About this Journal Submit a Manuscript Table of Contents
Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology
Volume 2009 (2009), Article ID 613879, 13 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2009/613879
Research Article

Effects of Chronic Mild Stress on the Development of Atherosclerosis and Expression of Toll-Like Receptor 4 Signaling Pathway in Adolescent Apolipoprotein E Knockout Mice

1Key Lab for Arteriosclerology of Hunan Province, Institute of Cardiovascular Disease, University of South China, Hengyang 421001, China
2Department of Pathophysiology, Medical School of Changsha of Hunan Province, Changsha 41000, China

Received 5 March 2009; Revised 9 June 2009; Accepted 10 June 2009

Academic Editor: Terry Delovitch

Copyright © 2009 Hongfeng Gu et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. A. Rozanski, J. A. Blumenthal, and J. Kaplan, “Impact of psychological factors on the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease and implications for therapy,” Circulation, vol. 99, no. 16, pp. 2192–2217, 1999.
  2. X. H. Xu, P. K. Shah, E. Faure, et al., “Toll-like receptor-4 is expressed by macrophages in murine and human lipid-rich atherosclerotic plaques and upregulated by oxLDL,” Circulation, vol. 104, no. 25, pp. 3103–3108, 2001.
  3. J. R. Kaplan, S. B. Manuck, T. B. Clarkson, et al., “Social stress and atherosclerosis in normocholesterolemic monkeys,” Science, vol. 220, no. 4598, pp. 733–735, 1983.
  4. A. Bierhaus, J. Wolf, M. Andrassy, et al., “A mechanism converting psychosocial stress into mononuclear cell activation,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 100, no. 4, pp. 1920–1925, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  5. A. Rozanski, J. A. Blumenthal, K. W. Davidson, et al., “The epidemiology, pathophysiology, and management of psychosocial risk factors in cardiac practice: the emerging field of behavioral cardiology,” Journal of American College of Cardiology, vol. 45, no. 5, pp. 637–651, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  6. E. A. Kaperonis, C. D. Liapis, J. D. Kakisis, et al., “Inflammation and atherosclerosis,” European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 386–393, 2006.
  7. P. Carmeliet, L. Moons, and D. Collen, “Mouse models of angiogenesis, arterial stenosis, atherosclerosis and hemostasis,” Cardiovascular Research, vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 8–33, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  8. A. Mullick, P. Tobias, and L. Curtiss, “Toll-like receptors and atherosclerosis,” Immunologic Research, vol. 34, no. 3, pp. 193–209, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  9. A. H. Schoneveld, I. Hoefer, J. P. Sluijter, J. D. Laman , D. P. V. de Kleijn, and G. Pasterkamp, “Atherosclerotic lesion development and Toll like receptor 2 and 4 responsiveness,” Atherosclerosis, vol. 197, no. 1, pp. 95–104, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  10. Y. Liu, H. Yu, Y. Zhang, et al., “TLRs are important inflammatory factors in atherosclerosis and may be a therapeutic target,” Medical Hypotheses, vol. 70, no. 2, pp. 314–316, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  11. S. H. Dirks, S. J. H. van Deventer, and M. P. Peppelenbosch, “Lipopolysaccharide recognition, internalisation, signaling and other cellular effects,” Journal of Endotoxin Research, vol. 7, no. 5, pp. 335–348, 2001.
  12. K. A. Fitzgerald, E. M. Palsson-McDermott, A. G. Bowie, et al., “Mal (MyD88-adapter-like) is required for Toll-like receptor-4 signal transduction,” Nature, vol. 413, no. 6851, pp. 78–83, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  13. G. Zhang and S. Ghosh, “Toll-like receptor-mediated NF-kappaB activation: a phylogenetically conserved paradigm in innate immunity,” The Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 107, no. 1, pp. 13–19, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  14. J. R. Caso, J. M. Pradillo, O. Hurtado, J. C. Leza, M. A. Moro, and I. Lizasoain, “Toll-like receptor 4 is involved in subacute stress-induced neuroinflammation and in the worsening of experimental stroke,” Stroke, vol. 39, no. 4, pp. 1314–1320, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  15. J. Lewthwaite, N. Owen, A. Coates, et al., “Circulating human heat