- About this Journal ·
- Abstracting and Indexing ·
- Aims and Scope ·
- Annual Issues ·
- Article Processing Charges ·
- Articles in Press ·
- Author Guidelines ·
- Bibliographic Information ·
- Citations to this Journal ·
- Contact Information ·
- Editorial Board ·
- Editorial Workflow ·
- Free eTOC Alerts ·
- Publication Ethics ·
- Reviewers Acknowledgment ·
- Submit a Manuscript ·
- Subscription Information ·
- Table of Contents
Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology
Volume 2007 (2007), Article ID 80687, 9 pages
Thermolabile Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase C677T Polymorphism and Homocysteine Are Risk Factors for Coronary Artery Disease in Moroccan Population
1National League of Cardiology, Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Laboratory, Ibn-Sina Hospital, PB 1326, Rabat 10000, Morocco
2UFR of Biology and Healthy, Laboratory of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Hassan II University, Ain Chock, PB 5366, Maarif, Casablanca 20100, Morocco
3UFR of Cellular and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Abdelmalek Es-saadi University, P.O. Box 2121, Tetuan 93000, Morocco
4Cardiology A Department, National League of Cardiology, Ibn-Sina Hospital, PB 1326, Rabat 10000, Morocco
Received 21 September 2006; Revised 20 December 2006; Accepted 9 January 2007
Academic Editor: Mohamed Boutjdir
Copyright © 2007 Nawal Bennouar et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
- A. J. Lusis, R. Mar, and P. Pajukanta, “Genetics of atherosclerosis,” Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics, vol. 5, pp. 189–218, 2004.
- R. A. Hegele and R. L. Pollex, “Genetic and physiological insights into the metabolic syndrome,” American Journal of Physiology—Regulatory Integrative and Comparative Physiology, vol. 289, no. 3, pp. R663–R669, 2005.
- J. Geisel, I. Zimbelmann, H. Schorr, et al., “Genetic defects as important factors for moderate hyperhomocysteinemia,” Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, vol. 39, no. 8, pp. 698–704, 2001.
- C. J. Boushey, S. A. A. Beresford, G. S. Omenn, and A. G. Motulsky, “A quantitative assessment of plasma homocysteine as a risk factor for vascular disease: probable benefits of increasing folic acid intakes,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 274, no. 13, pp. 1049–1057, 1995.
- N. M. J. van der Put, R. P. M. Steegers-Theunissen, P. Frosst, et al., “Mutated methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase as a risk factor for spina bifida,” The Lancet, vol. 346, no. 8982, pp. 1070–1071, 1995.
- S.-S. Kang and P. W. K. Wong, “Genetic and nongenetic factors for moderate hyperhomocyst(e)inemia,” Atherosclerosis, vol. 119, no. 2, pp. 135–138, 1996.
- S.-S. Kang, P. W. K. Wong, A. Susmano, J. Sora, M. Norusis, and N. Ruggie, “Thermolabile methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase: an inherited risk factor for coronary artery disease,” American Journal of Human Genetics, vol. 48, no. 3, pp. 536–545, 1991.
- S.-S. Kang, E. L. Passen, N. Ruggie, P. W. K. Wong, and H. Sora, “Thermolabile defect of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase in coronary artery disease,” Circulation, vol. 88, no. 4 part 1, pp. 1463–1469, 1993.
- A. M. T. Engbersen, D. G. Franken, G. H. J. Boers, E. M. B. Stevens, F. J. M. Trijbels, and H. J. Blom, “Thermolabile 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase as a cause of mild hyperhomocysteinemia,” American Journal of Human Genetics, vol. 56, no. 1, pp. 142–150, 1995.
- P. F. Jacques, A. G. Bostom, R. R. Williams, et al., “Relation between folate status, a common mutation in methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase, and plasma homocysteine concentrations,” Circulation, vol. 93, no. 1, pp. 7–9, 1996.
- P. Frosst, H. J. Blom, R. Milos, et al., “A candidate genetic risk factor for vascular disease: a common mutation in methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase,” Nature Genetics, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 111–113, 1995.
