- About this Journal ·
- Abstracting and Indexing ·
- Aims and Scope ·
- Article Processing Charges ·
- Author Guidelines ·
- Bibliographic Information ·
- Citations to this Journal ·
- Contact Information ·
- Editorial Board ·
- Editorial Workflow ·
- Free eTOC Alerts ·
- Publication Ethics ·
- Recently Accepted Articles ·
- Reviewers Acknowledgment ·
- Submit a Manuscript ·
- Subscription Information ·
- Table of Contents
Bone Marrow Research
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 259351, 9 pages
Differential Expression of Matrix Metalloproteinase-2 Expression in Disseminated Tumor Cells and Micrometastasis in Bone Marrow of Patients with Nonmetastatic and Metastatic Prostate Cancer: Theoretical Considerations and Clinical Implications—An Immunocytochemical Study
1Hematology, Division of Medicine, Hospital de Carabineros de Chile, Simón Bolívar 2200, Ñuñoa, 7770199 Santiago, Chile
2Instituto de Bio-Oncología, Avenida Salvador 95, Oficina 95, Providencia, 7500710 Santiago, Chile
3Circulating Tumor Cell Unit, Faculty of Medicine, Universidad Mayor, Renato Sánchez 4369, Las Condes, 7550224 Santiago, Chile
4Faculty of Medicine, Universidad Diego Portales, Manuel Rodriguez Sur 415, 8370179 Santiago, Chile
5Faculty of Medicine, Universidad Pontificia Católica de Chile, Avenida Libertador Bernardo O'Higgins 340, 8331150 Santiago, Chile
6Radiotherapy, Fundación Arturo López Pérez, Rancagua 899, Providencia, 7500921 Santiago, Chile
Received 21 May 2012; Accepted 18 October 2012
Academic Editor: Joseph H. Antin
Copyright © 2012 Nigel P. Murray et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
- H. S. Evans and H. Møller, “Recent trends in prostate cancer incidence and mortality in Southeast England,” European Urology, vol. 43, no. 4, pp. 337–341, 2003.
- National Cancer Institute, Cancer Trends Progress Report: 2005 Update, NCI, Bethesda, MD, USA, 2005.
- E. Oliver, D. Gunnell, and J. L. Donovan, “Comparison of trends in prostate-cancer mortality in England and Wales and the USA,” The Lancet, vol. 355, no. 9217, pp. 1788–1789, 2000.
- B. I. Carlin and G. L. Andriole, “The natural history, skeletal complications, and management of bone metastases in patients with prostate carcinoma,” Cancer, vol. 88, no. 12, pp. 2989–2994, 2000.
- W. F. Whitmore, “Natural history and staging of prostate cancer,” Urologic Clinics of North America, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 205–220, 1984.
- J. G. Moreno, C. M. Croce, R. Fischer et al., “Detection of hematogenous micrometastasis in patients with prostate cancer,” Cancer Research, vol. 52, no. 21, pp. 6110–6112, 1992.
- A. F. Chambers and L. M. Matrisian, “Changing views of the role of matrix metalloproteinases in metastasis,” Journal of the National Cancer Institute, vol. 89, no. 17, pp. 1260–1270, 1997.
- M. Stearns and M. E. Stearns, “Immunohistochemical studies of activated matrix metalioproteinase-2 (MMP-2a) expression in human prostate cancer,” Oncology Research, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 63–67, 1996.
- D. P. Wood and M. Banerjee, “Presence of circulating prostate cells in the bone marrow of patients undergoing radical prostatectomy is predictive of disease-free survival,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 15, no. 12, pp. 3451–3457, 1997.
- H. Kuniyasu, P. Troncoso, D. Johnston et al., “Relative expression of type IV collagenase, E-cadherin, and vascular endothelial growth factor/vascular permeability factor in prostatectomy specimens distinguishes organ-confined from pathologically advanced prostate cancers,” Clinical Cancer Research, vol. 6, no. 6, pp. 2295–2308, 2000.
- J. S. Ross, P. Kaur, C. E. Sheehan, H. A. G. Fisher, R. A. Kaufman Jr., and B. V. S. Kallakury, “Prognostic significance of matrix metalloproteinase 2 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 2 expression in prostate cancer,” Modern Pathology, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 198–205, 2003.
- D. Trudel, Y. Fradet, F. Meyer, F. Harel, and B. Têtu, “Significance of MMP-2 expression in prostate cancer: an immunohistochemical study,” Cancer Research, vol. 63, no. 23, pp. 8511–8515, 2003.
- A. R. Nelson, B. Fingleton, M. L. Rothenberg, and L. M. Matrisian, “Matrix metalloproteinases: biologic activity and clinical implications,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 18, no. 5, pp. 1135–1149, 2000.
- Y. A. DeClerck, S. Imren, A. M. P. Montgomery, B. M. Mueller, R. A. Reisfeld, and W. E. Laug, “Proteases and protease inhibitors in tumor progression,” Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, vol. 425, pp. 89–97, 1997.
- A. Noël, V. Albert, K. Bajou et al., “New functions of stromal proteases and their inhibitors in tumor progression,” Surgical Oncology Clinics of North America, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 417–432, 2001.
- E. Borgen, B. Naume, J. M. Nesland et al., “Standardization of the immunocytochemical detection of cancer cells in BM and blood: I. Establishment of objective criteria for the evaluation of immunostained cells,” Cytotherapy, vol. 1, no. 5, pp. 377–388, 1999.
- M. Egeblad and Z. Werb, “New functions for the matrix metalloproteinases in cancer progression,” Nature Reviews Cancer, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 161–174, 2002.
