, and Cat enzymes of these tumor cells. Burcu Saygıdeğer Demir, Tuğba Keleş, and Osman Serindağ Copyright © 2014 Burcu Saygıdeğer Demir et al. All rights reserved. Synthesis, Spectroscopic, Molecular Structure, and Antibacterial Studies of Dibutyltin(IV) Schiff Base Complexes Derived from Phenylalanine, Isoleucine, and Glycine Thu, 27 Nov 2014 06:51:21 +0000 New series of organotin(IV) complexes and Schiff bases derived from amino acids have been designed and synthesized from condensation of 1H-indole-2,3-dione, 5-chloro-1H-indole-2,3-dione, and α-amino acids (phenylalanine, isoleucine, and glycine). All compounds are characterized by elemental analyses, molar conductance measurements, and molecular weight determinations. Bonding of these complexes is discussed in terms of their UV-visible, infrared, and nuclear magnetic resonance (1H, 13C, and 119Sn NMR) spectral studies. The results suggest that Schiff bases behave as monobasic bidentate ligands and coordinate with dibutyltin(IV) in octahedral geometry according to the general formula [Bu2Sn(L)2]. Elemental analyses and NMR spectral data of the ligands with their dibutyltin(IV) complexes agree with their proposed distorted octahedral structures. Few representative compounds are tested for their in vitro antibacterial activity against Gram-positive (B. cereus, Staphylococcus spp.) and Gram-negative (E. coli, Klebsiella spp.) bacteria. The results show that the dibutyltin complexes are more reactive with respect to their corresponding Schiff base ligands. Har Lal Singh and Jangbhadur Singh Copyright © 2014 Har Lal Singh and Jangbhadur Singh. All rights reserved. Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Study of Thermally Treated Bismuth Subgallate Wed, 26 Nov 2014 08:06:09 +0000 Complex of bismuth, an anti-inflammatory drug, was studied by EPR spectroscopy. The aim of this study was to determine concentrations and properties of free radicals formed during thermal sterilization of bismuth subgallate according to pharmacopoeia norms to optimize its sterilization process. Different temperatures (160°C, 170°C, and 180°C) and times (120 minutes, 60 minutes, and 30 minutes) of sterilization were used. Interactions of bismuth subgallate with DPPH, the model free radical reference, were checked. -Factors, amplitudes (), integral intensities (), and linewidths () were obtained. Integral intensities were obtained by double integration of the first-derivative EPR lines. The influence of microwave power in the range of 2.2–70 mW on shape and parameters of the EPR spectra was examined. Thermal sterilization produced free radicals in bismuth subgallate in all tested cases. Strong interactions with free radicals were pointed out for all the analysed samples containing bismuth independent of sterilization conditions. Optimal conditions of thermal sterilization for bismuth subgallate with the lowest free radical formation are temperature 170°C and time of heating 60 minutes. Strong dipolar interactions exist in thermally sterilized bismuth subgallate. EPR spectroscopy is a useful method of examination of thermal sterilization conditions. Paweł Ramos and Barbara Pilawa Copyright © 2014 Paweł Ramos and Barbara Pilawa. All rights reserved. Human Lung Cancer Cell Line A-549 ATCC Is Differentially Affected by Supranutritional Organic and Inorganic Selenium Wed, 12 Nov 2014 06:58:45 +0000 The effects of organic and inorganic forms of selenium (Se) on human cells have been extensively studied for nutritional concentrations; however, to date, little is known about the potential toxicity at supranutritional levels. In the present study we determined the effects of sodium selenite (SSe) and selenomethionine (SeMet) on cell growth and intracellular structures in lung cancer cells exposed at Se concentrations between 0 and 3 mM. Our results showed that SSe affected cell growth more rapidly than SeMet (24 h and 48 h, resp.). After 24 h of cells exposure to 0.5, 1.5, and 3 mM SSe, cell growth was reduced by 10, 50, and 60%, as compared to controls. After 48 h, nuclear fragmentation was evident in cells exposed to SSe, suggesting an induction to cell death. In contrast, SeMet did not affect cell proliferation, and the cells were phenotypically similar to controls. Microtubules and microfilaments structures were also affected by both Se compounds, again SSe being more toxic than SeMet. