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Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology
Volume 2007 (2007), Article ID 85154, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2007/85154
Review Article

Immune Response Regulation by Leishmania Secreted and Nonsecreted Antigens

1Departamento de Bioquímica, Faculdade de Farmácia, Universidade do Porto, Rua Aníbal Cunha 164, Porto 4099-030, Portugal
2Instituto de Biologia Molecular e Celular (IBMC), Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre 823, Porto 4150-180, Portugal

Received 26 December 2006; Revised 6 March 2007; Accepted 29 April 2007

Academic Editor: Ali Ouaissi

Copyright © 2007 Nuno Santarém et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Leishmania infection consists in two sequential events, the host cell colonization followed by the proliferation/dissemination of the parasite. In this review, we discuss the importance of two distinct sets of molecules, the secreted and/or surface and the nonsecreted antigens. The importance of the immune response against secreted and surface antigens is noted in the establishment of the infection and we dissect the contribution of the nonsecreted antigens in the immunopathology associated with leishmaniasis, showing the importance of these panantigens during the course of the infection. As a further example of proteins belonging to these two different groups, we include several laboratorial observations on Leishmania Sir2 and LicTXNPx as excreted/secreted proteins and LmS3arp and LimTXNPx as nonsecreted/panantigens. The role of these two groups of antigens in the immune response observed during the infection is discussed.