- M. D. Sternlicht and Z. Werb, “How matrix metalloproteinases regulate cell behavior,” Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology, vol. 17, pp. 463–516, 2001.
- G. Morozevich, N. Kozlova, I. Cheglakov, N. Ushakova, and A. Berman, “Integrin α5β1 controls invasion of human breast carcinoma cells by direct and indirect modulation of MMP-2 collagenase activity,” Cell Cycle, vol. 8, no. 14, pp. 2219–2225, 2009.
- O. V. Glinskii, V. H. Huxley, J. R. Turk et al., “Continuous real time ex vivo epifluorescent video microscopy for the study of metastatic cancer cell interactions with microvascular endothelium,” Clinical and Experimental Metastasis, vol. 20, no. 5, pp. 451–458, 2003.
- A. B. Al-Mehdi, K. Tozawa, A. B. Fisher, L. Shientag, A. Lee, and R. J. Muschel, “Intravascular origin of metastasis from the proliferation of endothelium-attached tumor cells: a new model for metastasis,” Nature Medicine, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 100–102, 2000.
- O. V. Glinskii, V. H. Huxley, G. V. Glinsky, K. J. Pienta, A. Raz, and V. V. Glinsky, “Mechanical entrapment is insufficient and intercellular adhesion is essential for metastatic cell arrest in distant organs,” Neoplasia, vol. 7, no. 5, pp. 522–527, 2005.
- F. W. Orr, H. H. Wang, R. M. Lafrenie, S. Scherbarth, and D. M. Nance, “Interactions between cancer cells and the endothelium in metastasis,” The Journal of Pathology, vol. 190, pp. 310–329, 2000.
- L. W. K. Chung, A. Baseman, V. Assikis, and H. E. Zhau, “Molecular insights into prostate cancer progression: the missing link of tumor microenvironment,” Journal of Urology, vol. 173, no. 1, pp. 10–20, 2005.
- T. Sato, T. Sakai, Y. Noguchi, M. Takita, S. Hirakawa, and A. Ito, “Tumor-stromal cell contact promotes invasion of human uterine cervical carcinoma cells by augmenting the expression and activation of stromal matrix metalloproteinases,” Gynecologic Oncology, vol. 92, no. 1, pp. 47–56, 2004.
- J. Y. Jang, Y. K. Jeon, and C. W. Kim, “Degradation of HER2/neu by ANT2 shRNA suppresses migration and invasiveness of breast cancer cells,” BMC Cancer, vol. 10, article 391, 2010.
- N. P. Murray, L. V. Badinez, R. R. Dueñas, N. Orellana, and P. Tapia, “Positive HER-2 protein expression in circulating prostate cells and micro-metastasis, resistant to androgen blockage but not diethylstilbestrol,” Indian Journal of Urology, vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 200–207, 2011.
- N. P. Murray, G. M. Calaf, and L. Badínez, “Presence of prostate cells in bone marrow biopsies as a sign of micrometastasis in cancer patients,” Oncology Reports, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 571–575, 2009.
- B. Heissig, Y. Ohki, Y. Sato, S. Rafii, Z. Werb, and K. Hattori, “A role for niches in hematopoietic cell development,” Hematology, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 247–253, 2005.
- I. Yaniv, J. Stein, D. L. Farkas, and N. Askenasy, “The tale of early hematopoietic cell seeding in the bone marrow niche,” Stem Cells and Development, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 4–16, 2006.
- R. N. Kaplan, B. Psaila, and D. Lyden, “Niche-to-niche migration of bone-marrow-derived cells,” Trends in Molecular Medicine, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 72–81, 2007.
- R. S. Taichman, “Blood and bone: two tissues whose fates are intertwined to create the hematopoietic stem-cell niche,” Blood, vol. 105, no. 7, pp. 2631–2639, 2005.
- G. Bergers, R. Brekken, G. McMahon et al., “Matrix metalloproteinase-9 triggers the angiogenic switch during carcinogenesis,” Nature Cell Biology, vol. 2, no. 10, pp. 737–744, 2000.
- A. Kaminski, J. C. Hahne, E. L. M. Haddouti, A. Florin, A. Wellmann, and N. Wernert, “Tumour-stroma interactions between metastatic prostate cancer cells and fibroblasts,” International Journal of Molecular Medicine, vol. 18, no. 5, pp. 941–950, 2006.
- N. Wernert, F. Gilles, V. Fafeur et al., “Stromal expression of c-Ets1 transcription factor correlates with tumor invasion,” Cancer Research, vol. 54, no. 21, pp. 5683–5688, 1994.
- B. C. Patterson and Q. A. Sang, “Angiostatin-converting enzyme activities of human matrilysin (MMP-7) and gelatinase B/type IV collagenase (MMP.9),” Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 272, no. 46, pp. 28823–28825, 1997.
- M. Suzuki, G. Raab, M. A. Moses, C. A. Fernandez, and M. Klagsbrun, “Matrix metalloproteinase-3 releases active heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor by cleavage at a specific juxtamembrane site,” Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 272, no. 50, pp. 31730–31737, 1997.
- G. P. Swanson, M. A. Hussey, C. M. Tangen et al., “Predominant treatment failure in postprostatectomy patients is local: analysis of patterns of treatment failure in SWOG 8794,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 25, no. 16, pp. 2225–2229, 2007.
- M. D. Mason, M. R. Sydes, J. Glaholm et al., “Oral sodium clodronate for nonmetastatic prostate cancer—results of a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial: medical research council PR04 (ISRCTN61384873),” Journal of the National Cancer Institute, vol. 99, no. 10, pp. 765–776, 2007.