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the differential effects of organic and inorganic Se in supranutritional levels in lung cancer cells. Lérida Liss Flores Villavicencio, Gustavo Cruz-Jiménez, Gloria Barbosa-Sabanero, Carlos Kornhauser-Araujo, M. Eugenia Mendoza-Garrido, Guadalupe de la Rosa, and Myrna Sabanero-López Copyright © 2014 Lérida Liss Flores Villavicencio et al. All rights reserved. Synthesis and Characterisation of Copper(II) Complexes with Tridentate NNO Functionalized Ligand: Density Function Theory Study, DNA Binding Mechanism, Optical Properties, and Biological Application Thu, 16 Oct 2014 07:41:54 +0000 The photo physical properties of two mononuclear pentacoordinated copper(II) complexes formulated as [Cu(L)(Cl)(H2O)] (1) and [Cu(L)(Br)(H2O)] (2) HL = (1-[(3-methyl-pyridine-2-ylimino)-methyl]-naphthalen-2-ol) were synthesized and characterized by elemental, physicochemical, and spectroscopic methods. The density function theory calculations are used to investigate the electronic structures and the electronic properties of ligand and complex. The interactions of copper(II) complexes towards calf thymus DNA were examined with the help of absorption, viscosity, and fluorescence spectroscopic techniques at pH 7.40. All spectroscopy's result indicates that complexes show good binding activity to calf thymus DNA through groove binding. The optical absorption and fluorescence emission properties of microwires were characterized by fluorescence microscope. From a spectroscopic viewpoint, all compounds strongly emit green light in the solid state. The microscopy investigation suggested that microwires exhibited optical waveguide behaviour which are applicable as fluorescent nanomaterials and can be used as building blocks for miniaturized photonic devices. Antibacterial study reveals that complexes are better antimicrobial agents than free Schiff base due to bacterial cell penetration by chelation. Moreover, the antioxidant study of the ligand and complexes is evaluated by using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free-radical assays, which demonstrate that the complexes are of higher antioxidant activity than free ligand. Madhumita Hazra, Tanushree Dolai, Akhil Pandey, Subrata Kumar Dey, and Animesh Patra Copyright © 2014 Madhumita Hazra et al. All rights reserved. Green Approach for Fabrication and Applications of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles Tue, 14 Oct 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) are known to be one of the multifunctional inorganic compounds which are widely used in everyday applications. This study aims to fabricate ZnO-NPs using grapefruit (Citrus paradisi) peel extract with particle size ranging from 12 to 72 nm. Structural, morphological, and optical properties of the synthesized nanoparticles have been characterized by using UV-Vis spectrophotometer, TEM, DLS, and FTIR analysis. They show the significant photocatalytic degradation efficiency (>56%, 10 mg/L, 6 h) against methylene blue and antioxidant efficacy (≥80% for 1.2 mM) against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl. From the results obtained it is suggested that green ZnO-NPs could be used effectively in environmental safety applications and also can address future medical concerns. Brajesh Kumar, Kumari Smita, Luis Cumbal, and Alexis Debut Copyright © 2014 Brajesh Kumar et al. All rights reserved. Axially Ligated Zirconium(IV) Tetraphenylporphyrin: Synthesis, Characterization, and Biological Activity Tue, 14 Oct 2014 00:00:00 +0000 A series of 5,10,15,20-tetraphenylporphinatozirconium(IV) acetylacetonatophenolates containing different phenols as axial ligands [Zr(TPP)(Y)(X)] (TPP = 5,10.15,20-tetraphenyl-21H, 23H-porphine; Y = acac; X = different phenolates) have been synthesized and characterized by various spectrochemical studies. The complexes were also screened for antimicrobial activities. Antifungal activity of some adducts has been carried out against the fungal strain Sclerotium rolfsii. Most of the complexes have shown good antibacterial activity. Gauri D. Bajju, Sunil Kumar Anand, and Gita Devi Copyright © 2014 Gauri D. Bajju et al. All rights reserved. Synthesis, Characterization, Semiempirical and Biological Activities of Organotin(IV) Carboxylates with 4-Piperidinecarboxylic Acid Mon, 13 Oct 2014 08:07:04 +0000 Organotin (IV) carboxylates with the general formulae R2Sn(Cl)L [R = Me (1), n-Bu (2), Ph (3)] and R3SnL [R = Me (4), Ph (5)] have been synthesized by the reaction of 4-piperidinecarboxylic acid (HL) with KOH and R2SnCl2 (R = Me, n-Bu, Ph)/R3SnCl (R = Me, Ph) in methanol under stirring conditions. The metal ligand binding site, structure, and stability of complexes have been verified by FT-IR, (1H, 13C) NMR, EI-MS technique, and semiempirical study. The FT-IR data indicate the bidentate chelating mode of the carboxylate ligand which is also confirmed by semiempirical study. In solution state, five and four coordinated geometry around tin was confirmed by NMR spectroscopy. The EI-MS data agreed well with the molecular structure of the complexes. Thermodynamic parameters and molecular descriptors were calculated by using semiempirical PM3 method. HOMO-LUMO calculations show that chlorodiorganotin complexes are more susceptible to nucleophilic attack as compared to