shock protein 60 in the plasma of British civil servants:relationship to physiological and psychosocial stress,” Circulation, vol. 106, no. 2, pp. 196–201, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  16. F. Y. Tanga, N. Nutile-McMenemy, and J. A. DeLeo, “The CNS role of Toll-like receptor 4 in innate neuroimmunity and painful neuropathy,” Proceedings of the National Academy Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 102, no. 16, pp. 5856–5861, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  17. K. A. Matthews, J. F. Owens, L. H. Kuller, et al., “Stress-induced pulse pressure change predicts women's carotid atherosclerosis,” Stroke, vol. 29, no. 8, pp. 1525–1530, 1998.
  18. C. Kopp, E. Vogel, M. C. Rettori, et al., “The effects of melatonin on the behavioural disturbances induced by chronic mild stress in C3H/He mice,” Behavioural Pharmacology, vol. 10, no. 8, pp. 73–83, 1999.
  19. I. Yalcin, F. Aksu, and C. Belzung, “Effects of desipramine and tramadol in a chronic mild stress mode in mice are altered by yohimbine but not by pindolol,” European Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 514, no. 2-3, pp. 165–174, 2005.
  20. P. A. Bourassa, P. M. Milost, B. J. Gaynor, J. L. Breslow, and R. J. Aiello, “Estrogen reduces atherosclerotic lesion development in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice,” Proceedings of the National Academy Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 93, no. 19, pp. 10022–10027, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  21. Y. Zhang, M. Woodruff, J. Miao, et al., “Toll-like receptor 4 mediates chronic restraint stress-induced immune suppression,” Journal of Neuroimmunology, vol. 194, no. 1, pp. 115–122, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  22. M. Kumari, C. Grahame-Clarke, N. Shanks, M. Marmot, S. Lightman, and P. Vallance, “Chronic stress accelerates atherosclerosis in the apolipoprotein E deficient mouse,” Stress, vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 297–299, 2003.
  23. G. Pasterkamp, J. K. Van Keulen, and D. P. De Kleijn, “Role of Toll-like receptor 4 in the initiation and progression of atherosclerotic disease,” European Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 34, no. 5, pp. 297–299, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  24. M. P. de Winther, E. Kanters, G. Kraal, and M. H. Hofker, “Nuclear factor κB signaling in atherogenesis,” Atherosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, vol. 25, no. 5, pp. 904–914, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  25. T. J. Reape and P. H. Groot, “Chemokines and atherosclerosis,” Atherosclerosis, vol. 147, no. 2, pp. 213–225, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  26. G. Barillari, L. Albonici, S. Incerpi, et al., “Inflammatory cytokines stimulate vascular smooth muscle cells locomotion and growth by enhancing alpha5beta1 integrin expression and function,” Atherosclerosis, vol. 154, no. 2, pp. 377–385, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  27. K. S. Michelsen, M. H. Wong, P. K. Shah, et al., “Lack of toll-like receptor 4 or myeloid differentiation factor 88 reduces atherosclerosis and alters plaque phenotype in mice deficient in apolipoprotein E,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 101, no. 29, pp. 10679–10684, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  28. Y. I. Miller, S. Viriyakosol, D. S. Worrall, A. Boullier, S. Butler, and J. L. Witztum, “Toll-like receptor 4-dependent and -independent cytokine secretion induced by minimally oxidized low-density lipoprotein in macrophages,” Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, vol. 25, no. 6, pp. 1213–1219, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  29. A. Čvoro and G. Matić, “Hyperthermic stress stimulates the association of both constitutive and inducible isoforms of 70 kDa heat shock protein with rat liver glucocorticoid receptor,” The International Journal of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, vol. 34, no. 3, pp. 279–285, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  30. P. H. Black and L. D. Garbutt, “Stress, inflammation and cardiovascular disease,” Journal of Psychosomatic Research, vol. 52, no. 1, pp. 1–23, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar