About this Journal Submit a Manuscript Table of Contents
Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology
Volume 2007 (2007), Article ID 29464, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2007/29464
Research Article

Bioengineering of Improved Biomaterials Coatings for Extracorporeal Circulation Requires Extended Observation of Blood-Biomaterial Interaction under Flow

1Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Academic Hospital Maastricht, P.O. Box 5800, Maastricht 6200 MD, The Netherlands
2Centre for Biomaterials Research, University of Maastricht, P.O. Box 616, Maastricht 6200 MD, The Netherlands

Received 3 April 2007; Revised 4 July 2007; Accepted 3 December 2007

Academic Editor: John L. McGregor

Copyright © 2007 Kris N. J. Stevens et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Extended use of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) systems is often hampered by thrombus formation and infection. Part of these problems relates to imperfect hemocompatibility of the CPB circuitry. The engineering of biomaterial surfaces with genuine long-term hemocompatibility is essentially virgin territory in biomaterials science. For example, most experiments with the well-known Chandler loop model, for evaluation of blood-biomaterial interactions under flow, have been described for a maximum duration of 2 hours only. This study reports a systematic evaluation of two commercial CPB tubings, each with a hemocompatible coating, and one uncoated control. The experiments comprised (i) testing over 5 hours under flow, with human whole blood from 4 different donors; (ii) measurement of essential blood parameters of hemocompatibility; (iii) analysis of the luminal surfaces by scanning electron microscopy and thrombin generation time measurements. The dataset indicated differences in hemocompatibility of the tubings. Furthermore, it appeared that discrimination between biomaterial coatings can be made only after several hours of blood-biomaterial contact. Platelet counting, myeloperoxidase quantification, and scanning electron microscopy proved to be the most useful methods. These findings are believed to be relevant with respect to the bioengineering of extracorporeal devices that should function in contact with blood for extended time.