triorganotin complexes. Computed negative heat of formation indicates that complexes 1–4 are thermodynamically stable. The organotin(IV) carboxylates displayed powerful antimicrobial activities against various strains of bacteria and fungi and their minimal inhibitory concentration were also evaluated. The complexes exhibited comparatively higher hemolytic activity as compared to free ligand. Shabbir Hussain, Saqib Ali, Saira Shahzadi, Saroj K. Sharma, Kushal Qanungo, and Muhammad Shahid Copyright © 2014 Shabbir Hussain et al. All rights reserved. Synthesis, Characterization, DNA Interaction, and Antitumor Activities of La (III) Complex with Schiff Base Ligand Derived from Kaempferol and Diethylenetriamine Sun, 12 Oct 2014 13:30:00 +0000 A novel La (III) complex, [LaL(H2O)3]NO3·3H2O, with Schiff base ligand L derived from kaempferol and diethylenetriamine, has been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, IR, UV-visible, 1H NMR, thermogravimetric analysis, and molar conductance measurements. The fluorescence spectra, circular dichroism spectra, and viscosity measurements and gel electrophoresis experiments indicated that the ligand L and La (III) complex could bind to CT-DNA presumably via intercalative mode and the La (III) complex showed a stronger ability to bind and cleave DNA than the ligand L alone. The binding constants () were evaluated from fluorescence data and the values ranged from 0.454 to 0.659 × 105 L mol−1 and 1.71 to 17.3 × 105 L mol−1 for the ligand L and La (III) complex, respectively, in the temperature range of 298–310 K. It was also found that the fluorescence quenching mechanism of EB-DNA by ligand L and La (III) complex was a static quenching process. In comparison to free ligand L, La (III) complex exhibited enhanced cytotoxic activities against tested tumor cell lines HL-60 and HepG-2, which may correlate with the enhanced DNA binding and cleaving abilities of the La (III) complex. Qin Wang, Yu Huang, Jin-Sheng Zhang, and Xin-Bin Yang Copyright © 2014 Qin Wang et al. All rights reserved. Synthesis, Spectroscopic Characterization, and Biological Evaluation Studies of 5-Bromo-3-(((hydroxy-2-methylquinolin-7-yl)methylene)hydrazono)indolin-2-one and Its Metal (II) Complexes Sun, 12 Oct 2014 12:49:04 +0000 The Schiff base ligand 5-bromo-3-(((8-hydroxy-2-methylquinolin-7-yl)methylene)hydrazono)indolin-2-one (BHMQMHI) was prepared via condensation of 5-bromo-3-hydrazonoindolin-2-one and 7-formyl-8-hydroxy-2-methylquinoline and its Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), Cd(II), and Hg(II) complexes have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, conductance data, magnetic susceptibility measurements, IR, UV-Vis, mass spectrometry, 1H NMR, ESR, XRD, and thermal studies. By these spectral studies it is found that Co(II), Ni(II), and Cu(II) complexes have exhibited octahedral geometry whereas the Zn(II), Cd(II), and Hg(II) complexes have exhibited tetrahedral geometry. Potentiometric studies have been carried out on complexes of Schiff base (BHMQMHI) with Cu(II), Co(II), and Ni(II). Calvin-Bjerrum pH-titration technique as used by Irving and Rossotti has been applied to determine stability constants in mixed solvents at °C. The present study reports the protonation constants of this ligand and stability constants of its metal complexes in dioxane-water (50%, v/v) mixtures. Metal-ligand stability constants fall in the order of Cu(II) > Co(II) > Ni(II) which is in agreement with those reported by Irving stability order. The Schiff base (BHMQMHI) and its metal complexes have been screened for their in vitro antibacterial and antifungal activities by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) method. The DNA cleavage activities of all the complexes were studied by agarose gel electrophoresis method. In addition, the free ligand along with its complexes has been studied for their antioxidant activity. Kuruba Siddappa and Nabiya Sultana Mayana Copyright © 2014 Kuruba Siddappa and Nabiya Sultana Mayana. All rights reserved. Potentiometric and Blood Plasma Simulation Studies of Nickel(II) Complexes of Poly(amino)amido Pentadentate Ligands: Computer Aided Metal-Based Drug Design Sun, 12 Oct 2014 12:25:25 +0000 The thermodynamic equilibria of nickel(II) with N,N′-di(aminoethylene)-2,6-pyridinedicarbonylamine (L1), Bis-(N,N-dimethylethyl)-2,6-pyridinedicarboxamide (L2), and N,N′-bis[2(2-pyridyl)-methyl]pyridine-2,6-dicarboxamide (L3) have been studied at 25°C and an ionic strength of 0.15 mol dm−3 by glass electrode potentiometry. The protonation and formation constants added to blood plasma model predict that Cu(II) competes effectively against Ni(II), Zn(II), and Ca(II) for these ligands in vivo. Sebusi Odisitse and Graham E. Jackson Copyright © 2014 Sebusi Odisitse and Graham E. Jackson. All rights reserved. In Vitro Antibacterial Activity