- L. A. J. Kluijtmans, L. P. W. J. van den Heuvel, G. H. J. Boers, et al., “Molecular genetic analysis in mild hyperhomocysteinemia: a common mutation in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene is a genetic risk factor for cardiovascular disease,” American Journal of Human Genetics, vol. 58, no. 1, pp. 35–41, 1996.
- F. Frantzen, A. L. Faaren, I. Alfheim, and A. K. Nordhei, “Enzyme conversion immunoassay for determining total homocysteine in plasma or serum,” Clinical Chemistry, vol. 44, no. 2, pp. 311–316, 1998.
- A. Laraqui, N. Bennouar, F. Meggouh, et al., “Homocysteine, lipoprotein (a): risk factors for coronary heart disease,” Annales de Biologie Clinique, vol. 60, no. 5, pp. 549–557, 2002.
- W. G. Christen, U. A. Ajani, R. J. Glynn, and C. H. Hennekens, “Blood levels of homocysteine and increased risks of cardiovascular disease: causal or casual?” Archives of Internal Medicine, vol. 160, no. 4, pp. 422–434, 2000.
- K. S. McCully, “Homocysteine and vascular disease,” Nature Medicine, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 386–389, 1996.
- J. Selhub and A. D'Angelo, “Hyperhomocysteinemia and thrombosis: acquired conditions,” Thrombosis and Haemostasis, vol. 78, no. 1, pp. 527–531, 1997.
- M. J. Stampfer, M. R. Malinow, W. C. Willett, et al., “A prospective study of plasma homocyst(e)ine and risk of myocardial infarction in US physicians,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 268, no. 7, pp. 877–881, 1992.
- E. Arnesen, H. Refsum, K. H. Bonaa, P. M. Ueland, O. H. Forde, and J. E. Nordrehaug, “Serum total homocysteine and coronary heart disease,” International Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 704–709, 1995.
- R. W. Evans, B. J. Shaten, J. D. Hempel, J. A. Cutler, and L. H. Kuller, “Homocyst(e)ine and risk of cardiovascular disease in the multiple risk factor intervention trial,” Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, vol. 17, no. 10, pp. 1947–1953, 1997.
- A. R. Folsom, F. J. Nieto, P. G. McGovern, et al., “Prospective study of coronary heart disease incidence in relation to fasting total homocysteine, related genetic polymorphisms, and B vitamins: the atherosclerosis risk in communities (ARIC) study,” Circulation, vol. 98, no. 3, pp. 204–210, 1998.
- D. S. Wald, M. Law, and J. K. Morris, “Homocysteine and cardiovascular disease: evidence on causality from a meta-analysis,” British Medical Journal, vol. 325, no. 7374, pp. 1202–1206, 2002.
- D. E. Zylberstein, C. Bengtsson, C. Björkelund, et al., “Serum homocysteine in relation to mortality and morbidity from coronary heart disease: a 24-year follow-up of the population study of women in gothenburg,” Circulation, vol. 109, no. 5, pp. 601–606, 2004.
- M. A. Tazi, S. Abir-Khalil, N. Chaouki, et al., “Prevalence of the main cardiovascular risk factors in Morocco: results of a national survey, 2000,” Journal of Hypertension, vol. 21, no. 5, pp. 897–903, 2003.
- L. M. Graham, L. E. Daly, H. M. Refsum, et al., “Plasma homocysteine as a risk factor for vascular disease: The European Concerted Action Project,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 277, no. 22, pp. 1775–1781, 1997.
- S. L. Tokgözoǧlu, M. Alikaşifoǧlu, I. Ünsal, et al., “Methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase genotype and the risk and extent of coronary artery disease in a population with low plasma folate,” Heart, vol. 81, no. 5, pp. 518–522, 1999.
- O. Nygard, S. E. Vollset, H. Refsum, et al., “Total plasma homocysteine and cardiovascular risk profile: the Hordaland homocysteine study,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 274, no. 19, pp. 1526–1533, 1995.
- C. E. Bartecchi, T. D. MacKenzie, and R. W. Schrier, “The human costs of tobacco use (1),” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 330, no. 13, pp. 907–912, 1994.
