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Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology
Volume 2006 (2006), Article ID 39508, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/JBB/2006/39508
Review Article

Targeting Gonadotropins: An Alternative Option for Alzheimer Disease Treatment

1Department of Pathology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA
2Departament de Fisiologia, Facultat de Farmacia, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona 08028, Spain
3School of Medicine, University of Wisconsin and William S. Middleton Memorial Veterans Administration, Madison, WI 53705, USA
4Voyager Pharmaceutical Corporation, Raleigh, NC 27615, USA

Received 5 January 2006; Revised 10 May 2006; Accepted 28 June 2006

Copyright © 2006 Gemma Casadesus et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Recent evidence indicates that, alongside oxidative stress, dysregulation of the cell cycle in neurons susceptible to degeneration in Alzheimer disease may play a crucial role in the initiation of the disease. As such, the role of reproductive hormones, which are closely associated with the cell cycle both during development and after birth, may be of key import. While estrogen has been the primary focus, the protective effects of hormone replacement therapy on cognition and dementia only during a “crucial period” led us to expand the study of hormonal influences to other members of the hypothalamic pituitary axis. Specifically, in this review, we focus on luteinizing hormone, which is not only increased in the sera of patients with Alzheimer disease but, like estrogen, is modulated by hormone replacement therapy and also influences cognitive behavior and pathogenic processing in animal models of the disease. Targeting gonadotropins may be a useful treatment strategy for disease targeting multiple pleiotropic downstream consequences.