and Mechanism of Silver Nanoparticles against Foodborne Pathogens Wed, 17 Sep 2014 08:49:28 +0000 Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Planomicrobium sp. and to explore the antibacterial activity against food borne pathogenic bacteria Bacillus subtilis, (3053) Klebsiella planticola (2727) Klebsiella pneumoniae (MAA) Serratia nematodiphila (CAA) and Escherichia coli. In the current studies, 1 mM of silver nitrate was added into 100 mL of Planomicrobium sp. culture supernatant. The bioreduction of pure AgNO3 was characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive analysis (EDS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) analysis. The formation of silver nanoparticles was confirmed by the presence of an absorption peak at 400 nm using UV-visible spectrophotometry. The morphology and size of the silver nanoparticles was monitored by TEM and SEM. Crystal structure was obtained by carrying out X-ray diffraction studies and it showed face centered cubic (FCC) structure. The bactericidal effect of silver nanoparticles was compared based on diameter of inhibition zone in well method. Bacterial sensitivity to nanoparticles a key factor in manufacture the suitable for long life application in food packaging and food safety. Food safety is a worldwide health goal and the food borne diseases get a main disaster on health. Therefore, controlling of bacterial pathogens in food is credit of harms associated to health and safety. S. Rajeshkumar and C. Malarkodi Copyright © 2014 S. Rajeshkumar and C. Malarkodi. All rights reserved. Synthesis, Characterization, and Biological Activity of N′-[(Z)-(3-Methyl-5-oxo-1-phenyl-1,5-dihydro-4H-pyrazol-4-ylidene)(phenyl)methyl]benzohydrazide and Its Co(II), Ni(II), and Cu(II) Complexes Mon, 15 Sep 2014 13:07:51 +0000 Reaction of 1-phenyl-3-methyl-4-benzoyl-pyrazol-5-one and benzoyl hydrazide in refluxing ethanol gave N′-[(Z)-(3-methyl-5-oxo-1-phenyl-1,5-dihydro-4H-pyrazol-4-ylidene)(phenyl)methyl]benzohydrazide (HL1), which was characterized by NMR spectroscopy and single-crystal X-ray structure study. X-ray diffraction analyses of the crystals revealed a nonplanar molecule, existing in the keto-amine form, with intermolecular hydrogen bonding forming a seven-membered ring system. The reaction of HL1 with Co(II), Ni(II), and Cu(II) halides gave the corresponding complexes, which were characterized by elemental analysis, molar conductance, magnetic measurements, and infrared and electronic spectral studies. The compounds were screened for their in vitro cytotoxic activity against HL-60 human promyelocytic leukemia cells and antimicrobial activity against some bacteria and yeasts. Results showed that the compounds are potent against HL-60 cells with the IC50 value ≤5 μM, while some of the compounds were active against few studied Gram-positive bacteria. Jonnie N. Asegbeloyin, Oguejiofo T. Ujam, Emmanuel C. Okafor, Ilknur Babahan, Esin Poyrazoglu Coban, Ali Özmen, and Halil Biyik Copyright © 2014 Jonnie N. Asegbeloyin et al. All rights reserved. Antimicrobial Applications of Transition Metal Complexes of Benzothiazole Based Terpolymer: Synthesis, Characterization, and Effect on Bacterial and Fungal Strains Sun, 14 Sep 2014 10:12:41 +0000 Terpolymer of 2-amino-6-nitro-benzothiazole-ethylenediamine-formaldehyde (BEF) has been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis and various spectral techniques like FTIR, UV-Visible, and 1H and 13C-NMR. The terpolymer metal complexes were prepared with Cu2+, Ni2+, and Zn2+ metal ions using BEF terpolymer as a ligand. The complexes have been characterized by elemental analysis and IR, UV-Visible, ESR, 1H-NMR, and 13C-NMR spectral studies. Gel permeation chromatography was used to determine the molecular weight of the ligand. The surface features and crystalline behavior of the ligand and its complexes were analyzed by scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffraction methods. Thermogravimetric analysis was used to analyze the thermal stability of the ligand and its metal complexes. Kinetic parameters such as activation energy and order of reaction () and thermodynamic parameters, namely, , , , and , were calculated using Freeman-Carroll (FC), Sharp-Wentworth (SW), and Phadnis-Deshpande (PD) methods. Thermal degradation model of the terpolymer and its metal complexes was also proposed using PD method. Biological activities of the ligand and its complexes were tested against Shigella sonnei, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella species, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, and Salmonella typhimurium bacteria and Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Penicillium species, Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans, Mucor species fungi. Mohamed A. Riswan Ahamed, Raja S. Azarudeen, and N. Mujafar Kani Copyright © 