- T. D. MacKenzie, C. E. Bartecchi, and R. W. Schrier, “The human costs of tobacco use (2),” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 330, no. 14, pp. 975–980, 1994.
- R. H. Fryer, B. D. Wilson, D. B. Gubler, L. A. Fitzgerald, and G. M. Rodgers, “Homocysteine, a risk factor for premature vascular disease and thrombosis, induces tissue factor activity in endothelial cells,” Arteriosclerosis and Thrombosis, vol. 13, no. 9, pp. 1327–1333, 1993.
- L. A. Harker, R. Ross, S. J. Slichter, and C. R. Scott, “Homocystine induced arteriosclerosis. The role of endothelial cell injury and platelet response in its genesis,” Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 58, no. 3, pp. 731–741, 1976.
- F. Nappo, N. de Rosa, R. Marfella, et al., “Impairment of endothelial functions by acute hyperhomocysteinemia and reversal by antioxidant vitamins,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 281, no. 22, pp. 2113–2118, 1999.
- S. C. de Jong, C. D. A. Stehouwer, M. van den Berg, U. M. Vischer, J. A. Rauwerda, and J. J. Emeis, “Endothelial marker proteins in hyperhomocysteinemia,” Thrombosis and Haemostasis, vol. 78, no. 5, pp. 1332–1337, 1997.
- G. R. Upchurch Jr., G. N. Welch, A. J. Fabian, A. Pigazzi, J. F. Keaney Jr., and J. Loscalzo, “Stimulation of endothelial nitric oxide production by homocyst(e)ine,” Atherosclerosis, vol. 132, no. 2, pp. 177–185, 1997.
- K. S. Woo, P. Chook, Y. I. Lolin, J. E. Sanderson, C. Metreweli, and D. S. Celermajer, “Folic acid improves arterial endothelial function in adults with hyperhomocystinemia,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 34, no. 7, pp. 2002–2006, 1999.
- C. Legnani, G. Palareti, F. Grauso, et al., “Hyperhomocyst(e)inemia and a common methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase mutation (Val MTHFR) in patients with inherited thrombophilic coagulation defects,” Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, vol. 17, no. 11, pp. 2924–2929, 1997.
- P. M. Ridker, C. H. Hennekens, J. Selhub, J. P. Miletich, M. R. Malinow, and M. J. Stampfer, “Interrelation of hyperhomocyst(e)inemia, factor V Leiden, and risk of future venous thromboembolism,” Circulation, vol. 95, no. 7, pp. 1777–1782, 1997.
- J. G. Ray, “Meta-analysis of hyperhomocysteinemia as a risk factor for venous thromboembolic disease,” Archives of Internal Medicine, vol. 158, no. 19, pp. 2101–2106, 1998.
- L. Brattström, D. E. L. Wilcken, J. Öhrvik, and L. Brudin, “Common methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene mutation leads to hyperhomocysteinemia but not to vascular disease: the result of a meta- analysis,” Circulation, vol. 98, no. 23, pp. 2520–2526, 1998.
- H. Morita, J.-I. Taguchi, H. Kurihara, et al., “Genetic polymorphism of 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) as a risk factor for coronary artery disease,” Circulation, vol. 95, no. 8, pp. 2032–2036, 1997.
- J. L. Anderson, G. J. King, M. J. Thomson, et al., “A mutation in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene is not associated with increased risk for coronary artery disease or myocardial infarction,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 30, no. 5, pp. 1206–1211, 1997.
- J. Ma, M. J. Stampfer, C. H. Hennekens, et al., “Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase polymorphism, plasma folate, homocysteine, and risk of myocardial infarction in US physicians,” Circulation, vol. 94, no. 10, pp. 2410–2416, 1996.
- E. S. Brilakis, P. B. Berger, K. V. Ballman, and R. Rozen, “Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) 677CT and methionine synthase reductase (MTRR) 66AG polymorphisms: association with serum homocysteine and angiographic coronary artery disease in the era of flour products fortified with folic acid,” Atherosclerosis, vol. 168, no. 2, pp. 315–322, 2003.