2014 Mohamed A. Riswan Ahamed et al. All rights reserved. Effect of Some Substituents Increasing the Solubility of Zn(II) and Al(III) Phthalocyanines on Their Photophysical Properties Thu, 11 Sep 2014 10:50:54 +0000 Water solubility of phthalocyanines (Pcs) usually increases by the introduction of charged or carboxy substituents in the peripheral positions of the macrocycle. As a result, such structural changes influence their photophysical and photochemical properties as photosensitizers. Phthalocyanines substituted with four or eight terminal carboxyl groups and having in some cases additional eight positive charges (water soluble phthalocyanines) were studied in order to evaluate the spectroscopic and photophysical effects of these side residues on the chromophore properties. The quantum yield of singlet oxygen () generation, the triplet-triplet absorption, and the transient absorption spectra were measured and linked to the structure of the substituents. It was shown that charged substituents did not change the quantum yields of generation but decrease its lifetimes. The introduction of the charged substituents not only increases the water solubility but also significantly changes absorption, fluorescence, and transient absorption spectra of water soluble Pcs. A. A. Chernonosov, E. A. Ermilov, B. Röder, L. I. Solovyova, and O. S. Fedorova Copyright © 2014 A. A. Chernonosov et al. All rights reserved. Synthesis of Imine-Naphthol Tripodal Ligand and Study of Its Coordination Behaviour towards Fe(III), Al(III), and Cr(III) Metal Ions Mon, 08 Sep 2014 09:03:22 +0000 A hexadentate Schiff base tripodal ligand is synthesized by the condensation of tris (2-aminoethyl) amine with 2-hydroxy-1-naphthaldehyde and characterized by various spectroscopic techniques like UV-VIS, IR, NMR, MASS, and elemental analysis. The solution studies by potentiometric and spectrophotometric methods are done at 25 ± 1°C,  M KCl, to calculate the protonation constants of the ligand and formation constants of metal complexes formed by the ligand with Fe(III), Al(III), and Cr(III) metal ions. The affinity of the ligand towards Fe(III) is compared with deferiprone (a drug applied for iron intoxication) and transferrin (the main Fe(III) binding protein in plasma). Structural analysis of the ligand and the metal complexes was done using semiempirical PM6 method. Electronic and IR spectra are calculated by semiempirical methods and compared with experimental one. Kirandeep Kaur and Minati Baral Copyright © 2014 Kirandeep Kaur and Minati Baral. All rights reserved. Synthesis, Structural Characterization, and Evaluation of the Biological Properties of Heteroleptic Palladium(II) Complexes Sun, 07 Sep 2014 06:55:08 +0000 Five heteroleptic palladium(II) complexes of the general formula Pd(PR3)(tu)Cl2, where PR3 = triphenylphosphine (1), diphenyl-o-tolylphosphine (2), diphenyl-p-tolylphosphine (3), diphenyl-t-butylphosphine (4), and diphenyl-o-methoxyphenylphosphine (5), and tu = 1,3-bis(2-methoxyphenyl) thiourea. They all have been synthesized and characterized by various spectroscopic techniques (elemental analysis, FTIR, and 1H NMR and the ligand 1,3-bis(2-methoxyphenyl) thiourea was synthesized by single crystal X-ray diffraction technique). The synthesized compounds were screened for their antibacterial activity against four strains of bacteria (Escherichia coli, Shigella flexneri, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus subtilis). The antitumor potential was evaluated in terms of activity against brine shrimp eggs and DNA interaction. The mixed ligand complexes have exhibited moderate antibacterial activity and promising antitumor potential. Hizbullah Khan, Nek Daraz, Muhammad Nasim Khan, Muhammad Said, Nosheen Akhtar, Amin Badshah, Amir Sada Khan, and Murad Ali Copyright © 2014 Hizbullah Khan et al. All rights reserved. The Improvement of the Resistance to Candida albicans and Trichophyton interdigitale of Some Woven Fabrics Based on Cotton Thu, 04 Sep 2014 00:00:00 +0000 This paper presents the improvement of the antimicrobial character of woven fabrics based on cotton. The woven fabrics were cleaned in oxygen plasma and treated by padding with silver chloride and titanium dioxide particles. The existence of silver and titanium on woven fabrics was evidenced by electronic microscope images (SEM, EDAX) and by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The antimicrobial tests were performed with two fungi: Candida albicans and Trichophyton interdigitale. The obtained antimicrobial effect was considerably higher compared to the raw fabrics. Treatment of dyed fabrics with a colloidal solution based on silver chloride and titanium dioxide particles does not considerably influence colour resistance of dyes. Lilioara Surdu, Maria Daniela Stelescu, Elena Manaila, Gheorghe Nicula, Ovidiu Iordache, Laurentiu Christian Dinca, Mariana-Daniela Berechet, Mariana Vamesu, and Dana Gurau Copyright © 2014 Lilioara Surdu et al. All rights reserved. Synthesis, Characterization, and Antifungal Studies of Cr(III) Complex of Norfloxacin and Bipiridyl Ligand Wed, 03 Sep 2014 11:43:06 +0000 A novel slightly distorted octahedral complex of Cr(III) of norfloxacin (Nor) with the formula [(Nor)(Bipy)Cl2]Cl·2CH3OH has been synthesized hydrothermally in the presence of a N-containing heterocyclic compound 2,2′-bipyridyl (Bipy). The complex was characterized with FT-IR, elemental analysis, UV-visible spectroscopy, and X-ray crystallography. Spectral studies suggest that the Nor acts as a deprotonated bidentate ligand. Thermal studies were also carried out. The synthesised complex was screened against four fungi Pythium aphanidermatum (PA), Sclerotinia rolfsii (SR), Rhizoctonia solani (RS), and Rhizoctonia bataticola (RB). Anamika Debnath, Firasat Hussain, and Dhanraj T. Masram Copyright © 2014 Anamika Debnath et al. All rights reserved. Biosynthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Aegle marmelos (Bael) Fruit Extract and Its Application to Prevent Adhesion of Bacteria: A Strategy to Control Microfouling Tue, 02 Sep 2014 05:55:02 +0000 Marine biofilms formed due to adhesion of bacteria and other microorganisms on submerged surfaces are generally considered to be a major form of microfouling. Subsequent attachment of larvae of higher organisms like barnacles, mussels, and so forth, on marine biofilms, causes macrofouling. Several approaches have been used to prevent micro- and macrofouling. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are known to exhibit strong inhibitory and antimicrobial activity. Biological synthesis of AgNPs is rapidly gaining importance due to its growing success. Hence, the present study is focused on the biosynthesis of AgNPs using fruit extract of Aegle marmelos and its characterization through UV-Vis spectrophotometer, X-ray diffractometer (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Further isolation and identification of marine biofilm forming bacteria were carried out through 16S rDNA analysis. The antimicrofouling effect of the biosynthesized AgNPs was tested against marine biofilm forming bacteria and the results suggested that it could effectively inhibit biofilm formation. This preliminary study has proved that AgNPs may be used as antimicrofouling agent for the prevention of biofouling in the early stages. A. Nithya Deva Krupa and Vimala Raghavan Copyright © 2014 A. Nithya Deva Krupa and Vimala Raghavan. All rights reserved. Palladium(II) Complexes Containing Mixed Nitrogen-Sulphur Donor Ligands: Interaction of [Pd(Methionine Methyl Ester)(H2O)2]2+ with Biorelevant Ligands Sun, 24 Aug 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Pd(MME)Cl2 complex (MME = methionine methyl ester) was synthesised and characterized by physicochemical measurements. The reaction of [Pd(MME)(H2O)2]2+ with amino acids, peptides, or dicarboxylic acids was investigated at 25°C and 0.1 M ionic strength. Amino acids and dicarboxylic acids form 1 : 1 complexes. Peptides form both 1 : 1 complexes and the corresponding deprotonated amide species. The stability of the complexes formed was determined and the binding centres of the ligands were assigned. Effect of solvent on the stability constant of Pd(MME)-CBDCA complex, taken as a representative example, shows that the complex is more favoured in a medium of low dielectric constant. The concentration distribution diagrams of the complexes were evaluated. Mohamed M. Shoukry and Sameya M. T. Ezzat Copyright © 2014 Mohamed M. Shoukry and Sameya M. T. Ezzat. All rights reserved. Antibacterial Activity of As-Annealed TiO2 Nanotubes Doped with Ag Nanoparticles against Periodontal Pathogens Mon, 18 Aug 2014 12:07:55 +0000 It is important to develop functional transmucosal implant surfaces that reduce the number of initially adhering bacteria and they need to be modified to improve the anti-bacterial performance. Commercially pure Ti sheets were anodized in an electrolyte containing ethylene glycol, distilled water and ammonium fluoride at room temperature to produce TiO2 nanotubes. These structures were then annealed at 450°C to transform them to anatase. As-annealed TiO2 nanotubes were then treated in an electrolyte containing 80.7 g/L NiSO4·7H2O, 41 g/L MgSO4·7H2O, 45 g/L H3BO3, and 1.44 g/L Ag2SO4 at 20°C by the application of 9 V AC voltage for doping them with silver. As-annealed TiO2 nanotubes and as-annealed Ag doped TiO2 nanotubes were evaluated by SEM, FESEM, and XRD. Antibacterial activity was assessed by determining the adherence of A. actinomycetemcomitans, T. forsythia, and C. rectus to the surface of the nanotubes. Bacterial morphology was examined using an SEM. As-annealed Ag doped TiO2 nanotubes revealed intense peak of Ag. Bacterial death against the as-annealed Ag doped TiO2 nanotubes were detected against A. actinomycetemcomitans, T. forsythia, and C. rectus indicating antibacterial efficacy. Sinem Yeniyol, Zhiming He, Behiye Yüksel, Robert Joseph Boylan, Mustafa Ürgen, Tayfun Özdemir, and John Lawrence Ricci Copyright © 2014 Sinem Yeniyol et al. All rights reserved. Protonation Equilibria of Biologically Active Ligands in Mixed Aqueous Organic Solvents Thu, 14 Aug 2014 12:03:05 +0000 The review is mainly concerned with the protonation equilibria of biologically active ligands like amino acids, peptides, DNA constituents, and amino acid esters in nonaqueous media. Equilibrium concentrations of proton-ligand formation as a function of pH were investigated. Also, thermodynamics associated with protonation equilibria were also discussed. Ahmed A. El-Sherif, Mohamed M. Shoukry, Abeer T. Abd Elkarim, and Mohammad H. Barakat Copyright © 2014 Ahmed A. El-Sherif et al. All rights reserved. Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles: Structural Features and In Vivo and In Vitro Therapeutic Effects against Helicobacter pylori Induced Gastritis Wed, 06 Aug 2014 07:18:35 +0000 This study evaluates in vivo and in vitro anti-Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) efficacy of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) prepared via a cost-effective green chemistry route wherein Peganum harmala L. seeds extract was used as a reducing and capping agent. The structural features, as elucidated by surface plasmon resonance spectrophotometry, transmission electron microscopy, and powder X-ray diffraction spectroscopy, revealed the Ag-NPs synthesized to be polydispersed in nature and spherical in shape with 5–40 nm size. A typical Ag-NPs suspension (S5), with size being 15 nm, when tested in vitro against forty-two local isolates and two reference strains, showed a considerable anti-H. pylori activity. In case of in vivo trial against H. pylori induced gastritis, after oral administration of 16 mg/kg body weight of S5 for seven days, a complete clearance was recorded in male albino rates. In comparative time-killing kinetics, S5 exhibited dose- and time-dependent anti-H. pylori activity that was almost similar to tetracycline and clarithromycin, less than amoxicillin, but higher than metronidazole. Furthermore, S5 was found to be an equally effective anti-H. pylori agent at low (≤4) and high pH with no drug resistance observed even up to 10 repeated exposures while a significant drug resistance was recorded for most of the standard drugs employed. The present results revealed the potential of the synthesized Ag-NPs as safer bactericidal agents for the treatment of H. pylori induced gastritis. Muhammad Amin, Sadaf Hameed, Asghar Ali, Farooq Anwar, Shaukat Ali Shahid, Imran Shakir, Aqdas Yaqoob, Sara Hasan, Safyan Akram Khan, and Sajjad-ur-Rahman Copyright © 2014 Muhammad Amin et al. All rights reserved. Synthesis, Spectral Characterization, and Biological Evaluation of Transition Metal Complexes of Bidentate N, O Donor Schiff Bases Wed, 23 Jul 2014 08:28:29 +0000 New series of three bidentate N, O donor type Schiff bases (L1)–(L3) were prepared by using ethylene-1,2-diamine with 5-methyl furfural, 2-anisaldehyde, and 2-hydroxybenzaldehyde in an equimolar ratio. These ligands were further complexed with Co(II), Cu(II), Ni(II), and Zn(II) metals to produce their new metal complexes having an octahedral geometry. These compounds were characterized on the basis of their physical, spectral, and analytical data. Elemental analysis and spectral data of the uncomplexed ligands and their metal(II) complexes were found to be in good agreement with their structures, indicating high purity of all the compounds. All ligands and their metal complexes were screened for antimicrobial activity. The results of antimicrobial activity indicated that metal complexes have significantly higher activity than corresponding ligands. This higher activity might be due to chelation process which reduces the polarity of metal ion by coordinating with ligands. Sajjad Hussain Sumrra, Muhammad Ibrahim, Sabahat Ambreen, Muhammad Imran, Muhammad Danish, and Fouzia Sultana Rehmani Copyright © 2014 Sajjad Hussain Sumrra et al. All rights reserved. Inhibitory Effect of Curcumin-Cu(II) and Curcumin-Zn(II) Complexes on Amyloid-Beta Peptide Fibrillation Wed, 23 Jul 2014 08:21:25 +0000 Mononuclear complexes of Curcumin with Cu(II) and Zn(II) have been synthesized and, characterized and their effects on the fibrillization and aggregation of amyloid-beta (Aβ) peptide have been studied. FTIR spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM) observations demonstrate that the complexes can inhibit the transition from less structured oligomers to β-sheet rich protofibrils which act as seeding factors for further fibrillization. The metal complexes also impart more improved inhibitory effects than Curcumin on peptide fibrillization. Rona Banerjee Copyright © 2014 Rona Banerjee. All rights reserved. Consecutively Preparing D-Xylose, Organosolv Lignin, and Amorphous Ultrafine Silica from Rice Husk Tue, 22 Jul 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Rice husk is an abundant agricultural by-product reaching the output of 80 million tons annually in the world. The most common treatment method of rice husk is burning or burying, which caused serious air pollution and resource waste. In order to solve this problem, a new method is proposed to comprehensively utilize the rice husk in this paper. Firstly, the D-xylose was prepared from the semicellulose via dilute acid hydrolysis. Secondly, the lignin was separated via organic solvent pulping from the residue. Finally, the amorphous ultrafine silica was prepared via pyrolysis of the residue produced in the second process. In this way, the three main contents of rice husk (semicellulose, lignin, and silica) are consecutively converted to three fine chemicals, without solid waste produced. The yields of D-xylose and organosolv lignin reach 58.2% and 58.5%, respectively. The purity and specific surface of amorphous ultrafine silica reach 99.92% and 225.20 m2/g. Hongxi Zhang, Xuefeng Ding, Zichen Wang, and Xu Zhao Copyright © 2014 Hongxi Zhang et al. All rights reserved. Synthesis and Spectroscopic Characterization of Some New Axially Ligated Indium(III) Macrocyclic Complexes and Their Biological Activities Mon, 21 Jul 2014 11:06:43 +0000 The synthesis and spectroscopic characterization of new axially ligated indium(III) porphyrin complexes were reported. Chloroindium(III) porphyrin (TPPIn-Cl) was obtained in good yield by treating the corresponding free base with indium trichloride. The action of the different phenols on chloroderivatives (TPPIn-Cl) led to the corresponding phenolato complexes (TPPIn-X). These derivatives were characterized on the basis of mass spectrometry, 1H-NMR, IR, and UV-visible data. The separation and isolation of these derivatives have been achieved through chromatography. The spectral properties of free base porphyrin and its corresponding metallated and axially ligated indium(III) porphyrin compounds were compared with each other. A detailed analysis of UV-Vis, 1H-NMR, and IR suggested the transformation from free base porphyrin to indium(III) porphyrin. Besides, 13C-NMR and fluorescence spectra were also reported and interpreted. The stability of these derivatives has also been studied through thermogravimetry. The complexes were also screened for anticancerous activities. Among all the complexes, 4-MePhO-InTPP shows highest anticancerous activity. The title complexe, TPPIn-X (where X = different phenolates), represents a five-coordinate indium(III) porphyrin complex in a square-pyramidal geometry with the phenolate anion as the axial ligand. Gauri D. Bajju, Altaf Ahmed, Deepmala Gupta, Ashu Kapahi, and Gita Devi Copyright © 2014 Gauri D. Bajju et al. All rights reserved. Determination of the Total Mass of Antioxidant Substances and Antioxidant Capacity per Unit Mass in Serum Using Redox Titration Sun, 20 Jul 2014 11:55:21 +0000 Objective. Total antioxidant capacity in serum is determined by the total mass of antioxidant substances and the antioxidant capacity per unit mass (average activity). The purpose of this study was to develop a method to determine the mass of antioxidant substances and average activity in human serum. Methods. Specimens of serum were collected from 100 subjects each from two different age groups: over 75 years old and 20–40 years old. The test serum was diluted into a series of concentrations, following which standard oxidation agents (KMnO4 for potassium permanganate method and I2 for iodimetry) were added to each concentration of serum, and the absorbance of the mixture (optical density, OD) was measured. The OD value and logarithm of dilution factor (lgT) at the end of the titration were obtained, from which the lgT could be considered as mass of antioxidant substances (M). Total antioxidant capacity (Ta) was calculated with the equation Ta = 100/(OD1 + 2 * OD2 + 2 * OD3 + 2 * OD4 + OD5), and average activity (A) was calculated as A = Ta/M. Results. The potassium permanganate method generated similar results to the iodimetric method. Compared with the younger group, total antioxidant capacity in the over-75-year age group was found to be significantly reduced, along with a decrease in the mass of antioxidant substances and average activity levels in human serum. Conclusions. The approach described in this paper is suitable for determining the average activity and mass of antioxidant substances in human serum. Meijuan Zhang, Na Liu, and Hui Liu Copyright © 2014 Meijuan Zhang et al. All rights reserved.